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Encyclopedia > High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
HAARP is often confused with Project HARP, the High Altitude Research Project (a joint project of The Pentagon and the Canadian Department of National Defence).
Aerial view of the HAARP site, looking towards Mt. Sanford, in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park [1]. (Image from HAARP used in accordance with terms.)
Aerial view of the HAARP site, looking towards Mt. Sanford, in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park [1]. (Image from HAARP used in accordance with terms.)

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is an investigation project to "understand, simulate and control ionospheric processes that might alter the performance of communication and surveillance systems." Started in 1993, the project is proposed to last for a period of twenty years.The project is jointly funded by the United States Air Force, the Navy, and the University of Alaska. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Muse (disambiguation). ... Project HARP, short for High Altitude Research Project, was a joint project of The Pentagon and the Canadian Department of National Defence created with the goal of studying ballistics of re-entry vehicles at low cost; whereas most such projects used expensive (and failure-prone) rockets, HARP used a very... View of HAARP from the air, looking East towards Mount Sanford. ... View of HAARP from the air, looking East towards Mount Sanford. ... Established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Wrangell-St. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ... The University of Alaska is a Land-Grant, Sea-Grant, and Space Grant university founded in 1922 in Fairbanks, Alaska. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...

Contents

The HAARP site

The project site is north of Gakona, Alaska (lat. 62°23'30 N, long 145°09'03 W), just West of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park. An environmental impact statement led to permission for an array of up to 180 antennas to be erected. The HAARP has been constructed at the previous site of an over-the-horizon radar installation. A large structure, built to house the OTH now houses the HAARP control room, kitchen, and offices. Several other small structures house various instruments. The Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI) is the primary instrument at HAARP, which is a high-frequency (HF) transmitter system used to temporarily modify the ionosphere. Study of this modified volume yields important information for understanding natural ionospheric processes. Gakona is a census-designated place located in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the CDP is 215. ... Established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Wrangell-St. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... In biology, antenna (plural: antennae) refers to the sensing organs of several arthropods. ... Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ...


During active ionospheric research, the signal generated by the transmitter system is delivered to the antenna array, transmitted in an upward direction, and is partially absorbed, at an altitude between 100 to 350 km (depending on operating frequency), in a small volume a few hundred meters thick and a few tens of kilometers in diameter over the site. The intensity of the HF signal in the ionosphere is less than 3 µW/cm², tens of thousands of times less than the Sun's natural electromagnetic radiation reaching the earth and hundreds of times less than even the normal random variations in intensity of the Sun's natural ultraviolet (UV) energy which creates the ionosphere. The small effects that are produced, however, can be observed with the sensitive scientific instruments installed at the HAARP facility and these observations can provide new information about the dynamics of plasmas and new insight into the processes of solar-terrestrial interactions. [2] Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... HF, Hf or hf can refer to: Hafnium, a chemical element Hydrogen fluoride, a diatomic compound which can dissolve in water to form hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid, a highly corrosive solution of hydrogen fluoride in water High frequency, the range of radio frequencies from 3 MHz to 30 MHz Higher... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ...


The HAARP site has been constructed in three distinct phases. The Developmental Prototype (DP) had 18 antenna elements, organized in three columns by six rows. It was fed with a total of 360 kilowatts (kW) combined transmitter output power. The DP transmitted just enough power for the most basic of ionospheric testing.


The Filled Developmental Prototype (FDP) had 48 antenna units arrayed in six columns by eight rows, with 960 kW of transmitter power. It was fairly comparable to other ionospheric heating facilities. This was used for a number of successful scientific experiments and ionospheric exploration campaigns over the years.


The Final IRI (FIRI) will be the final build of the IRI. It has 180 antenna units, organized in 15 columns by 12 rows, yielding a theoretical maximum gain of 31 dB. A total of 3600 kW (3.6 MW) of transmitter power will feed it. The total effective radiated power (ERP) will be 3,981 MW (96 dBW). As of the summer of 2005, all the antennas were in place, but the final quota of transmitters had not yet been installed. As of March 2007, the final phase was completed and the antenna array was undergoing testing aimed at fine-tuning its performance to comply with safety requirements required by regulatory agencies. For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... In radio telecommunications, effective radiated power (ERP) is determined by subtracting system losses and adding system gains to the actual electrical power output of a transmitter. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ...


Each antenna element[3][4] consists of a crossed dipole that can be polarized for linear, ordinary mode (O-mode), or extraordinary mode (X-mode) transmission and reception. Each part of the two section crossed dipoles are individually fed from a custom built transmitter, that has been specially designed with very low distortion. The ERP of the IRI is limited by more than a factor of 10 at its lower operating frequencies. Much of this is due to higher antenna losses and a less efficient antenna pattern. The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ...


HAARP can transmit between 2.8 and 10 MHz. This frequency range lies above the AM radio broadcast band and well below Citizens' Band frequency allocations. The HAARP is only licensed to transmit in certain segments of this frequency range, however. When the IRI is transmitting, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is 100 kHz or less. The IRI can transmit continuously (CW) or pulses as short as 100 microseconds (µs). CW transmission is generally used for ionospheric modification, while short pulses are frequently repeated, and the IRI is used as a radar system. Researchers can run experiments that use both modes of transmission, modifying the ionosphere for a predetermined amount of time, then measuring the decay of modification effects with pulsed transmissions.


Ionospheric heating facilities


Comparison of the HAARP with other ionospheric facilities
(From the HAARP website, public use permitted if source cited)

The HAARP IRI is an ionospheric heater, one of many around the world. It is comparable in function and power to most of them.[citation needed] [1]Comparison of HAARP ERP with other ionospheric modification facilities. ... Ionospheric heater is an array of antennae which are used for heating the ionosphere, and which can create artificial aurora borealis. ...


Platteville

One of the earliest ionospheric heating facilities was at Platteville, Colorado, capable of radiating about 100 MW ERP. Early experiments included HF heater induced air-glow, heater-induced spread F, wide band heater-induced absorption, and heater-created field-aligned ionization. The Platteville heater operated from 1968 - 1984. Platteville is a town located in Weld County, Colorado. ...


Current facilities

The United States has three ionospheric heating facilities: the HAARP, the HIPAS, near Fairbanks, Alaska, and (currently offline for modifications) one at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) operates an ionospheric heating facility, capable of transmitting over 1 GW [5] (1,000,000,000 watts) effective radiated power (ERP), near Tromsø in Norway. Russia has the Sura ionospheric heating facility, in Vasilsursk near Nizhniy Novgorod, capable of transmitting 190 MW ERP. Project HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) is a US Air Force, Navy and University of Alaska funded investigation to understand, simulate and control ionospheric processes that might alter the performance of communication and surveillance systems started in 1993 for a proposed twenty year series of experiments. ... The HIPAS (HIgh Power Auroral Stimulation) facility is an ionospheric heater, which can radiate 70 MW ERP at either 2. ... Fairbanks redirects here. ... The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ... EISCAT is an acronym for the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association. ... In radio telecommunications, effective radiated power (ERP) is determined by subtracting system losses and adding system gains to the actual electrical power output of a transmitter. ... County District Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ... The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located about 150 km from Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, is capable of radiating about 300 mega-Watts (MW), effective radiated power (ERP). ... Vasilsursk (Russian: ) is an urban settlement in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... Area  - Total 260,000 mi² Population  - City (2003)  - Metropolitan 1,334,249 2 million approx. ...


HAARP management

The HAARP is currently being managed by Dr. Sheldon Meth of the Tactical Technology Office, which is one of the eight technical offices in DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


Diagnostic instrumentation

  • VHF radar
  • UHF radar
  • Digisonde
    • A digisonde provides ionospheric profiles, allowing scientists to choose appropriate frequencies for IRI operation. The HAARP makes current and historic digisonde information available online.
  • HF receivers
  • Fluxgate magnetometer
    • A fluxgate magnetometer, built by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute is available to chart variations in the earth's magnetic field. Rapid and sharp changes may indicate a geomagnetic storm.
  • Induction magnetometer

In telecommunication, an ionospheric sounding is a technique that provides real-time data on high-frequency ionospheric-dependent radio propagation, using a basic system consisting of a synchronized transmitter and receiver. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earths magnetosphere. ... Todai redirects here. ... Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) is the frequency range between 300 hertz and 3000 hertz. ...

Research at the HAARP

HAARP's main goal is basic science research of the uppermost portion of the atmosphere, known as the ionosphere. Essentially a transition between the atmosphere and the magnetosphere, the ionosphere is where the atmosphere is thin enough that the sun's x-rays and UV rays can reach it, but thick enough that there are still enough molecules present to absorb those rays. Consequently, the ionosphere consists of a rapid increase in density of free electrons, beginning at ~70 km, reaching a peak at ~300 km, and then falling off again as the atmosphere disappears entirely by ~1000 km. Various aspects of HAARP can study all of the main layers of the ionosphere. A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ...


The profile of the ionosphere, however, is highly variable, showing variations by the minutes, diurnal changes, seasonal changes, and year-to-year changes. This becomes particularly complicated at high latitudes, where a host of physical processes (like auroral lights) are unlocked by the fact that the Earth's magnetic field is pointed nearly vertically.


On the other hand, the ionosphere is traditionally very difficult to measure. Balloons cannot reach it because the air is too thin, but satellites cannot orbit there because the air is still too thick. Hence, most experiments on the ionosphere give only small pieces of information. HAARP approaches the study of the ionosphere by following in the footsteps of an ionospheric heater called EISCAT near Tromsø, Norway. There, they pioneered exploration of the ionosphere by perturbing it with radio waves in the 2-10 kHz range, and studying how the ionosphere reacts. HAARP does many of the same things EISCAT does, but turns up the power a little bit more.


Some of the main scientific findings from HAARP include:

  1. Generation of very low frequency by modulated heating of the auroral electrojet, useful because generating VLF waves ordinarily requires gigantic antennas.
  2. Production of weak luminous glow (below what you can see with your eye, but measurable) from absorption of HAARP's signal.
  3. Production of ultra low frequency waves in the 0.1 Hz range, which are next to impossible to produce any other way.
  4. Generation of whistler-mode vlf signals which enter the magnetosphere, and propagate to the other hemisphere, interacting with Van Allen radiation belt particles along the way.
  5. VLF remote sensing of the heated ionosphere.

Research at the HAARP includes: Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ... This article is about the concept. ...

  1. Ionospheric heating
  2. Plasma line observations
  3. Stimulated electron emission observations
  4. Gyro-frequency heating research
  5. Spread F observations
  6. Airglow observations
  7. Heating induced scintillation observations
  8. VLF and ELF generation observations
  9. Radio observations of meteors
  10. Polar mesospheric summer echoes: Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) have been studied using the IRI as a powerful radar, as well as with the 28 MHz radar, and the two VHF radars at 49 MHz and 139 MHz. The presence of multiple radars spanning both HF and VHF bands allows scientists to make comparative measurements that may someday lead to an understanding of the processes that form these elusive phenomenon.

For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... HF, Hf or hf can refer to: Hafnium, a chemical element Hydrogen fluoride, a diatomic compound which can dissolve in water to form hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid, a highly corrosive solution of hydrogen fluoride in water High frequency, the range of radio frequencies from 3 MHz to 30 MHz Higher... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ...

Stated objectives

The HAARP project aims to direct a 3.6 MW signal, in the 2.8-10 MHz region of the HF band, into the ionosphere. The signal may be pulsed or continuous wave. Then effects of the transmission and any recovery period will be examined using associated instrumentation, including VHF and UHF radars, HF receivers, and optical cameras. According to the HAARP team, this will advance the study of basic natural processes that occur in the ionosphere under the natural but much stronger influence of solar interaction, as well as how the natural ionosphere affects radio signals. This will enable scientists to develop techniques to mitigate these effects in order to improve the reliability and/or performance of communication and navigation systems, which would have a wide range of applications in both the civilian and military sectors. The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ...


The project is funded by the Office of Naval Research and jointly managed by the ONR and Air Force Research Laboratory, with the principal involvement of the University of Alaska. Fourteen other universities and educational institutions have been involved in the development of the project and its instruments, namely the University of Alaska, Penn State University (ARL), Boston College, UCLA, Clemson University, Dartmouth College, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Massachusetts, MIT, Polytechnic University, Stanford University, and the University of Tulsa. The project's specifications were developed by the universities, which are continuing to play a major role in the design of future research efforts. There is both military and commercial interest in its outcome, as many communications and navigation systems depend on signals being reflected from the ionosphere or passing through the ionosphere to satellites. Thanks to the more penetrating properties of VLF and ELF, advancements in underwater and underground research and applications are now possible. This may lead to improved methods for submarine communication and the ability to remotely sense the mineral content of the terrestrial subsurface, among other things. ONR Logo The Office of Naval Research (ONR), headquartered in Arlington, Virginia (Ballston), is an office of the U.S. Navy that carries out scientific research to support the Navy and Marine Corps in the interest of national security. ... The United States Air Force Research Laboratory with headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, was created in October 1997. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Clemson University is a public, coeducational, land-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... This page is about the university system across Massachusetts. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers technical education, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The University of Tulsa is a private, comprehensive university awarding bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the band of radio frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. ...


The HAARP project offers annual open days to permit the general public to visit the facility, and makes a public virtue of openness; according to the team, "there are no classified documents pertaining to the HAARP." Each summer, the HAARP holds a summer-school for visiting students, including foreign nationals, giving them an opportunity to do research with one of the world's foremost research instruments.


HAARP controversy

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

The HAARP's critics

Waste

The cost of building the HAARP has exceeded the dollar-adjusted cost of similar facilities around the world. HAARP was constructed at the site of an obsolete over-the-horizon radar facility for political reasons, but its location was less than ideal from a scientific perspective.[citation needed] Some[attribution needed] believe that it was constructed as a pork barrel project for Alaska by Senator Ted Stevens.[citation needed] Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ... A pork barrel, literally, is a barrel in which pork is kept. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the senator. ...


Weapon

The objectives of the HAARP project became the subject of controversy in the mid-1990s, following claims that the antennas could be used as a weapon. A small group of American physicists aired complaints in scientific journals such as Physics and Society, charging that the HAARP could be seeking ways to destroy or disable enemy spacecraft[citation needed] or disrupt communications over large portions of the planet. The physicist critics of the HAARP have had little complaint about the project's current stage, but have expressed fears that it could in future be expanded into an experimental weapon. Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ...


These concerns were amplified by Bernard Eastlund, a physicist who developed some of the concepts behind the HAARP in the 1980s and proposed using high-frequency radio waves to beam large amounts of power into the ionosphere, energizing its electrons and ions in order to disable incoming missiles and knock out enemy satellite communications. The US military became interested in the idea as an alternative to the laser-based Strategic Defense Initiative. However, Eastlund's ideas were eventually dropped as SDI itself mutated into the more limited National Missile Defense of today. The contractors selected to build HAARP have denied that any of Eastlund's patents were used in the development of the project. Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund holds a B. S. in physics from MIT and a Ph. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ...


After the physicists raised early concerns, the controversy was stoked by local activism. In September 1995, a book entitled Angels Don't Play This HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology by the former teacher Nick Begich, Jr., son of the late Congressman Nick Begich, claimed that the project in its present stage could be used for "geophysical warfare." The HAARP has subsequently become a target for those who have suggested that it could be used to test the ability "to deliver very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere on earth," changing weather patterns, blocking all global communications, disrupting human mental processes and mind control, causing earthquakes, and "x-raying" the earth. These claims are generally disregarded by scientists and those involved with the project as being completely baseless.[citation needed] Nicholas Joseph Begich (April 6, 1932 - October 16, 1972) was a Democratic Party member of the United States House of Representatives. ... Dielectric heating (also known as electronic heating, RF heating, high-frequency heating) is the phenomenon in which radiowave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material, especially as caused by dipole rotation. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ...


Russian Parliament

In August 2002, further support for those critical of HAARP technology came from the State Duma (parliament) of Russia. The Duma published a critical report on the HAARP written by the international affairs and defense committees, signed by 90 deputies and presented to President Vladimir Putin. The report claimed that "the U.S. is creating new integral geophysical weapons that may influence the near-Earth medium with high-frequency radio waves ... The significance of this qualitative leap could be compared to the transition from cold steel to firearms, or from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapons differs from previous types in that the near-Earth medium becomes at once an object of direct influence and its component." However, given the timing of the Russian intervention, it is possible that it was related to a controversy at the time concerning the US withdrawal in June 2002 from the Russian-American Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. This high level concern is paralled in the April 1997 statement by the U.S. Secretary of Defense over the power of such electromagnetic weaponry. Russia owns and operates an ionospheric heater system as powerful as the HAARP[1], called 'Sura,' which is located in central Russia, roughly 150 km from the city of Nizhny Novgorod. For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located about 150 km from Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, is capable of radiating about 300 mega-Watts (MW), effective radiated power (ERP). ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ...


HAARP's supporters

The critics' views have been rejected by the HAARP's defenders, who have pointed out that the amount of energy at the project's disposal is minuscule compared to the colossal energies dumped into the atmosphere by solar radiation and thunderstorms. A University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientist has compared the HAARP to an "immersion heater in the Yukon River."


Since the ionosphere is inherently a chaotically turbulent region, HAARP's defenders state any artificially induced changes would be "swept clean" within seconds or minutes at the most. Ionospheric heating experiments performed at the Arecibo Observatory's ionospheric heater and incoherent scatter radar have shown that after periods of modification (up to an hour), the ionosphere returns to normal within about the same period of time it had been heated. The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ... Incoherent scatter refers to a ground-based technique for studying the earths ionosphere. ...


For instance, HAARP generates 3.6 megawatts (MW) of power. 3.6 MW is considered a minuscule percentage of the energy compared to all of the energy constantly injected into the Earth, and the ionosphere, by the sun.


Furthermore, supporters of HAARP argue that its activities have been, since its establishment, extremely open. All activities are logged and publicly available. Scientists without security clearances, even foreign nationals, are routinely allowed on site. The HAARP facility regularly hosts open houses, during which time any civilian may tour the entire facility. Many people see this as a sign that the facility is not engaging in the type of extremely questionable research that is suggested by many critics.


See also

  1. European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association
  2. HIPAS-HIgh Power Auroral Stimulation
  3. Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
  4. SuperDARN It measures North and South pole Ionsphereic plasma eddy currents, sites in Kodiak, Iceland, Invercargill etc ...
  5. Poker Flat Research Range

A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Teleforce was Nikola Teslas charged particle beam projector, first mentioned publicly in the New York Sun on July 10, 1934. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Psychotronics is a little-known study of the relationship between matter, energy, and consciousness. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... A solar greenhouse works by letting in solar radiation and trapping the energy from that radiation to increase and maintain the internal temperature above that of the temperature outside - see greenhouse effect for details. ... In telecommunication, an ionospheric sounding is a technique that provides real-time data on high-frequency ionospheric-dependent radio propagation, using a basic system consisting of a synchronized transmitter and receiver. ... Ionospheric reflection: Of electromagnetic waves propagating in the ionosphere, a redirection, bending--by a complex process involving reflection and refraction--of the waves back toward the Earth. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) is the frequency range between 300 hertz and 3000 hertz. ... Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the band of radio frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. ... Longitudinal waves are waves that have vibrations along or parallel to their direction of travel. ... A light wave is an example of a transverse wave. ... The Platteville Atmospheric Observatory was one of the first major ionospheric heaters in the world. ... The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ... EISCAT is an acronym for the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association. ... The HIPAS (HIgh Power Auroral Stimulation) facility is an ionospheric heater, which can radiate 70 MW ERP at either 2. ... The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located about 150 km from Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, is capable of radiating about 300 mega-Watts (MW), effective radiated power (ERP). ... The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is an international radar network for studying the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, comprised of ten radars in the northern hemisphere and seven in the southern hemisphere that operate in the High Frequency (HF) bands between 8 and 22 MHz. ... The Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) is a launch facility and rocket range for sounding rockets in the U.S. state of Alaska, owned and operated by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Geophysical Institute since 1968. ... William E. Gordon is a physicist and astronomer. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...

Patents

  • Hansell, Clarence W., U.S. Patent 2,389,432 , "Communication system by pulses through the Earth." 1945.
  • Tanner, R. L., U.S. Patent 3,215,937 , "Extremely low-frequency antenna." 1965.
  • Leydorf, G. F., U.S. Patent 3,278,937 , "Antenna near field coupling system." 1966.
  • Eastlund, Bernard J., U.S. Patent 4,686,605 , "Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere." 1987.
  • Eastlund, Bernard J., U.S. Patent 5,038,664 , "Method for producing a shell of relativistic particles at an altitude above the earths surface." 1991.

Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund holds a B. S. in physics from MIT and a Ph. ... Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund holds a B. S. in physics from MIT and a Ph. ...

Notes and references

External links

US Air Force, US Navy, University of Alaska, Raytheon Corporation, BAE Systems/ Marconi Electronics (Tesla's NY 'long-range weapon' financeer), General Dynamics Robotics
Other facilities and agencies
Information
  • "HAARP Completed! - news compilation"
  • "President Bush's National Response Plan"
  • Demirkol, Characterization of the Modified and Ambient Lower Ionosphere for HAARP using VLF diagnostics." leland.stanford.edu. (Impact of HAARP on VLF signals, a 2% effect.)
  • Hagfors, T., "Early Ionospheric HF Modification Work in Arecibo". Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany.
  • McQuerry, Shawn, "Platteville Heating Experiments" References.
  • DLC, "VLF Group Science Background." nova.stanford.edu, June 13, 1995. (VLF Tutorial)
  • Inan, U. S., and T. F. Bell, "Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science (PARS)" STAR Laboratory, Stanford University. [ULF/ELF/VLF PROJECT]
  • Inan, U. S., M. Golkowski, D. L. Carpenter, N. Reddell, R. C. Moore, T. F. Bell, E. Paschal, P. Kossey, E. Kennedy, and S. Z. Meth (2004),), Multi-hop whisler-mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24805, doi:10.1029/2004GL021647 "[6]
  • Brendan Bombaci, "Weather Modification Exposed; media journals and notes for the independent film documentary" "Heaven & Earth," ongoing internet-based production as of 2007.
Satellite Image
Miscelleaneous
  • Russian Journal: HAARP Could Capsize Planet (08 January 2008)
  • Marshall D. Smith The Unauthorized History of HAARP (27 June 2000)
  • Jerry E. Smith author personal website
    • "HAARP: The Ultimate Weapon of the Conspiracy." Adventures Unlimited Press, 1998. ISBN 0-932813-53-4
  • "HAARP Tremors Rock Earth Deep Beneath San Andreas Fault." Portland IMC.
  • Begich, Nick, and Jeane Manning, "The Military's Pandora's Box." haarp.net.
  • "To Understand HAARP: NWO's Scalar Electromagnetics: secret 20th century parallel tech path." Portland IMC. (This article is an assemblage of scalar electromagnetics information detailed by scientist Tom Bearden).
  • www.ethericwarriors.com -- to learn how to neutralize HAARP facilities in your area.
  • Ikerjimenez.com Completo Dossier sobre HAARP y otras transmisiones secretas.
Films and movies

Coordinates: 62°23′30″N, 145°09′00″W is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A bill to establish a Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and for other purposes, was introduced on March 3, 2005, by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison. ... Stanford redirects here. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Longitudinal waves are waves that have vibrations along or parallel to their direction of travel. ... On March 26 2002, Tom Bearden announced the arrival of the MEG technology (Motionless Electrical Generator). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NRL - The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (1109 words)
Introduction: Electromagnetic waves in certain frequency ranges are absorbed or refracted by the ionosphere, an electrically conductive region of the upper atmosphere beginning at an altitude of approximately 80 km.
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and DARPA, is constructing a new interactive ionospheric research facility in Gakona, Alaska, to conduct both basic and applied research in this scientific discipline.
Propagating radio waves in the ELF/VLF frequency range are generated at the lower edge of the ionosphere when high-power HF radio waves modulate the conductivity of the ionospheric D and E layers in the presence of a background or "electrojet" current.
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) (368 words)
Key to the current effort was the expansion of the experimental research facility that includes a 3.6 MW high-frequency transmitter and a variety of diagnostic instruments, to conduct investigations to characterize the physical processes that can be initiated and controlled in the ionosphere and space, via interactions with high power radio waves.
The current high frequency transmitting array has proven to be extremely reliable and flexible, and has shown the feasibility of the overall concept.
However, results to date have indicated that the advanced applications-related research activities and new military system concept demonstrations envisioned under the program require that the high frequency transmitting capability at the site be increased from the present 960 kW level to the originally planned 3.6 MW level.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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