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Encyclopedia > Herodotus
Herodotus

Ostensible bust of Herodotus
Born c. 484 BC
Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor
Died c. 425 BC
Thurii, Calabria or Pella, Macedon
Occupation Historian

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ἡρόδοτος Ἁλικαρνᾱσσεύς Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC) and is regarded as the "Father of History" in Western culture. He was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative.[1] He is almost exclusively known for writing The Histories, a record of his "inquiries" (or ἱστορίαι, a word that passed into Latin and took on its modern meaning of history) into the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars which occurred in 490 and 480-479 BC—especially since he includes a narrative account of that period, which would otherwise be poorly documented; and many long digressions concerning the various places and peoples he encountered during wide-ranging travels around the lands of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Although some of his stories are not completely accurate, he claims that he is reporting only what has been told to him. Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Thurii, or Thueium, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto, near the site of the older Sybaris. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... This article is about the social science. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... This article is about the social science. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... also called parekbasis(in greek) or egressio, digressio, excursio(in latin) Digression is a section of a composition or speech that is an intentional change of subject. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Much of what is known of Herodotus's life is gathered from his own work. Additional details have been garnered from the Suda, an 11th-century encyclopaedia of Byzantium, which likely took its information from traditional accounts. It holds that he was born in Halicarnassus (Bodrum in present-day Turkey), the son of Lyxes and Dryo, and the brother of Theodorus, and that he was also related to Panyassis, an epic poet of the time. According to this account, after being exiled from Halicarnassus by the tyrant Lygdamis, Herodotus went to live on Samos. Later returning to the land of his birth, Herodotus took part in the ousting of Lygdamis. The traditional biography includes some time spent in Athens, where he is said to have given public readings from his oeuvre and befriended the dramatist Sophocles. It also has Herodotus joining and founding the Athenian colony of Thurii in southern Italy in 443 BC. Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: , ) was an ancient Greek city, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in Muğla Province. ... Panyassis was a 5th century BC epic poet, famous for the Heracleia and the Ionica. ... Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formerly known as Ionia. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Thurii, or Thueium, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto, near the site of the older Sybaris. ...


There are several pieces of gossip about Herodotus. According to Ptolemaeus Chennus, a late source who has been accused of fiction, as summarized in the Library of Photius, an eleventh-century Byzantine cleric, "Plesirrhous the Thessalian, the hymnographer, was the eromenos of Herodotus and his heir.[2]. This account has also led some historians to assume Herodotus died childless.[3] Henry Rawlinson, in the nineteenth century, argued that, although such anecdotes were from an "authority of the least trustworthy kind", it might well be true that Herodotus was childless and Plesirrhous published his work after his death; no one would find it worth the trouble to invent such stories.[4] Ptolemaeus Chennus or Chennos (quail), of Alexandria, was a Greek grammarian during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Photius (b. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ...


Herodotus' death and burial are placed either at Thurii or at Pella, in Macedon, between 425 and 420 BC. It is suspected he was buried at Thurii as he typically referred to himself as "Herodotus of Thurii." [5] How much of this information is accurate is not known. It was common practice in antiquity for the biographies of poets to be pieced together from inferences drawn from their works. Something similar may have happened in Herodotus' case. His casting as a tyrannicide may simply reflect the pro-freedom attitude that he expresses in the Histories, whereas the stays at Samos and Athens may have been invented to explain the pro-Samian and pro-Athenian bias that has often been thought to pervade his work. His exile from Halicarnassus may also be fictional: later historians, such as Thucydides and Xenophon, underwent periods of exile, and their fates may have been retrospectively imposed on Herodotus by later writers.[citation needed] Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


Historian

Circumstances rule men; men do not rule circumstances.
Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) ancient map from Herodotus, circa 450 BC.

Herodotus provides much information concerning the nature of the world and the status of the sciences during his lifetime. He was arguably the first historian and certainly the first to travel methodically around the known world in a bid to record information more accurately, although his efforts still involved second and third-hand accounts involving his primary subject, the Persian Wars, much myth and non-scientific speculation, but occasional useful or, at least, intriguing information. Oikumene is Hellenistic Greek word which was used to refer to the known world in Alexander The Greats Hellenistic Age. ...

Croesus Receiving Tribute from a Lydian Peasant, by Claude Vignon.

Herodotus reports, for example, that the annual flooding of the Nile was said to be the result of melting snows far to the south, and he comments that he cannot understand how there can be snow in Africa, the hottest part of the known world, offering an elaborate explanation based on the way that desert winds affect the passage of the Sun over this part of the world (2:18ff). He also passes on dismissive reports from Phoenician sailors that, while circumnavigating Africa, they "saw the sun on the right side while sailing westwards". Owing to this brief mention, which is included almost as an afterthought, it has been argued that Africa was indeed circumnavigated by ancient seafarers, for this is precisely where the sun ought to have been. For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Herodotus is one of the sources on Croesus and his fabulous treasures of gold and silver, and many stories about his riches. Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Written between 431 and 425 BC, The Histories were divided by later editors into nine books, named after the nine Muses (the "Muse of History", Clio, represented the first book).[6] His accounts of India are among the oldest records of Indian civilization by an outsider. [7]The Indian Empire In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances. ... Clio—detail from The Allegory of Painting by Johannes Vermeer For other uses, see Clio (disambiguation). ...


Opinions

Herodotus' invention earned him the twin titles "The Father of History", first conferred by Cicero, and "The Father of Lies".[8] As these epithets imply, there has long been a debate—at least from the time of Cicero's On the Laws (Book 1, paragraph 5)—concerning the veracity of his tales and, more importantly, the extent to which he knew himself to be creating fabrications. The following alphabetical lists includes men and women commonly known as the father or mother of something. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Criticisms of Herodotus

There are many cases in which Herodotus, not certain of the truth of a certain event or unimpressed by the dull "facts" that he received, reported the several most famous accounts of a given subject or process and then wrote what he believed was the most probable. Although The Histories were often criticized in antiquity for bias, inaccuracy and plagiarism—Claudius Aelianus attacked Herodotus as a liar in Verae Historiae and went as far as to deny him a place among the famous on the Island of the Blessed —this methodology has been seen in a more-positive light by many modern historians and philosophers, especially those searching for a paradigm of objective historical writing. Some attacks have been made by various scholars in modern times, a few even arguing that Herodotus exaggerated the extent of his travels and invented his sources.[9] Claudius Aelianus (c. ... In the Fortunate Isles, also called the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed (μακαρων νησοι makarôn nêsoi), heroes and other favored mortals in Greek mythology and Celtic mythology were received by the gods into a blissful paradise. ...


Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century have helped greatly to restore Herodotus's reputation. His description of Gelonus, located in Scythia city, as thousands of times larger than Troy was widely disbelieved until it was rediscovered in 1975. The archaeological study of the now-submerged ancient Egyptian city of Heracleion and the recovery of the so-called "Naucratis stela" give extensive credibility to Herodotus's previously unsupported claim that Heracleion was founded under the Egyptian New Kingdom. Because of this recent increase in respect for his accuracy, as well as the quality and content of his observations, Herodotus is now recognized as a pioneer not only in history but in ethnography[10] and anthropology. Gelonus, (also transliterated Helonus), 50. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Gold-digging ants

Gold dust and nuggets.

One of the most recent developments in Herodotus scholarship was made by the French ethnologist Michel Peissel. On his journeys to India and Pakistan, Peissel claims to have discovered an animal species that may finally illuminate one of the most "bizarre" passages in Herodotus's Histories. In Book 3, passages 102 to 105, Herodotus reports that a species of fox-sized, furry "ants" lives in one of the far eastern, Indian provinces of the Persian Empire. This region, he reports, is a sandy desert, and the sand there contains a wealth of fine gold dust. These giant ants, according to Herodotus, would often unearth the gold dust when digging their mounds and tunnels, and the people living in this province would then collect the precious dust. Now, Peissel says that in an isolated region of Pakistan, in the Pakistani-controlled part of Kashmir that is known as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA), on the Deosai Plateau there exists a species of marmot (a type of burrowing squirrel) that may solve the mystery of Herodotus' giant "ants". Much like the province that Herodotus describes, the ground of the Deosai Plateau is rich in gold dust. According to Peissel, he interviewed the Minaro tribal people who live in the Deosai Plateau, and they have confirmed that they have, for generations, been collecting the gold dust that the marmots bring to the surface when they are digging their underground burrows. The story seems to have been widespread in the ancient world, later authors like Pliny the Elder mentioning it in his gold mining section of the Naturalis Historia. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Michel Peissel (born in Paris in 1937) is a French anthropologist, explorer and author who writes in english and speaks fluent Tibetan. ... Persia redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Deosai National Park is located above the tree line and at an average height of 13,500 feet above sea level, the Deosai Plains are among the highest plateaus in the world. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the animal. ... The Brokpa community is an Indo-Aryan community residing in the Dha-Hanu valley in Ladakh. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ...

Bobak marmot in central Asia.

Even more tantalizing, in his book, "The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas", Peissel offers the theory that Herodotus may have become confused because the old Persian word for "marmot" was quite similar to that for "mountain ant". Because research suggests that Herodotus probably did not know any Persian (or any other language except his native Greek), he was forced to rely on a multitude of local translators when travelling in the vast polylingual Persian Empire. Therefore, he may have been the unwitting victim of a simple misunderstanding in translation. (It is also important to realize that Herodotus never claims to have himself seen these "ants/marmot" creatures—he may have been dutifully reporting what other travellers were telling him, no matter how bizarre or unlikely he personally may have found it to be. In an age when most of the world was still mysterious and unknown and before the modern science of biology, the existence of a "giant ant" may not have seemed so far-fetched.) The suggestion that he completely made up the tale may continue to be thrown into doubt as more research is conducted.[11][12] Binomial name Marmota bobak (Müller, 1776) The bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), also known as the steppe marmot, is a species of marmot that inhabits the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. ... El Dorado or Eldorado (Spanish for the gilded one) is a legend that began with the story of a South American tribal chief who covered himself with gold dust and would dive into a lake of pure mountain water. ...


However, it must be noted that this theory of the marmots fails to take into consideration Herodotus's own follow-up in passage 105 of Book 3, wherein the "ants/marmots" are said to chase and devour full-grown camels; nevertheless, this could also be explained as an example of a tall tale or legend told by the local tribes to frighten foreigners from seeking this relatively easy access to gold dust. On the other hand, the details of the "ants" seem somewhat similar to the description of the camel spider (Solifugae), which strictly speaking is not a spider and is even sometimes called a "wind scorpion". Camel spiders are said to chase camels (they can run up to 10mph), they have lots of hair bristles, and they could quite easily be mistaken for ants given their rather bizarre appearance. And as has been noted by some, on account of the fear factor of encountering one, there have been "many myths and exaggerations about their size".[13] Images of camel spiders[14][15] could give the impression that this could be mistaken for a giant ant, but certainly not the size of a fox. Families see text The order Solifugae is a group of arachnids, containing more than 1,000 described species in about 140 genera. ...


See also

For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary, "Herodotos", Oxford University Press
  2. ^ "Καὶ ὡς Πλησίρροος ὁ Θεσσαλὸς ὁ ὑμνογράφος, ἐρώμενος γεγονὼς Ἡροδότου καὶ κληρονόμος τῶν αὐτοῦ" [Eng tr. by Wikipedia editor Haiduc] Photius, Library; "Ptolemy Chennus, New History" 190
  3. ^ The life of Herodotus drawn out from his book By Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann, George Valentine Cox; p.169
  4. ^ The History of Herodotus By Herodotus, John Gardner Wilkinson, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson; p.27; 1859 edition. (p.32 in the 1875 edition)
  5. ^ The Landmark Herodotus : the histories / a new translation by Andrea L. Purvis with maps, annotation Herodotus. New York : Pantheon Books, c2007. lxiv, 953 p. : ill., col. maps ; 25 cm.
  6. ^ Larcher, Pierre-Henri (1829). Larcher's Notes on Herodotus. London: John R. Priestley. pp. 526. http://books.google.com/books?id=Tpp5B39UlTMC&pg=PA526&lpg=PA526&dq=Herodotus+Muses&source=web&ots=fN1yLn78Kq&sig=TVDhDoGYj11kCRjDiHzuhxvj-iE&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result. 
  7. ^ The Indian Empire The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 272.
  8. ^ David Pipes. "Herodotus: Father of History, Father of Lies". http://www.loyno.edu/history/journal/1998-9/Pipes.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-18. 
  9. ^ Fehling, Detlev. Herodotos and His "Sources": Citation, Invention, and Narrative Art. Translated by J.G. Howie. Arca Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers, and Monographs, 21. Leeds: Francis Cairns, 1989.
  10. ^ See, for example, C. P. Jones, ("ἔθνος and γένος in Herodotos", The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 46 (2):315–320; 1996), who refers to him as "the father of ethnography" (p. 315).
  11. ^ Simons, Marlise. Himalayas Offer Clue to Legend of Gold-Digging 'Ants'. New York Times: 25 November 1996.
  12. ^ Peissel, Michel. "The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas". Collins, 1984. ISBN 978-0002725149.
  13. ^ Wikipedia. "Solifugae". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solifugae. Retrieved on 2008-02-20. 
  14. ^ Camel Spiders (Main Page)
  15. ^ Camel Spiders (Pictures)

The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of North American English by the American editors at the Oxford University Press. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Imperial Gazetteer of India first appeared in 1881; Sir William Wilson Hunter (1840-1900) was the creator. ...

Translations

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Ηρόδοτος
  • Several English translations of The Histories of Herodotus are readily available in multiple editions. The most readily available are those translated by:
    • C.E. Godley, 1920; revised 1926. Reprinted 1931, 1946, 1960, 1966, 1975, 1981, 1990, 1996, 1999, 2004. Available in four volumes from Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-99130-3 Printed with Greek on the left and English on the right.
    • David Grene, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
    • George Rawlinson, translation 1858–1860. Public domain; many editions available, although Everyman Library and Wordsworth Classics editions are the most common ones still in print.
    • Aubrey de Sélincourt, originally 1954; revised by John Marincola in 1996. Several editions from Penguin Books available.
    • Strassler, Robert B., (ed.), and Purvis, Andrea L. (trans.), The Landmark Herodotus, Pantheon, 2007. ISBN 978-0-37542109-9 with adequate ancillary information.
    • Robin Waterfield, with an Introduction and Notes by Carolyn Dewald, Oxford World Classics, 1998.

Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... David Grene (1913-2002) was a professor of classics at the University of Chicago from 1937 until his death. ... Canon George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 Р7 October 1902), was a 19th century English scholar and historian. ... Everymans Library is a series of reprinted classic literature published by Alfred A. Knopf (a division of Random House) in the United States, and Weidenfeld and Nicolson in the United Kingdom. ... Aubrey de Selincourt (S̩lincourt) (1896-1962) was an English writer, classical scholar, and translator. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Robin A. H. Waterfield is a writer and translator currently residing in Greece. ...

Bibliography

  • Bakker, Egbert e.a. (eds.), Brill's Companion to Herodotus. Leiden: Brill, 2002
  • Dewald, Carolyn, and John Marincola, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006.
  • Evans, J. A. S., Herodotus. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.
  • —. Herodotus, Explorer of the Past: Three Essays. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • Flory, Stewart, The Archaic Smile of Herodotus. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987.
  • Fornara, Charles W. Herodotus: An Interpretative Essay. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
  • Harrington, John W., To See a World. C. V. Mosby Company, 1973. Harrington explored Herodotus's deduction that deltas, including Egypt's, were deposited over a great period of time.
  • Hartog, F., "The Invention of History: From Homer to Herodotus". Wesleyan University, 2000. In History and Theory 39, 2000.
  • Hartog, F., The Mirror of Herodotus. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988.
  • Immerwahr, H., Form and Thought in Herodotus. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University Press, 1966.
  • Kapuscinski, Ryszard, "Travels with Herodotus". New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf, 2007.
  • Lateiner, D., The Historical Method of Herodotus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.
  • Momigliano, A., The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography. University of California Press, 1992.
  • Pritchett, W. K., The Liar School of Herodotos. Amsterdam: Gieben, 1991.
  • Romm, James S. Herodotus. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-07229-5; paperback, ISBN 0-300-07230-9).
  • Thomas, R., Herodotus in Context; ethnography, science and the art of persuasion. Oxford University Press 2000.
  • Selden, Daniel. "Cambyses' Madness, or the Reason of History," Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici 42 (1999), 33-63.
  • Simons, Marlise. Himalayas Offer Clue to Legend of Gold-Digging 'Ants'. New York Times: 25 November 1996.
  • Peissel, Michel. "The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas". Collins, 1984. ISBN 978-0002725149.

External links

For other uses, see New Yorker. ...

Online translations

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

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