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Encyclopedia > Higher criticism
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Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical studies it investigates the books of the Bible and compares them to other texts written at the same time, before, or recently after the text in question. In Classical studies, the new higher criticism of the nineteenth century set aside "efforts to fill ancient religion with direct meaning and relevance and devoted itself instead to the critical collection and chronological ordering of the source material,"[1] Thus higher criticism, whether biblical, classical, Byzantine or medieval, focuses on the sources of a document to determine who wrote it, when it was written, and where. For example, higher criticism deals with the synoptic problem, the question of how Matthew, Mark, and Luke relate to each other. In some cases, such as with several Pauline epistles, higher criticism confirms the traditional understanding of authorship. In other cases, higher criticism contradicts church tradition (as with the gospels) or even the words of the Bible itself (as with 2 Peter). For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Antilegomena (from Greek , contradicted or disputed, literally spoken against[1]), an epithet used by the Church Fathers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon... The Bible comprises 24 books for Jews, 66 for Protestants, 73 for Catholics, and 78 for most Orthodox Christians. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... This article on Jewish apocrypha includes a survey of books written in the Jewish religious tradition either in the late pre-Christian era or in the early Christian era, but outside the Christian tradition. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Samaritan Pentateuch Samaritan Pentateuch - On the return from the Exile, the Jews refused the Samaritans participation with them in the worship at Jerusalem, and the latter separated from all fellowship with them, and built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... The Bible is a compilation of various texts or books of different ages. ... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Novum Testamentum Graece is the name (in the Latin language) of the Greek language version of the New Testament. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... There has long been interest in the whether internal consistency is or isnt present in the Bible. ... The various books of the Hebrew Bible contain descriptions of the physical world, and can be considered a source of information of the history of science in the Iron Age Levant. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... Pesher is a Hebrew word meaning interpretation in the sense of solution. It became known from one group of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Pardes system is a method of systematic exegesis in Judaism. ... Allegorical interpretation in Biblical studies is the approach which assigns a higher-than-literal interpretation to contents of the Bible. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Bible prophecy, or biblical prophecy is the belief that the exegesis and hermeneutics that relate to those scriptures containing various prophecies regarding global politics, natural disasters, the future of the nation of Israel, the coming of a Messiah and a Messianic Kingdom, and the ultimate destiny of humankind are true. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... Biblical infallibility is the theological term to describe the belief that the Bible is free from errors on issues of faith and practice. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... In Islam, the Bible is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God; but revelation which had become corrupted or distorted in its handing down (in Arabic: tahrif); which necessitated the giving of the Quran to Mohammed, to correct this deviation. ... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ...


The Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus (1466? - 1536) is usually credited as the first to study the Bible in this way[2]. Erasmus redirects here. ...


The phrase higher criticism is used in contrast with Lower criticism (or textual criticism), the endeavour to determine what a text originally said before it was altered (through error or intent). Lower Criticism is a method for studying ancient texts. ...


Higher criticism treats the Bible as a text created by human beings at a particular historical time and for various human motives, in contrast with the treatment of the Bible as the inerrant word of God.

Contents

History of higher criticism

The phrase "the higher criticism" became popular in Europe from the mid-18th century to the early 20th century, to describe the work of such scholars as Jean Astruc (mid-18th cent.), Johann Salomo Semler (1725-91), Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752-1827), Ferdinand Christian Baur (1792-1860), and Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918).[3] In academic circles today, this is the body of work properly considered "the higher criticism", though the phrase is sometimes applied to earlier or later work using similar methods. Jean Astruc (Sauves, Auvergne, March 19, 1684 - Paris, May 5, 1766) was a famous professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and with a small anonymously published book played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis... Johann Selomo Semler (December 18, 1725 - March 14, 1791), was a German church historian and biblical commentator. ... Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827), was a German theologian. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ...


Higher criticism originally referred to the work of German Biblical scholars, of the Tübingen School. After the path-breaking work on the New Testament by Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), the next generation which included scholars such as David Friedrich Strauss (1808–74) and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–72) in the mid-nineteenth century analyzed the historical records of the Middle East from Christian and Old Testament times in search of independent confirmation of events related in the Bible. These latter scholars built on the tradition of Enlightenment and Rationalist thinkers such as John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Gotthold Lessing, Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Hegel and the French rationalists. Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (IPA [ˈʃlaɪəmaxÉ™]) (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian and philosopher known for his impressive attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant orthodoxy. ... David Friedrich Strauss (January 27, 1808 - February 8, 1874), was a German theologian and writer. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (January 22, 1729 - February 15, 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art thinker, is the most outstanding German representative of the Enlightenment era. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Hegel redirects here. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


These ideas were imported to England by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and, in particular, by George Eliot's translations of Strauss's The Life of Jesus (1846) and Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1854). In 1860 seven liberal Anglican theologians began the process of incorporating this historical criticism into Christian doctrine in Essays and Reviews, causing a five year storm of controversy which completely overshadowed the arguments over Darwin's newly published On the Origin of Species. Two of the authors were indicted for heresy and lost their jobs by 1862, but in 1864 had the judgement overturned on appeal. La Vie de Jésus (1863), the seminal work by a Frenchman, Ernest Renan (1823–92), continued in the same tradition as Strauss and Feuerbach. In Catholicism, L'Evangile et l'Eglise (1902), the magnum opus by Alfred Loisy against the Essence of Christianity of Adolf von Harnack and La Vie de Jesus of Renan, gave birth to the modernist crisis (1902–61). Some scholars, such as Rudolf Bultmann, have used higher criticism of the Bible to "demythologize" it. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Essays and Reviews, published in 1860, is a collection of seven essays on religion, covering topics including the Biblical researches of the German critics, the evidences of Christianity, religious thought in England, and the cosmology of Genesis. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Ernest Renan (February 27, 1823 - October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Alfred Firmin Loisy (1857-1940) was a French Roman Catholic priest, professor and theologian who became the intellectual standard bearer for Biblical Modernism. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Modernism was a term used by Pope Pius X to describe the doctrines of a group of theologians (chiefly Alfred Loisy and George Tyrell), notably the assumption that the Christian Church and its dogma are human institutions that have evolved in time like other institutions, and which are expressed like... Rudolf Karl Bultmann (August 20, 1884 - July 30, 1976) was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Theological responses

The questions of higher criticism are widely recognized by Orthodox Jews and many traditional Christians as legitimate questions, yet they often find the answers given by the higher critics unsatisfactory or even heretical. In particular, religious conservatives object to the rationalistic and naturalistic presuppositions of a large number of practitioners of higher criticism that lead to conclusions that conservative religionists find unacceptable. Nonetheless, many conservative Bible scholars practice their own form of higher criticism within their supernaturalist and confessional frameworks. However, the most traditional Christian exegetes examine the Bible chiefly through the Bible itself, believing that clear places in scripture give the best help in explaining the less clear places. Other biblical scholars believe that the evidence uncovered by higher criticism undermines such confessional frameworks. By contrast, religiously liberal Christians and religiously liberal Jews typically maintain that belief in God has nothing to do with the authorship of the Pentateuch. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry of the second half of the twentieth century. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Roman Catholic view

Pope Leo XIII (1810 - 1903) condemned secular biblical scholarship in his encyclical Providentissimus Deus;[4], but in 1943 Pope Pius XII gave license to the new scholarship in his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu: "[T]extual criticism ... [is] quite rightly employed in the case of the Sacred Books ... Let the interpreter then, with all care and without neglecting any light derived from recent research, endeavor to determine the peculiar character and circumstances of the sacred writer, the age in which he lived, the sources written or oral to which he had recourse and the forms of expression he employed." [5] Today the modern Catechism states: "In order to discover the sacred authors' intention, the reader must take into account the conditions of their time and culture, the literary genres in use at that time, and the modes of feeling, speaking and narrating then current. For the fact is that truth is differently presented and expressed in the various types of historical writing, in prophetical and poetical texts, and in other forms of literary expression."[6] Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Providentissimus Deus, On the Study of Holy Scripture, was an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 18 November 1893. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Protestant Christian view

Martin Luther, Zwingli, John Calvin and other leaders of the Protestant Reformation believed strongly in a literal interpretation of scripture.[7] Luther wrote, "The Holy Ghost is the all-simplest writer that is in heaven or earth; therefore his words can have no more than one simplest sense, which we call the scriptural or literal meaning."[8] The Reformers rejected the church tradition of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the allegorical interpretations associated with it. They held to the principle of Scripture alone as the divinely inspired authority for Christians. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ...


The foundation for Protestant historical-criticism included the movement of rationalism and Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). Rationalism held that reason is the determiner of truth, and later rationalists also rejected the authority of Scripture. Spinoza did not regard the Bible as divinely inspired - instead it was to be evaluated like any other book.[9] In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Around the end of the 18th century Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, "the founder of modern Old Testament criticism", produced works of "investigation of the inner nature of the Old Testament with the help of the Higher Criticism". Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher also influenced the development of Higher Criticism. Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827), was a German theologian. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (IPA [ˈʃlaɪəmaxə]) (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian and philosopher known for his impressive attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant orthodoxy. ...


A group of German biblical scholars at Tübingen University formed the Tübingen school of theology under the leadership of Ferdinand Christian Baur, with important works being produced by Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach and David Strauss. In the early 19th century they sought independent confirmation of the events related in the Bible through Hegelian analysis of the historical records of the Middle East from Christian and Old Testament times.[10][11] A view of the campus Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the Eberhardina) is a public university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Portrait of David Strauss. ... Hegel redirects here. ...


Their ideas were brought to England by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, then in 1846 George Eliot translated David Strauss's sensational Leben Jesu as the Life of Jesus Critically Examined, a quest for the historical Jesus. In 1854 she followed this with a translation of Feuerbach's even more radical Essence of Christianity which held that the idea of God was created by man to express the divine within himself, though Strauss attracted most of the controversy.[10] The loose grouping of Broad Churchmen in the Church of England was influenced by the German higher critics. In particular, Benjamin Jowett visited Germany and studied the work of Baur in the 1840s, then in 1866 published his book on The Epistles of St Paul, arousing theological opposition. He then collaborated with six other theologians to publish their Essays and Reviews in 1860. The central essay was Jowett's On the Interpretation of Scripture which argued that the Bible should be studied to find the authors' original meaning in their own context rather than expecting it to provide a modern scientific text.[12][13] Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... The quest for the historical Jesus is the attempt to use historical rather than religious methods to construct a verifiable biography of Jesus. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... Essays and Reviews, published in 1860, is a collection of seven essays on religion, covering topics including the Biblical researches of the German critics, the evidences of Christianity, religious thought in England, and the cosmology of Genesis. ...


Today, many Evangelical Protestants oppose the methods of the higher criticism, and hold that the Bible is divinely inspired and incapable of error, at least in its original form.[14] According to the Westminster Confession of Faith (an historical Presbyterian document), "The infallible rule of interpretation of scripture is the scripture itself..." WCF 1.9


The influence of higher criticism

As an example of the influence of higher criticism on contemporary thought, consider the treatment of Noah's Ark in various editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica. In the first edition, in 1771, the story of Noah and the Ark is treated as essentially factual, and the following scientific evidence is offered, "...Buteo and Kircher have proved geometrically, that, taking the common cubit as a foot and a half, the ark was abundantly sufficient for all the animals supposed to be lodged in it..., the number of species of animals will be found much less than is generally imagined, not amounting to an hundred species of quadrupeds... ." By the eighth edition, however, the encyclopedia says of the Noah story, "The insuperable difficulties connected with the belief that all other existing species of animals were provided for in the ark are obviated by adopting the suggestion of Bishop Stillingfleet, approved by Matthew Poole...and others, that the Deluge did not extend beyond the region of the earth then inhabited..." By the ninth edition, in 1875, there is no attempt to reconcile the Noah story with scientific fact, and it is presented without comment. In the 1960 edition, in the article Ark, we find the following, "Before the days of "higher criticism" and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of the species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of animals on the ark..."[15] This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... A quadruped is an animal having exactly four walking legs. ... Edward Stillingfleet (1635 - 1699) was a British theologian. ... Matthew Poole (1624 - 1679), English Nonconformist theologian, was born at York, and educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. ...


According to the preface of the New American Bible[16], In 1970, the New American Bible (NAB) was first published. ...

"In view of the relative certainties more recently attained by textual and higher criticism, it has become increasingly desirable that contemporary translations of the sacred books into English be prepared in which due reverence for the text and strict observance of the rules of criticism would be combined. The New American Bible has accomplished this in response to the need of the church in America today. It is the achievement of some fifty biblical scholars, the greater number of whom, though not all, are Catholics."

Types of higher criticism

Higher criticism is divided up into sub-categories, including primarily source criticism, form criticism, and redaction criticism.


Source criticism

Diagram of the Documentary Hypothesis.
* includes most of Leviticus
includes most of Deuteronomy
"Deuteronomic history": Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel, 1& 2 Kings
Source criticism: diagram of the two-source hypothesis, an explanation for the relationship of the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.

Source criticism is the search for the original sources which lie behind a given biblical text. It can be traced back to the 17th century French priest Richard Simon, and its most influential product is undoubtably Julius Wellhausen's Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (1878), whose "insight and clarity of expression have left their mark indelibly on modern biblical studies."[17] Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first... Richard Simon (May 13, 1638 - April 11, 1712), was a French biblical critic. ...


Redaction criticism

Redaction criticism studies "the collection, arrangement, editing and modification of sources", and is frequently used to reconstruct the community and purposes of the author/s of the text.[18] Redaction Criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte, or Redaktionstheologie. ...


Form criticism and tradition history

Form criticism breaks the Bible down into sections (pericopes, stories) which are analyzed and categorized by genres (prose or verse, letters, laws, court archives, war hymns, poems of lament, etc). The form critic then theorizes on the pericope's Sitz im Leben ("setting in life"), the setting in which it was composed and, especially, used.[19] Tradition history is a specific aspect of form criticism which aims at tracing the way in which the pericopes entered the larger units of the biblical canon, and especially the way in which they made the transition from oral to written form. The belief in the priority, stability, and even detectability, of oral traditions is now recognised to be so deeply questionable as to render tradition history largely useless, but form criticism itself continues to develop as a viable methodology in biblical studies.[20] Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism applied as a means of analyzing the typical features of texts, especially their conventional forms or structures, in order to relate them to their sociological contexts. ... Tradition history/criticism is a methodology of Biblical criticism that was developed by Hermann Gunkel. ...


Radical criticism

Radical Criticism, around the end of the nineteenth century, typically tried to show that none of the Pauline epistles are authentic; that Paul is nothing but a controverted authorial token. This group of scholars often postulated the ahistoricity of Jesus and the apostles. Radical Criticism is a movement around the late 1800s that, typically, tried to show that none of the Pauline epistles are authentic, and that Jesus and the apostles were ahistorical constructions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Conclusions of higher criticism

Scholars of higher criticism have sometimes upheld and sometimes challenged the traditional authorship of various books of the Bible. [21] Details of the arguments regarding this issue are addressed more specifically in the articles about each book. The Bible is a compilation of various texts or books of different ages. ...


Old Testament

Book Author according to
tradition
Author according to
scholarship
Torah (Pentateuch, Books of Moses, i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Numbers) Moses, c 1300 BC Documentary hypothesis: Four independent documents (the Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist and the Priestly source), composed between 900-550 BC, redacted c 450 BC, possibly by Ezra

Supplementary models (e.g. John Van Seters): Torah composed as a series of authorial expansions of an original source document, usually identified as J or P, largely during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, final form achieved c. 450 BC. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... John Van Seters is a notable scholar on the Ancient Near East. ...


Fragmentary models (e.g. Rolf Rendtorff, Erhard Blum): Torah the product of the slow accretion of fragmentary traditions, (no documents), over period 850-550 BC, final form c. 450 BC. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Biblical minimalism: Torah composed in Hellenistic-Hasmonean period, c. 300-140 BC. The article concerns the historicity of the Bible; i. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ...

Joshua Joshua with a portion by Phinehas or Eleazar Deuteronomist using material from the Jahwist and Elohist
Judges Samuel Deuteronomist
Ruth Samuel A later author, writing after the time of David
1 Samuel Samuel, Gad, and Nathan Deuteronomist as a combination of a Jerusalem source, republican source, the court history of David, the sanctuaries source, and the monarchial source
2 Samuel
1 Kings Perhaps Ezra Deuteronomist
2 Kings
1 Chronicles Ezra The Chronicler, writing between 450 and 435 BC, after the Babylonian captivity
2 Chronicles
Ezra Ezra The Chronicler, writing between 450 and 435 BC, after the Babylonian captivity
Nehemiah Nehemiah using some material by Ezra The Chronicler, writing between 450 and 435 BC, after the Babylonian captivity
Tobit A writer in the second century BC
Judith Eliakim (Joakim), the high priest of the story
Esther The Great Assembly using material from Mordecai An unknown author writing between 460 and 331 BC
1 Maccabees A devout Jew from the Holy Land. An unknown Jewish author, writing around 100 BC
2 Maccabees Based on the writing of Jason of Cyrene An unknown author, writing in the second or 1st century BC
3 Maccabees An Alexandrian Jew writing in Greek in the first century BC or first century AD
4 Maccabees Josephus An Alexandrian Jew writing in the first century BC or first century AD
Job unknown[22] anonymous, possibly by two different authors, one writing the prose section and the other the poetic section, 5th century BC.[23]
Psalms Mainly David and also Asaph, sons of Korah, Moses, Heman the Ezrahite, Ethan the Ezrahite and Solomon Various authors recording oral tradition. Portions from 1000BC to 200BC.
Proverbs Solomon, Agur son of Jakeh, Lemuel and other wise men An editor compiling from various sources well after the time of Solomon
Ecclesiastes Solomon A Hebrew poet of the third or second centuries BC using the life of Solomon as a vista for the Hebrews' pursuit of Wisdom. An unknown author in Hellenistic period from two older oral sources (Eccl1:1-6:9 which claims to be Solomon, Eccl6:10-12:8 with the theme of non-knowing)
Song of Solomon Solomon Unknown, scholarly estimates vary between 950 BC to 200 BC[23]
Wisdom Solomon An Alexandrian Jew writing during the Jewish Hellenistic period
Sirach Jesus the son of Sirach of Jerusalem
Isaiah Isaiah Three main authors and an extensive editing process:[23]
Isaiah 1-39 "Historical Isaiah" with multiple layers of editing, 8th cent. BCE
Isaiah 40-55 Exilic(Deutero-Isaiah), 6th century BCE
Isaiah 56-66 post-exilic(Trito-Isaiah), 6th-5th century BCE
Jeremiah Jeremiah unknown, possibly Baruch ben Neriah[24]. This book has some affinities with the Deuteronomist author
Lamentations Jeremiah Disputed and perhaps based on the older Mesopotamian genre of the "city lament", of which the Lament for Ur is among the oldest and best-known
Letter of Jeremiah Jeremiah A Hellenistic Jew living in Alexandria
Baruch Baruch ben Neriah An author writing during or shortly after the period of the Maccabees
Ezekiel Ezekiel Disputed, with varying degrees of attribution to Ezekiel
Daniel Daniel, sixth century BC An editor/author in the mid-second century BC, using older folk-tales for the first half of the book
Hosea Hosea, mid eight century BC An unknown author, writing in the eight century BC or later[23]
Joel Joel unknown
Amos Amos, eight century BC An unknown author, writing after the sixth century BC[23]
Obadiah Obadiah An unknown author, writing in the sixth century BC or later[23]
Jonah Jonah Possibly a post-exilic (after 530 BC) editor recording oral traditions passed down from the eighth century BC
Micah Micah The first three chapters by Micah and the remainder by a later writer
Nahum Nahum An unknown author, writing in the sixth century BC or later[23]
Habakkuk Habakkuk An unknown author, writing in the sixth century BC or later[23]
Zephaniah Zephaniah Disputed; possibly a writer after the time period indicated by the text
Haggai Haggai, late sixth cent. BC An unknown author, writing in the fifth century BC or later[23]
Zechariah Zechariah Zechariah (chapters 1-8); the later remaining designated Deutero-Zechariah, were possibly written by disciples of Zechariah
Malachi Malachi or Ezra Possibly the author of Deutero-Zechariah

The Book of Joshua (Hebrew: Sefer Yhoshua ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Phinehas or Pinhas (Hebrew: פִּינְחָס, Standard Tiberian ) was the grandson of Aaron, and son of Eleazar the high priest (Exodus 6:25), who distinguished himself as a youth at Shittim by his zeal against the Heresy of Peor: the immorality with which the Moabites and Midianites had successfully tempted the people... Eleazar (or Elazar), (אֶלְעָזָר [My] God has helped, Standard Hebrew ElÊ¿azar, Tiberian Hebrew ʾElʿāzār) refers to a number of persons in the Hebrew Bible and in Jewish history: A son of Aaron, and a Levite priest. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Prophet Samuel, fresco painting from the Mikhailovskr monastery of Kiev, c. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... This article is about the ancient Hebrew religious text. ... The Prophet Samuel, fresco painting from the Mikhailovskr monastery of Kiev, c. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Prophet Samuel, fresco painting from the Mikhailovskr monastery of Kiev, c. ... Gad was a seer or more commonly understood, a prophet in the Bible. ... Nathan the Prophet was a court prophet who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... According to most modern Biblical critics, this is one of the source documents of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... For other uses of Judith, see Judith (disambiguation). ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Mordecai (disambiguation). ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Jason of Cyrene was a Hellenistic Jew who lived about 100 BCE and wrote a history of the times of the Maccabees down to the victory over Nicanor (175-161). ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... The Korahites in the Bible were that portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Heman the Ezrahite is described as the author of Psalm 88 in the Bible. ... Ethan (אֵיתָן Firm, Standard Hebrew Etan or Eitan, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÊṯān) the Ezrahite, is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Agur ben Jakeh was the compiler of a collection of proverbs found in Proverbs xxx, which is sometimes known as the Book of Agur or Sayings of Agur. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... Baruch ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat and scribe of the sixth century BCE. He was the disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... The Lament for Ur is a Sumerian lament composed after the fall of Ur to the Elamites and the end of the citys third dynasty (c. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Baruch ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat and scribe of the sixth century BCE. He was the disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... Amos (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Burden) is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. ... The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. ... This article is about people named Obadiah in the Old Testament. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... Zephaniah or Tzfanya (צְפַנְיָה Concealed of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ẓəfanya, Tiberian Hebrew ṢəpÌ„anyāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... The Book of Haggai is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament, written by the prophet Haggai. ... An 18th century Russian icon of the prophet Haggai For the prophetic book, see Book of Haggai. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... For the Northern Irish singer songwriter, see Malachi Cush. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ...

New Testament

According to New Testament scholar Bart Ehrman, of the 27 books of the New Testament, only 8 books are authentic(Romans, Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon and Revelation). The other 19 books are either misattributed writings, homonymous(same name) or pseudepigraphic(false name).[25] A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ... Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament Scholar and an expert on Early Christianity. ... A homonym is a word that has the same pronunciation or spelling (or both) as another word, but a different meaning. ...

Book Author according to
tradition
Author according to
scholarship
Gospel of Mark Mark, follower of Peter; mid 1st century anonymous, perhaps Mark, follower of Peter; mid to late 1st century; the first written gospel
Gospel of Matthew The Apostle Matthew An unknown author who borrowed from both Mark and a source called Q, late 1st century
Gospel of Luke Luke, companion of Paul Luke or an unknown author who borrowed from both Mark and a source called Q, late 1st century
Gospel of John Apostle John An unknown author with no direct connection to the historical Jesus; John 21 finished after death of primary author by follower(s); the last written gospel[26][27]
Acts of the Apostles Luke, companion of Paul Luke or an unknown author who also wrote the Gospel of Luke
Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Epistle to Philemon Paul the Apostle, see Pauline epistles Paul
Ephesians Paul the Apostle Paul or edited dictations from Paul
Colossians Paul the Apostle Disputed; perhaps Paul coauthoring with Timothy
2 Thessalonians Paul the Apostle pseudepigraphal, perhaps an associate or disciple after his death, representing what they believed was his message[28]
1 & 2 Timothy, Titus, see Pastoral epistles Paul the Apostle pseudepigraphal, perhaps someone associated with Paul, writing at a later date
see Authorship of the Pauline epistles
Epistle to the Hebrews Paul the Apostle(disputed) An unknown author, but almost certainly not Paul[29], c 95
James James the Just pseudepigraphal; a writer in the late first or early second centuries, after the death of James the Just[30]
1 Peter Apostle Peter, before 64 (Peter's martyrdom) pseudepigraphal or perhaps Silas, proficient with Greek writing, 70-90
2 Peter Apostle Peter, before 64 pseudepigraphal, likely not Peter[31], perhaps as late as c 150 AD, the last-written book of the Bible
1 John Apostle John An unknown author with no direct connection to the historical Jesus, late 1st century, possibly the author of the Gospel of John
2 John, 3 John Apostle John (sometimes disputed) An unknown author with no direct connection to the historical Jesus, final Editor of John 21, c 100-110, possibly the author of the Gospel of John[citation needed]
Jude Jude the Apostle or Jude, brother of Jesus A pseudonymous work written between the end of the first century and the first quarter of the 2nd century[32]
Book of Revelation Apostle John(sometimes disputed) distinct author, perhaps John of Patmos (not the same author as the Gospel of John or 2 & 3 John)
see Authorship of the Johannine works

The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Ματθαίος, Matthaios), most often called Saint Matthew, is an important Christian figure, and one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... (Redirected from 1 Thessalonians) The Epistles to the Thessalonians, also known as the Letters to the Thessalonians, are two books from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... St. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... St. ... For other uses of Timothy, see Timothy (disambiguation). ... The Epistles to the Thessalonians, also known as the Letters to the Thessalonians, are two books from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... St. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... (Redirected from 1 Timothy) This article or section should be merged with Second Epistle to Timothy The First Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Second Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... St. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... St. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... (Redirected from 1 Peter) In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside_down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... This article is about the first century figure from early Christianity. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside_down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... (Redirected from 1 John) The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... The Second Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Third Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ... Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is the third of the brothers of Jesus appearing in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pseudonym. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...

Higher criticism of other religious texts

Both higher and lower forms of criticism are carried out today with the religious writings of many religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Qur'an

Modern higher criticism is just beginning for the Qur'an. This scholarship questions some traditional claims about its composition and content, contending that the Qur'an incorporates material from both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament; however, other scholars argue that it cites examples from previous texts, as the New Testament did to the Old Testament. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Islamic history records that Uthman collected all variants of the Qur'an and destroyed those that he did not approve of. For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ...

The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim view and the later being a more skeptic view. ...

See also

This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians...

History of higher criticism

Alexander Geddes (September 14, 1737 _ February 26, 1802) was a Scottish theologian and scholar. ... Edwin Johnson (1842-1901). ...

References

  • Gerald P. Fogarty, S.J. American Catholic Biblical Scholarship: A History from the Early Republic to Vatican II, Harper & Row, San Francisco, 1989, ISBN 0-06-062666-6. Nihil obstat by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J.

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Burkert, Greek Religion (1985), Introduction.
  2. ^ Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy, p. 125, Touchstone, 1961, ISBN 0-671-20159-X,
  3. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2007
  4. ^ Fogarty, page 40.
  5. ^ Encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu, 1943.
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Article III, section 110. [1]
  7. ^ Kaiser, Walter C; Moisés Silva (2007). Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics: The Search for Meaning (Rev. and expanded ed ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 0310279518.  pages 269-270
  8. ^ Farrar, F. W. Frederic William (1961). History of Interpretation: Bampton Lectures 1885. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House.  page 329
  9. ^ Klein, William W. William Wade; Craig Blomberg, Robert L Hubbard, Kermit Allen Ecklebarger (1993). Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas, Tex.: Word Pub. ISBN 0849907748.  Page 43
  10. ^ a b Glenn Everett, Associate Professor of English, University of Tennessee at Martin (1988). "The Higher Critics". The Victorian Web. http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/higher.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. 
  11. ^ "Tubingen School". http://atheism.about.com/library/glossary/western/bldef_tubingenschool.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. 
  12. ^ Glenn Everett, Associate Professor of English, University of Tennessee at Martin (1988). "Essays and Reviews (1860)". The Victorian Web. http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/essays.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. 
  13. ^ Josef L. Altholz, Professor of History, University of Minnesota (1976). "The Warfare of Conscience with Theology". The Mind and Art of Victorian England. Victorian Web. http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/altholz/a2.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-06. 
  14. ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy
  15. ^ All quotations from the article "Ark" in the 1960 Encyclopedia Britannica
  16. ^ Preface to the New American Bible
  17. ^ Antony F. Campbell, SJ, "Preparatory Issues in Approaching Biblical Texts", in The Hebrew Bible in Modern Study, p.6. Campbell renames source criticism as "origin criticism".
  18. ^ Religious Studies Department, Santa Clara University.
  19. ^ Bibledudes.com
  20. ^ Yair Hoffman, review of Marvin A. Sweeney and Ehud Ben Zvi (eds.), The Changing Face of Form-Criticism for the Twenty-First Century, 2003
  21. ^ Dates for the Sacred Texts of the Jewish and Christian Traditions: Athabasca University
  22. ^ New American Bible: Job
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dates for the Sacred Texts of the Jewish and Christian Traditions
  24. ^ Miller, Stephen M., Huber, Robert V. (2004). The Bible: A History. Good Books. pp. 33. ISBN 1561484148. 
  25. ^ Jesus, Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (And Why We Don't Know About Them), pp. 112-113
  26. ^ New American Bible: John
  27. ^ see Signs Gospel for more on reconstruction of original John
  28. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford, p.385; Beverly Roberts Gaventa, First and Second Thessalonians, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, p.93; Vincent M. Smiles, First Thessalonians, Philippians, Second Thessalonians, Colossians, Ephesians, Liturgical Press, 2005, p.53; Udo Schnelle, translated by M. Eugene Boring, The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998), pp. 315-325; M. Eugene Boring, Fred B. Craddock, The People's New Testament Commentary, Westminster John Knox Press, 2004 p652; Joseph Francis Kelly, An Introduction to the New Testament for Catholics, Liturgical Press, 2006 p.32
  29. ^ http://religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=531&C=563 Richard Heard, Introduction To The New Testament
  30. ^ New American Bible: James
  31. ^ Carson, D.A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament, second edition. HarperCollins Canada; Zondervan: 2005. ISBN 0310238595, ISBN 978-0310238591. p.659.
  32. ^ New American Bible: Jude>
This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biblical criticism - Conservapedia (1655 words)
The higher or historical criticism of the Bible (not the criticism of the Bible throughout history, but rather the criticism of the Bible as history) deals with whether the Bible is, or is not, a valid source of history.
Higher criticism asks whether the Bible is consistent with extra-Biblical archaeological finds and with what is known of the languages in which it was written.
Higher criticism contemporary to Ussher explored such questions as whether Moses was the true author of the first five books of the Bible, called the "Books of Moses" in the King James Version.
Higher criticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (537 words)
Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis known as historical criticism that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible.
Higher criticism in particular focuses on the sources of a document and tries to determine the authorship, date, and place of composition of the text.
This term is used in contrast with lower criticism or textual criticism, which is the endeavour to establish the original version of a text.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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