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Encyclopedia > High speed steel
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Iron alloy phases

Austenite (γ-iron; hard)
Bainite
Martensite
Cementite (iron carbide; Fe3C)
Ledeburite (ferrite - cementite eutectic, 4.3% carbon)
Ferrite (α-iron, δ-iron; soft)
Pearlite (88% ferrite, 12% cementite)
Spheroidite For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For specification language, see Alloy Analyzer. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the eutectoid temperature and composition, at which bainite can form. ... Martensite in AISI 4140 steel 0. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which ferrite (α) is stable. ... Pearlite occurs at the eutectoid of the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Types of Steel

Plain-carbon steel (up to 2.1% carbon)
Stainless steel (alloy with chromium)
HSLA steel (high strength low alloy)
Tool steel (very hard; heat-treated)
For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Plain-carbon steel is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... HSLA steel (high strength low alloy steel) is a type of steel alloy that provides many benefits over regular steel alloys. ... Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. ...

Other Iron-based materials

Cast iron (>2.1% carbon)
Wrought iron (almost no carbon)
Ductile iron
Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... -1...

High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters. It is often used in power saw blades and drill bits. It is superior to the older high carbon steel tools used extensively through the 1940s in that it can withstand higher temperatures without losing its temper (hardness). This property allows HSS to cut faster than high carbon steel, hence the name high speed steel. At room temperature HSS and high carbon steel have an equivalent hardness; only at elevated temperatures does HSS become advantageous. A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... Plain-carbon steel is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ...

Contents

Applications

The main use of high speed steels continues to be in the manufacture of various cutting tools: drills, taps, milling cutters, tool bits, gear cutters, saw blades, etc., although usage for punches and dies is increasing. Taps and dies are generally metalworking tools for the creation (cutting) of screw threads in metal parts. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... Progressive die with strip and punchings A progressive stamping die (die) is a metalworking device that is designed and built to convert a strip of metal raw material into parts that to conform blueprint specifications. ...


High carbon steel remains a good choice for low speed applications where a very keen (sharp) edge is required, such as files, chisels and hand plane blades. A file in a computer system is a stream (sequence) of bits stored as a single unit, typically in a file system on disk or magnetic tape. ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... This article or section should be merged with Plane (tool). ...


Types of high speed steel

High speed steels belong to the Fe-C-X multicomponent alloy system where X represents chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and/or cobalt. Generally, the X component is present in excess of 7%, along with more than 0.60% carbon. (However, their alloying element percentages do not alone bestow the hardness-retaining properties; they also require appropriate high-temperature heat treatment in order to become true HSS; see History below.) General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ...


The grade type T-1 with 18% tungsten has not changed its composition since 1910 and was the main type used up to 1940, when substitution by molybdenum took place. Nowadays, only 5-10% of the HSS in Europe and only 2% in the United States is of this type.[citation needed]


The addition of about 10% of tungsten and molybdenum in total maximises efficiently the hardness and toughness of high speed steels and maintains these properties at the high temperatures generated when cutting metals.

Alloying Compositions of High Speed Steel Grades
Grade C Cr Mo W V Co
T1 0.75 - - 18.0 1.1 -
M2 0.95 4.2 5.0 6.0 2.0 -
M7 1.00 3.8 8.7 1.6 2.0 -
M42 1.10 3.8 9.5 1.5 1.2 8.0

General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ...

Coatings

To increase the life of high speed steel, tools are sometimes coated. One such coating is TiN (titanium nitride). Most coatings generally increase a tool's hardness and/or lubricity. A coating allows the cutting edge of a tool to cleanly pass through the material without having the material gall (stick) to it. The coating also helps to decrease the temperature associated with the cutting process and increase the life of the tool. TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ...


Surface Modification

Lasers and electron beams can be used as sources of intense heat at the surface for heat treatment, remelting (glazing), and compositional modification. It is possible to achieve different molten pool shapes and temperatures. Cooling rates range from 103 - 106 K s-1. Beneficially, there is little or no cracking or porosity formation.[1] Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. ... Compacted oxide layer glaze describes the often shiny, wear-protective layer of oxide formed when two metals (or a metal and ceramic) are slid against each other at high temperaure in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. ...


While the possibilities of heat treating at the surface should be readily apparent, the other applications beg some explanation. At cooling rates in excess of 106 K s-1 eutectic microconstituents disappear and there is extreme segregation of substitutional alloying elements. This has the effect of providing the benefits of a glazed part without the associated run in wear damage.[1]


The alloy composition of a part or tool can also be changed to form a high speed steel on the surface of a lean alloy or to form an alloy or carbide enriched layer on the surface of a high speed steel part. Several methods can be used such as foils, pack boronising, plasma spray powders, powder cored strips, inert gas blow feeders, etc. Although this method has been reported to be both beneficial and stable, it has yet to see widespread commercial use.[1]


History

Until the 19th century, steelmaking was all art and no science. Recipes and methods were at the discretion of each master, who was something like a chef or an alchemist. During that century, the sciences of chemistry and metallurgy developed, and near the end of the century, the science component began to supplant the art component as the majority share of the steelmaking profession.


In the latter half of the 19th century, a steel was developed by Mushet in England that is considered the forerunner of modern high speed steels. It consisted of 2% C, 2.5% Mn, and 7% W. The major advantage of this steel was that it hardened when air cooled from a temperature from which most steels had to be quenched for hardening. Over the next 30 years the most important change was the substitution of chromium for manganese.[1] Robert Forester Mushet Robert Forester Mushet (1811 – 1891), an English metallurgist, was born April 8, 1811, in Coleford, Gloucestershire. ...


In 1899 and 1900, Frederick Winslow Taylor and Maunsel White, working with a team of assistants at the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA, performed a series of experiments with the heat treating of existing high-quality tool steels, heating them to much higher temperatures than were typically considered desirable in the industry.[2] Their experiments were characterized by a scientific empiricism in that many different combinations were made and tested, with no regard for conventional wisdom or alchemic recipes, and with detailed records kept of each batch. The end result was a heat treatment process that transformed existing alloys into a new kind of steel that could retain its hardness at higher temperatures, allowing much higher speeds, feeds, and depths of cut when machining. Thus high speed steel was not a new alloy, but rather a product of a new, higher-temperature heat treatment process applied to already-known alloys. Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Bethlehem Steel Corporations flagship manufacturing facility in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area    - City  19. ...


The Taylor-White process was patented and created a revolution in the machining industries, in fact necessitating whole new, heavier machine tool designs to be used to full advantage. The patent was hotly contested and eventually nullified, but the vigor of the litigation seems to have been propelled less by the merits of the case and more by the fact that many firms faced commercial extinction if they could not find a way to circumvent the patent. The arguments boiled down to the idea that "we steelmakers already knew all about alloys and all about heat, so there is nothing novel about Taylor-White steel." The speciousness of this idea is apparent: if anyone had really known how to double feeds and speeds, they would have already been doing it.


The first alloy that was formally classified as high speed steel is known by the AISI designation T1. It was patented by Crucible Steel Co. at the beginning of the 20th century.[1] The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an association of North American steel producers formed in 1855. ...


Although molybdenum rich high speed steels such as AISI M1 have been used in the USA since the 1930s, shortages of raw materials during World War II, spurred the development of alloy designs with lower alloy contents and cheaper alloying elements. This was mainly achieved by substituting for tungsten and vanadium. This allowed M2 steel to overtake T1 steel in the 1950s.[1]


Copyediting conventions

Most copyeditors (subeditors) today would tend to choose to style the unit adjective high-speed with a hyphen, rendering the full term as high-speed steel, and this styling is not uncommon (Kanigel 1997 is an example of a work edited thus). However, it is true that in the metalworking industries the styling high speed steel is long-established and is more commonly seen. Therefore, both can be considered acceptable variants.


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Boccalini and Goldenstein 2001
  2. ^ Kanigel 1997.

Bibliography

Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-86402-1. 


Boccalini, M.; H. Goldenstein (February 2001). "Solidification of high speed steels". International Materials Reviews 46 (2): 92-115 (24). ISSN 0950-6608.  ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...


See also

Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. ... For specification language, see Alloy Analyzer. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ...

External links

  • Effects of Elements on Steel


Metalworking:

Metalworking cutting tools: Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...

Broach | Burr | Chisel | Counterbore | Countersink | Cutting tool | End mill | Metalwork file | File | Hand scraper | High speed steel | Milling cutter | Reamer | Stellite | Tipped tool | Tool bit A push style 5/16 keyway broach A broach is a series of chisel points mounted on one piece of steel. ... A selection of carbide burrs Burrs are small cutters used in die grinders, rotary tools or dentists drills. ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... Two types of counter bores A counterbore can refer to a cylindrical flat-bottomed hole, which enlarges another hole, or the tool used to create that feature. ... A countersink is a tapered hole drilled with a wide outer portion. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ... A File (or Hand-File) is a metalworking hand tool used to shape material by abrasion. ... Detail of a double-cut flat file A file (or hand-file) is a hand tool used to shape material by cutting. ... Three different engineering hand scrapers A hand scraper is a single-edged tool used to scrape metal from a surface. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... A reamer or ream is a tool for enlarging holes and is used in metalworking. ... Stellite is also the name of a winning racehorse trained in Scotland, sometimes called The Burr. ... A tipped tool or insert generally refers to any cutting tool where the cutting edge consists of a seperate piece of material, either brazed or clamped on to a seperate body. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ...


Metalworking topics:   Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...

Casting | CNC | Cutting tools | Drilling and threading | Fabrication | Finishing | Grinding | Jewellery | Lathe (tool) | Machining | Machine tooling | Measuring | Metalworking | Hand tools | Metallurgy | Milling | Occupations | Press tools | Smithing | Terminology | Welding Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ... A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control, and refers specifically to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives the machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components by the selective removal of metal. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machines , structures, process equipment for chemical, fertilizer sector by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... Metalworking finishing is the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Amber jewellery in the form of pendants Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbide enriched high speed tool steel - Patent 4032302 (3164 words)
A high speed tool steel according to claim 1, wherein the carbon content is 1.27- 3.55%, the sum of the tungsten content and twice the molybdenum content is 24- 30% and the vanadium content is 4.0- 10.0% and the cobalt content is 5- 13%.
A high speed tool steel according to claim 1, wherein the carbon content is 0.87- 2.68%, the sum of the tungsten content and twice the molybdenum content is 30- 50%, the vanadium content is 1.0- 4.0% and the cobalt content is 5- 13%.
A high speed tool steel according to claim 1, wherein the carbon content is 1.47- 3.88%, the sum of the tungsten content and twice the molybdenum content is 30- 50%, the vanadium content is 4.0- 10.0% and the cobalt content is 5- 13%.
High Speed Photography (5325 words)
The two main methods of taking high speed still photographs are the use of a suitable high speed shutter system, and the use of a short duration flash while the shutter is open.
High speed shutter systems may be magneto-optical, electro- optical, or electronic units using image converter tubes.
High speed still cameras have been used in almost every field of scientific and industrial research, permitting the study of subjects whose changes are far too rapid for the unaided human eye to perceive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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