FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Hierarchy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hierarchy

A hierarchy (Greek: hierarchia (ἱεραρχία), from hierarches, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another and with only one "neighbor" above and below each level. These classifications are made with regard to rank, importance, seniority, power status, or authority. A hierarchy of power is called a power structure. Abstractly, a hierarchy is simply an ordered set or an acyclic graph. A hierarch is a very high-ranking bishop; see also primate (religion) and metropolitan bishop. ...


A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or horizontally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, in so far as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. Indirect hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, and then down again. This is akin to two co-workers or colleagues; each reports to a common superior, but they have the same relative amount of authority. In graph theory, a path in a graph is a sequence of vertices such that from each of its vertices there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Contents

Terminology

Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary. These terms are easiest to understand when a hierarchy is diagrammed (see below). Graph theory is a growth area in mathematical research, and has a large specialized vocabulary. ...


The generic hierarchy uses the following terms:[1][2]

  • Object: one entity (e.g., a person, department or concept) or element of arrangement or member of a set
  • System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically (e.g., an administration)
  • Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing (e.g. cubes)
  • Member: an (element or object) in a (system or dimension) at any (level or rank)
  • Rank: the relative value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level etc. of an object
  • Level: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance
  • Ordering: the arrangement of the (ranks or levels)
  • Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of (ranks or levels) ie. multiple hierarchies are possible per (dimension or system)
  • Collection: all of the objects at one level
  • Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level (parent or ancestor)
  • Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level (Child or descendent)
  • Hierarch, the top level of the hierarchy, usually consisting of one object or member of a dimension
  • Peer: an object with the same rank (and therefore at the same level)
  • Neighbour: the adjacent level/ranking (the immediate superior and immediate inferior)
  • Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate (ie. a superior/inferior pair)
    • a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level exactly one higher or one lower than the other (i.e., on a tree, the two objects have a line between them)
  • Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e., one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another
  • Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e., the number of subordinates an object has

(N.B., while hierarchies are commonly studied using graph theory, the general terminology used is different, and words such as "direct" may have different general meanings) This article is about the concept of an entity. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dimension (disambiguation). ... Membership can refer to: Set membership - comprising part of a set in mathematics Social group membership - in sociology, the process of socialisation aims/results in achieving membership of a social group Category: ‪Disambiguation‬ ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Value in ethics is related to the theory of value. ... Look up Worth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Worth is the name of several places in the United States: Worth in Illinois Worth Township in Cook County, Illinois Worth Township in Woordford County, Illinois Worth Township in Indiana Worth Township in Michigan Worth in Missouri Worth County in Missouri Worth... Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... Look up level in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people; it is used by many organizations and governments. ... In mathematics, the concept of hypergraph generalizes the notion of a graph. ... In a hierarchical tree structure of any kind, a superior is higher in the hierarchy and thus closer to the apex than the subordinate ones. ... Neighbourhood is also a term in topology. ... Look up relationship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up adjacent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A labeled tree with 6 vertices and 5 edges In graph theory, a tree is a graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one path. ... In the mathematical subfield of graph theory we can define a notion of distance between two vertices in a graph. ... In graph theory, a path in a graph is a sequence of vertices such that from each of its vertices there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence. ... A drawing of a graph. ...


Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... A node is a basic unit used to build data structures, such as linked lists and tree data structures. ... A parent node (or ancestor node) is a node in a tree data structure that links to one or more child nodes. ... A child node or descendant node is a node in a tree data structure that is linked to by a parent node. ... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Degree of branching

Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has (equivalent to the number of vertices a node has). Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: linear and branching. In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex is the number of edges incident to the vertex. ... Branching, in organic chemistry, is when a hydrogen on a polymer is replaced by another chain of that polymer, that is, a polymer that at some point looks like: / - - - - - - - < - - - In linguistics, branching refers to the way in which a language constructs phrases with a head (or nucleus) and modifiers (or... This article just presents the basic definitions. ...


In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1.[1] In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a lineup, and each object (excluding the top and bottom ones) has exactly one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels; every hierarchy has this property with respect to levels, but normally each level can have an infinite number of objects. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life.


In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more (and therefore the maximum degree is 2 or higher).[1] For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.[1] Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be further subdivided based on the degree. For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... In metadata a classification scheme is the descriptive information for an arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common. ...


A flat hierarchy is a branching hierarchy in which the maximum degree approaches infinity, i.e., with a wide span.[2] Most often, systems intuitively regarded as hierarchical have at most a moderate span. Therefore, a flat hierarchy is often not viewed as a hierarchy at all at first blush. For example, diamonds and graphite is a flat hierarchy of numerous carbon atoms which can be further decomposed into subatomic particles. This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


An overlapping hierarchy is a branching hierarchy in which at least one object has two parent objects.[1] For example, a graduate student can have two co-supervisors to whom they report directly and equally, and who have the same level of authority within the university hierarchy (i.e., they have the same position or tenure status). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In the academic setting, a research supervisor is responsible for the general oversight of the research project. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Look up tenure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

History

The first use of the English word "hierarchy" sited by the Oxford English Dictionary was in 1880, when it was used in reference to the three orders of three angels as depicted by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (5th-6th century). Pseudo-Dionysius used the related Latin word (hierarchia) both in reference to the celestial hierarchy and the ecclesiastical hierarchy.[3] His term is derived from the Greek for "Bishop" (Hierarch), and Dionysius is credited with first use of it as an abstract noun. Since hierarchical churches, such as the Roman Catholic (see Catholic Church hierarchy) and Eastern Orthodox churches, had tables of organization that were "hierarchical" in the modern sense of the word (traditionally with God as the pinnacle or head of the hierarchy), the term came to refer to similar organizational methods in secular settings. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as pseudo-Denys, refers to the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum was falsely ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine pertaining to the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...

Visualization

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. This is an example of a hierarchy visualized with a triangle diagram.

A hierarchy is typically depicted as a pyramid, where the height of a level represents that level's status and width of a level represents the quantity of items at that level relative to the whole. For example, the few Directors of a company could be at the apex, and the base could thousands of people who have no subordinates. Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation,[1] which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... This article is about the polyhedron pyramid (a 3-dimensional shape); for other versions including architectural Pyramids, see Pyramid (disambiguation). ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... In geometry, an apex is a descriptive label for a visual singular highest or most distant point or vertex in an isosceles triangle, pyramid or cone, usually contrasting with the opposite side called the base. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


These pyramids are typically diagrammed with a tree or triangle diagram (but note that not all triangle/pyramid diagrams are hierarchical), both of which serve to emphasize the size differences between the levels. An example of a triangle diagram appears to the left. An organizational chart is the diagram of a hierarchy within an organization, and is depicted in tree form below. A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. ... For other uses, see Triangle (disambiguation). ... Sample flowchart diagram The word graph is often used as a synonym for diagram. ... An organizational chart is a chart which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...

Informal representation

In plain English, a hierarchy can be thought of as a set in which:[1] This article is about sets in mathematics. ...

  1. No element is superior to itself, and
  2. One element, the hierarch, is superior to all of the other elements in the set.

The first requirement is also interpreted to mean that a hierarchy can have no circular relationships; the association between two objects is always transitive. The second requirement asserts that a hierarchy must have a leader or root that is common to all of the objects. Cycle in graph theory and computer science has several meanings: A closed walk, with repeated vertices allowed. ... In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is transitive if it holds for all a, b, and c in X, that if a is related to b and b is related to c, then a is related to c. ... A root node is a specially chosen node in a tree data structure at which all operations on the tree begin. ...

Mathematical representation

Mathematically, in its most general form, a hierarchy is a partially ordered set or poset.[4] The system in this case is the entire poset, which is constituted of elements. Within this system, each element shares a particular unambiguous property. Objects with the same property value are grouped together, and each of those resulting levels is referred to as a class. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (or poset) is a set equipped with a partial order relation. ... In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. ...


"Hierarchy" is particularly used to refer to a poset in which the classes are organized in terms of increasing complexity.

Subtypes

Nested hierarchy

Matryoshka dolls, also known as nesting dolls or russian dolls. Each doll is encompassed inside another until the smallest one is reached. This is the concept of nesting. When the concept is applied to sets, the resulting ordering is a nested hierarchy.

A nested hierarchy or inclusion hierarchy is a hierarchical ordering of nested sets.[5] The concept of nesting is exemplified in Russian matryoshka dolls. Each doll is encompassed by another doll, all the way to the outer doll. The outer doll holds all of the inner dolls, the next outer doll holds all the remaining inner dolls, and so on. Matryoshkas represent a nested hierarchy where each level contains only one object, i.e., there is only one of each size of doll; a generalized nested hierarchy allows for multiple objects within levels but with each object having only one parent at each level. The general concept is both demonstrated and mathematically formulated in the following example: This article is about the Russian doll. ... This article is about sets in mathematics. ... This article is about the Russian doll. ...

 text{square} subset text{quadrilateral} subset text{polygon} subset text{shape} ,

A square can always also be referred to as a quadrilateral, polygon or shape. In this way, it is a hierarchy. However, consider the set of polygons using this classification. A square can only be a quadrilateral; it can never be a triangle, hexagon, etc. For other uses, see Triangle (disambiguation). ...


Nested hierarchies are the organizational schemes behind taxonomies and systematic classifications. For example, using the original Linnaean taxonomy (the version he laid out in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae), a human can be formulated as:[6] Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία (taxinomia) from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either the classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ...

text{H. sapiens} subset text{Homo} subset text{Primates} subset text{Mammalia} subset text{Animalia}

Taxonomies may change frequently (as seen in biological taxonomy), but the underlying concept of nested hierarchies is always the same. Scientific classification redirects here. ...

Containment hierarchy

A containment hierarchy is a direct extrapolation of the nested hierarchy concept. All of the ordered sets are still nested, but every set must be "strict"—no two sets can be identical. The shapes example above can be modified to demonstrate this: A is a subset of B If X and Y are sets and every element of X is also an element of Y, then we say or write: X is a subset of (or is included in) Y; X ⊆ Y; Y is a superset of (or includes) X; Y ⊇ X...

 text{square} subsetneq text{quadrilateral} subsetneq text{polygon} subsetneq text{shape} ,

The notation  x subsetneq y , means x is a subset of y but is not equal to y.


A general example of a containment hierarchy is demonstrated in class inheritance in object-oriented programming. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...


Two types of containment hierarchies are the subsumptive containment hierarchy and the compositional containment hierarchy. A subsumptive hierarchy "subsumes" its children, and a compositional hierarchy is "composed" of its children. A hierarchy can also be both subsumptive and compositional.[7]

Subsumptive containment hierarchy

A subsumptive containment hierarchy is a classification of objects from the general to the specific. Other names for this type of hierarchy are "compositional hierarchy", "taxonomic hierarchy" and "IS-A hierarchy".[4][8][9] The last term describes the relationship between each level—a lower-level object "is a" member of the higher class. The taxonomical structure outlined above is a subsumptive containment hierarchy, as are all systematic naming schemes. Using again the example of Linnaean taxonomy, it can be seen that an object that is part of the level Mammalia "is a" member of the level Animalia; more specifically, a human "is a" primate, a primate "is a" mammal, and so on. A subsumptive hierarchy can also be defined abstractly as a hierarchy of "concepts".[9] For example, with the Linnaean hierarchy outlined above, an entity name like Animalia is a way to group all the species that fit the conceptualization of an animal. Symbolic Logic - See minor premise Object-Oriented Programming - See Liskov Substitution Principle ... In computer science, the term inheritance may be applied to a variety of situations in which certain characteristics are passed on from one context to another. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ...

Compositional containment hierarchy

A compositional containment hierarchy is an ordering of the parts that make up a system—the system is "composed" of these parts.[10] Most engineered structures, whether natural or artificial, can be broken down in this manner.


The compositional hierarchy that every person encounters at every moment is the hierarchy of life. Every person can be reduced to organ systems, which are composed of organs, which are composed of tissues, which are composed of cells, which are composed of molecules, which are composed of atoms. In fact, the last two levels apply to all matter, at least at the macroscopic scale. Moreover, each of these levels inherit all the properties of their children. In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ...


In this particular example, there are also emergent properties—functions that are not seen at the lower level (e.g., cognition is not a property of neurons but is of the brain)—and a scalar quality (molecules are bigger than atoms, cells are bigger than molecules, etc.). Both of these concepts commonly exist in compositional hierarchies, but they are not a required general property. These level hierarchies are characterized by bi-directional causation.[5] Upward causation involves lower-level entities causing some property of a higher level entity; children entities may interact to yield parent entities, and parents are composed at least partly by their children. Downward causation refers to the effect that the incorporation of entity x into a higher-level entity can have on x's properties and interactions. Furthermore, the entities found at each level are autonomous. Emergence is the process of deriving some new and coherent structures, patterns and properties in a complex system. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... A scalar may be: Look up scalar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...

Contexts and applications

Almost every system within the world is arranged hierarchically.[11] By their common definitions, every nation has a government and every government is hierarchical.[12][13] Socioeconomic systems are stratified into a social hierarchy (the social stratification of societies), and all systematic classification schemes (taxonomies) are hierarchical. Most organized religions, regardless of their internal governance structures, operate as a hierarchy under God. Many Christian denominations have an autocephalous ecclesiastical hierarchy of leadership. Families are viewed as a hierarchical structure in terms of cousinship (e.g., first cousin once removed, second cousin, etc.), ancestry (as depicted in a family tree) and inheritance (succession and heirship). All the requisites of a well-rounded life and lifestyle can be organized using Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. Learning must often follow a hierarchical scheme—to learn differential equations one must first learn calculus; to learn calculus one must first learn elementary algebra; and so on.[14] Even nature itself has its own hierarchies, as demonstrated in numerous schemes such as Linnaean taxonomy, the organization of life, and biomass pyramids. Hierarchies are so infused into daily life that they are viewed as trivial.[1][11] For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία (taxinomia) from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either the classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Churchianity is a negative description of organized religion that characterizes it as emphasizing the institutional forms of Christianity (traditions, rituals, committees, and programs) and omitting the actual gospel teachings of Jesus Christ that forms the basis of Christianity. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine pertaining to the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... A family tree is generally the totality of ones ancestors represented as a tree structure, or more specifically, a chart used in genealogy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation,[1] which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Visualization of airflow into a duct modelled using the Navier-Stokes equations, a set of partial differential equations. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... Elementary algebra is a fundamental and relatively basic form of algebra taught to students who are presumed to have little or no formal knowledge of mathematics beyond arithmetic. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... An Ecological Pyramid of Biomass shows the relationship between energy and trophic level by quantifying the amount of biomass present at each trophic level (dry mass per trophic level). ...


While the above examples are often clearly depicted in a hierarchical form and are classic examples, hierarchies exist in numerous systems where this branching structure is not immediately apparent. For example, all postal code systems are necessarily hierarchical. Using the Canadian postal code system, the top level's binding concept is the "postal district", and consists of 18 objects (letters). The next level down is the "zone", where the objects are the digits 0–9. This is an example of an overlapping hierarchy, because each of these 10 objects has 18 parents. The hierarchy continues downward to generate, in theory, 7,200,000 unique codes of the format A0A 0A0. Most library classification systems are also hierarchical. The Dewey Decimal System is regarded as infinitely hierarchical because there is no finite bound on the number of digits can be used after the decimal point.[15] Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. ... The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ...

A simple organizational hierarchy depicted in the form of a tree. Diagrams like this are called organizational charts.

Organizations

Organizations can be structured using a hierarchy. In an organizational hierarchy, there is a single person or group with the most power and authority, and each subsequent level represents a lesser authority. Most organizations are structured in this manner, including governments, companies, militia and organized religions. The units or persons within an organization are depicted hierarchically in an organizational chart. A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. ... An organizational chart is a chart which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. ... An organizational structure is a mostly hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... A company in the broadest sense is an aggregation of people who stay together for a common purpose. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Churchianity is a negative description of organized religion that characterizes it as emphasizing the institutional forms of Christianity (traditions, rituals, committees, and programs) and omitting the actual gospel teachings of Jesus Christ that forms the basis of Christianity. ... An organizational chart is a chart which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. ...


In a reverse hierarchy, the conceptual pyramid of authority is turned upside-down, so that the apex is at the bottom and the base is at the top. This model represents the idea that members of the higher rankings are responsible for the members of the lower rankings. Reverse hierarchy is a concept pioneered by the Total Quality Management movement, which attempts to invert the classical pyramid of Hierarchical organisation. ... This article is about the polyhedron pyramid (a 3-dimensional shape); for other versions including architectural Pyramids, see Pyramid (disambiguation). ...

Computer graphic imaging (CGI)

Within most CGI and computer animation programs is the use of hierarchies. On a 3D model of a human, the chest is a parent of the upper left arm, which is a parent of the lower left arm, which is a parent of the hand. This is used in modeling and animation of almost everything built as a 3D digital model. Computer-generated imagery[1] (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... This article is about computer modeling within an artistic medium. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... This article is about computer modeling within an artistic medium. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ...

Hierarchical verbal alignment

In some languages, such as Cree and Mapudungun, subject and object on verbs are distinguished not by different subject and object markers, but via a hierarchy of persons. A direct-inverse language is a language where clauses with transitive verbs can be expressed either using a direct or an inverse construction. ... Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi) is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Labrador, making it by far the most spoken aboriginal language in Canada. ... Mapudungun is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile and Argentina by the Mapuche people. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...


In this system, the three (or four with Algonquian languages) persons are placed in a hierarchy of salience. To distinguish which is subject and which object, inverse markers are used if the object outranks the subject. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Because too much data can cause “cognitive clutter”, individuals need a system to enable them to rank available data in terms of its immediate importance. ...


In music, the structure of a composition is often understood hierarchically (for example by Heinrich Schenker (1768–1835, see Schenkerian analysis), and in the (1985) Generative Theory of Tonal Music, by composer Fred Lerdahl and linguist Ray Jackendoff). The sum of all notes in a piece is understood to be an all-inclusive surface, which can be reduced to successively more sparse and more fundamental types of motion. The levels of structure that operate in Schenker's theory are the foreground, which is seen in all the details of the musical score; the middle ground, which is roughly a summary of an essential contrapuntal progression and voice-leading; and the background or Ursatz, which is one of only a few basic "long-range counterpoint" structures that are shared in the gamut of tonal music literature. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Schenkerian analysis is a method of musical analysis based on the theories of Heinrich Schenker. ... Fred Lerdahl, Fritz Reiner Professor of Musical Composition at Columbia University, is a composer and music theorist, best known for his work on pitch space and cognitive constraints on compositional systems or musical grammars. ... Ray Jackendoff is a Professor of Linguistics and Chair of the Linguistics Program at Brandeis University. ... Schenkerian analysis is an approach to musical analysis devised by Heinrich Schenker. ...


The pitches and form of tonal music are organized hierarchically, all pitches deriving their importance from their relationship to a tonic key, and secondary themes in other keys are brought back to the tonic in a recapitulation of the primary theme. Susan McClary connects this specifically in the sonata-allegro form to the feminist hierarchy of gender (see above) in her book Feminine Endings, even pointing out that primary themes were often previously called "masculine" and secondary themes "feminine." Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... This key signature – A major or F# minor – consists of three sharps placed after the clef In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the... Susan McClary (born 2 October 1946) is a musicologist considered to be a significant figure in the New Musicology. She is noted for her work combining musicology and feminism. ... Sonata form refers to both the standard layout of an entire work and more specifically to the standardized form of the first movement. ...

Ethics, behavioral psychology, philosophies of identity

In ethics, various virtues are enumerated and sometimes organized hierarchically according to certain brands of virtue theory. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Virtue (Greek αρετη; Latin virtus) is the habitual, well-established, readiness or diposition of mans powers directing them to some goodness of act. ... Virtue (Greek αρετη; Latin virtus) is the habitual, well-established, readiness or disposition of mans powers directing them to some goodness of act. ...


In all of these random examples, there is an asymmetry of 'compositional' significance between levels of structure, so that small parts of the whole hierarchical array depend, for their meaning, on their membership in larger parts.


In the work of diverse theorists such as William James (1842–1910), Michel Foucault (1926–1984) and Hayden White, important critiques of hierarchical epistemology are advanced. James famously asserts in his work "Radical Empiricism" that clear distinctions of type and category are a constant but unwritten goal of scientific reasoning, so that when they are discovered, success is declared. But if aspects of the world are organized differently, involving inherent and intractable ambiguities, then scientific questions are often considered unresolved. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ...


Feminists, Marxists, anarchists, communists, critical theorists and others, all of whom have multiple interpretations, criticize the hierarchies commonly found within human society, especially in social relationships. Hierarchies are present in all parts of society: in businesses, schools, families, etc. These relationships are often viewed as necessary. However, feminists, Marxists, critical theorists and others analyze hierarchy in terms of the values and power that it arbitrarily assigns to one group over another. Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists Category: ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories. ...

Further applications

Power- or authority-based

Value-based

Technology-based

Religion- and mythology-based

Methods using the hierarchical model

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Dawkins, Richard (1976). "Hierarchical organization: a candidate principle for ethology". in Bateson, Paul Patrick Gordon; Hinde, Robert A.. Growing points in ethology: based on a conference sponsored by St. John's College and King's College, Cambridge. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–54. ISBN 0521290864. 
  2. ^ a b Simon, Herbert A. (12 December 1962). "The Architecture of Complexity". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Philosophical Society) 106 (6): 467–482. ISSN 0003-049X. 
  3. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hierarchy
  4. ^ a b Lehmann, Fritz (1996). "Big Posets of Participatings and Thematic Roles". in Eklund, Peter G.; Ellis, Gerard; Mann, Graham. Conceptual structures: knowledge representation as interlingua—4th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS '96, Sydney, Australia, August 19–22, 1996—proceedings. Germany: Springer. pp. 50–74. ISBN 3540615342. 
  5. ^ a b Lane, David (2006). "Hierarchy, Complexity, Society". in Pumain, Denise. Hierarchy in Natural and Social Sciences. New York, New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 81–120. ISBN 9781402041266. 
  6. ^ Linnaei, Carl von (1959) (in Latin). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th ed.). Holmiae: Impensis Direct. ISBN 0665530080. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/542#. 
  7. ^ Kopisch, Manfred; Günther, Andreas (1992). "Configuration of a Passenger Aircraft Cabin Based on Conceptual Hierarchy, Constraints and Flexible Control". in Belli, Fevzi. Industrial and engineering applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems: 5th international conference, IEA/AIE-92, Paderborn, Germany, June 9–12, 1992 : proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series. 602. Springer. pp. 424–427. doi:10.1007/BFb0024994. ISBN 354055601X. 
  8. ^ "Compositional hierarchy". WebSphere Transformation Extender Design Studio. http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wtxdoc/v8r2m0/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.websphere.dtx.md.doc/concepts/c_map_design_Compositional_Hierarchy.htm. Retrieved 9 October 2009. 
  9. ^ a b Funke, Birger; Sebastian, Hans-Jürgen (1999). "An advanced modeling environment based on a hybrid AI-OR approach". in Polis, Michael P.; Dontchev, Asen L.; Kall, Peter; Lascieka, Irena; Olbrot, Andrzej W.. Systems modelling and optimization: proceedings of the 18th IFIP TC7 conference. Research notes in mathematics series. 396. CRC Press. ISBN 0849306078. 
  10. ^ Parsons, David (2002). Object Oriented Programming in C++. Cengage Learning. pp. 110–185. ISBN 0826454283. 
  11. ^ a b Kulish, V. V. (2002). Hierarchical Methods: Hierarchy and hierarchical asymptotic methods in electrodynamics. 1. Springer. pp. xvii-xx; 49–71. ISBN 1402007574. 
  12. ^ "government". Compact Oxford English Dictionary. 1991. ISBN 9780198610229. http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/government?view=uk. 
  13. ^ "nation". Compact Oxford English Dictionary. 1991. ISBN 9780198610229. http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/nation?view=uk. 
  14. ^ doi:10.1007/BF02770830
    This DOI appears to be broken. It may be incorrect, in which case correcting it will allow the citation to be automatically completed. Or it may not be functional, in which case you can complete the citation details by hand.
  15. ^ Walker, Randy (May/June 2009). "Tracking Nuclear Sources" (pdf). Well Servicing: 28–30. http://wellservicingmagazine.com/sites/default/files/pdfmag/WSM_MAYJUN09.PDF.  See also Wikipedia article.

Further reading

External links

Scientific classification redirects here. ... Energy quality the contrast between different forms of energy, the different trophic levels in ecological systems and the propensity of energy to convert from one form to another. ... Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. ... The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ... A street hierarchy is a system of urban design that completely separates through automobile traffic from developed areas. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A parse tree or concrete syntax tree is a tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some formal grammar. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... In computer science, an abstract syntax tree (AST) is a finite, labeled, directed tree, where the internal nodes are labeled by operators, and the leaf nodes represent the operands of the node operators. ... Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine pertaining to the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... A command hierarchy is a group of people committed to carrying out orders from the top, that is, of authority. ... A dominance hierarchy or social hierarchy is an organizational form by which individuals within a community control the distribution of resources within the community. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... The hierarchy of evidence reflects the relative weight given various types of scientific evidence. ... Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation,[1] which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... In computer sciences object-oriented programming, the mapped relationships of sub- and superclasses is known as a hierarchy. ... Warning! This Article contains disinformation. ... The hierarchical arrangement of storage in current computer architectures is called the memory hierarchy. ... For other uses, see Structure (disambiguation). ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... According to medieval Christian theologians, the Angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. ... Maimonides, in his Yad ha-Chazakah: Yesodei ha-Torah, counts ten ranks of angels in the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest: Jewish Encyclopedia, Angelology Categories: | | | ... Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created from light, by God to serve and worship Him. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... One of historys most famous exorcists, Father Sebastien Michaelis, described the ranking of devils in his Admirable History (1612). ... 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... HOOD (Hierarchical Object Oriented Design) is a detailed software design method. ... In statistics, empirical Bayes methods involve: An underlying probability distribution of some unobservable quantity assigned to each member of a statistical population. ... Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), also known as multi-level analysis, is a more advanced form of simple linear regression and multiple linear regression. ... Adaptive modulation is a transmission scheme in digital communications where the transmitter adapts its transmission mode in accordance with the channel. ... Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) is a data storage technique that automatically moves data between high-cost and low-cost storage media. ... In artificial intelligence, the hierarchical task network, or HTN, is an approach to automated planning in which the dependency among actions can be given in the form of networks. ... Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) is a machine learning model developed by Jeff Hawkins and Dileep George of Numenta, Inc. ... The home of HTB ... Presentation-abstraction-control (PAC) is a software design pattern, somewhat similar to model-view-controller (MVC). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a Community politics. ... A drawing of a graph. ... A hierarch is a very high-ranking bishop; see also primate (religion) and metropolitan bishop. ... The Prophet Hierarchs are fictional characters featured in the video game Halo 2. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hierarchiology is the social science concerned with the basic principles of hierarchically organized systems in the human society. ... Multilevel models are known by several names: hierarchical models, nested models and split-plot designs. ... For the BBC sitcom, see The Peter Principle (TV series). ... Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi is a Latin phrase, literally meaning and often translated as Gods may do what cattle may not. It indicates the existence of a double standard (justifiable or otherwise), and essentially means what is permitted to one person or group, is not permitted to everyone. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus (Carl Linné, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , May 23 new style (13 May old style), 1707[1] – January 10, 1778) was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of Binomial nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... ISBN redirects here. ... Springer is the name of several places in the United States: Springer, New Mexico Springer Township, North Dakota Springer, Oklahoma Springer is the name of: Springer Science+Business Media, a worldwide publishing group based in Germany (including Springer-Verlag) Axel Springer Verlag AG, famous conservative German publishing house Springer (EP... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISBN redirects here. ... The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group which specializes in producing technical books in a wide range of subjects. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Springer is the name of several places in the United States: Springer, New Mexico Springer Township, North Dakota Springer, Oklahoma Springer is the name of: Springer Science+Business Media, a worldwide publishing group based in Germany (including Springer-Verlag) Axel Springer Verlag AG, famous conservative German publishing house Springer (EP... ISBN redirects here. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... ISBN redirects here. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... ISBN redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Crypto is an English prefix that means hidden or secret. The term crypto is also employed as shorthand for the following: Cryptography, the practice of the use of encryption. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... BioMed Central (BMC) is a UK-based scientific publisher specializing in open access publication. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISBN redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hierarchy (3363 words)
hierarchy of jurisdiction the episcopate and the papacy are of Divine origin; all the other grades are of ecclesiastical institution.
hierarchy is not established, the pope delegates vicars Apostolic, who are, as a rule, titular bishops, and whose rights resemble, in general, those of bishops.
hierarchy of jurisdiction come first the archbishops, some of whom have the title of primate, are at the head of an ecclesiastical province, and may convene a provincial
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m