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Encyclopedia > Hercules Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead
Baron Rosmead, also known as Governor Robinson
Baron Rosmead, also known as Governor Robinson

Hercules George Robert Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead, GCMG (Chinese Translated Name 羅士敏勳爵 or 羅便臣) (19 December, 1824 - 28 October, 1897) was a British colonial administrator who became the 5th Governor of Hong Kong. He is not to be confused with William Robinson, who became the 11th Governor of Hong Kong. Image File history File links Hk05. ... Image File history File links Hk05. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir William Robinson (1836 - 1912) was a British colonial governor. ...

Contents


Early life and Government career

He was of Irish descent on both sides; his father was Admiral Hercules Robinson, his mother was from a Rosmead, County Westmeath, from which he afterwards took his title. Passing from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst into the 87th Foot, he attained the rank of captain. However, in 1846, through the influence of Lord Naas, Robinson obtained a post in the Board of Public Works in Ireland, and subsequently became chief commissioner of fairs and markets. County Westmeath (An Iarmhí in Irish) is a county situated in the Irish Midlands, in the western part of the province of Leinster. ... The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (commonly known as Sandhurst) is the British Army officer initial training centre. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


His energy in these positions, notably during the famine of 1848, and the clearness and vigour of his reports, secured for him at the age of thirty the office of president of the island of Montserrat. Starvation during the famine The Irish Potato Famine, also called The Great Famine or The Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór), is the name given to a famine which struck Ireland between 1846 and 1849. ...


Colonial services

Subsequently, Robinson was appointed governor of Saint Kitts in 1855, from which he served until 1859. In that year, Robinson was appointed as Governor of Hong Kong, the youngest in Hong Kong colonial history, from which he served until March of 1865. In that same year, he was knighted in recognition of his services for introducing coolie labour into the territory. Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Governor of Hong Kongs Flag, 1959–1997 The Governor of Hong Kong (香港總督 / 港督) was a British official who ruled Hong Kong during the colonial period between 1841 and 1997 and was ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Hong Kong. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... East Indian coolies on a Trinidad Cacao Estate, circa 1903. ...


During his tenure, Robinson secured the control of the Kowloon Peninsula from the Imperial Chinese Government, thus expanding the size of the territory. Up to this point, the Colony of Hong Kong only consists of Hong Kong Island. Also, Robinson ordered the construction of the Pokfulam Reservoir, which would provide a steady supply of water for Hong Kong people for years to come. Robinson was also credited with establishing Towngas, the territory's premier gas provider (a position it still holds today), for lighting the streets. The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... Pok Fu Lam Reservoir (薄扶林水塘) is the first reservoir in Hong Kong. ...


During his administration, HSBC, along with Standard Chartered, were established in Hong Kong. Both were given the responsibility to print banknotes on the behalf of the government, a responsibility both banks still hold today. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (香港上海滙豐銀行), based in Hong Kong, is a wholly-owned subsidiary and the founding member of the HSBC Group, which is traded on several stock exchanges as HSBC Holdings PLC. The business ranges from the traditional High Street roles of personal finance and commercial banking... Standard Chartered Bank is a British bank headquartered in London with operations in many countries , especially in Asia and Africa. ...


Later colonial services

In 1869, Robinson was made Governor of Ceylon and K.C.M.G.. From 3 June 1872 to March 1879, he served as the Governor of New South Wales. During this time, Robinson was involved in the successful efforts to annex the Fiji Islands to the British Empire, and his services were rewarded in 1875 by promotion to G.C.M.G.. In March 1879, Robinson was transferred to New Zealand, and in 1880, he succeeded Sir Henry Bartle Frere as High Commissioner for Southern Africa. 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Governor Premier Const. ... The Republic of the Fiji Islands occupies an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet (March 29, 1815 - May 29, 1884) was a British administrator. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Robinson arrived in South Africa shortly before the disaster of Majuba, and was one of the commissioners for negotiating a peace. The job was known to be personally distasteful to him, for it left him with the task of conciliating on the one hand a Dutch party elated with victory, and on the other hand a British party almost ready to despair of the British connection. The skirmish at Majuba Hill (near Volksrust, South Africa) on 27 February 1881 was a convincing victory for the Boers. ...


Negotiations in South Africa

In 1883, Robinson was called home to advise the government on the terms of the new convention concluded with the Transvaal Boers. On his return, he found that a critical situation had arisen in Bechuanaland (today's Botswana), where Boer commandos had seized large tracts of territory and proclaimed the "republics" of Stella and Goshen. 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal The Transvaal (lit. ... Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... Goshen is the name of several places including 1 county and at least 29 other sites in the United States: Goshen County, Wyoming Goshen Scout Reservation, a Boy Scout reservation (consisting of six resident camps) run by the National Capital Area Council. ...


The commandos refused to retire within the limits of the Transvaal as defined by the new convention, and Robinson, aware of the necessity of preserving this country — the main road to the north — for the British Empire, determined on vigorous action. The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ...


John Mackenzie and later Cecil Rhodes were sent to secure the peaceful submission of the Boers, but without immediate result, partly owing to the attitude of the Cape ministry. Robinson's declaration that the advice of his ministers to patch up a settlement with the filibustering Boers was equivalent to a condonation of crime, led to the expedition of Sir Charles Warren and the annexation of Bechuanaland early in 1885. John Mackenzie (b. ... Cecil Rhodes. ... General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S. (1840–1927) was a British soldier and police commissioner. ...


The difficulties of Robinson's position were illustrated by the dispute which arose between him and Warren, who declared that the high commissioner's duties to the home government were at times in conflict with the action which, as governor of Cape Colony, he was bound to take on the advice of his ministers in the interests of the colony. Sir Hercules Robinson succeeded in winning the confidence of President Kruger by his fair-mindedness, while he seconded Rhodes' efforts to unite the British and Dutch parties in Cape Colony. His mind, however, was that of the administrator as distinguished from the statesman, and he was content to settle difficulties as they arose. Official language English and Dutch1 Capital Cape Town Largest City Cape Town Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 569,020 km² (1910) Negligible Population  - Total (1911)  - Density Ranked 1st 2,564,965 4. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paul Kruger (October 10, 1825 - July 14, 1904), a. ...


In 1886, Robinson investigated the charges brought against Sir John Pope-Hennessy, governor of Mauritius, and decreed his suspension pending the decision of the home authorities, who eventually reinstated Pope-Hennessy. In 1887 Robinson was induced by Rhodes to give his consent to the conclusion of a treaty with Lobengula which secured British rights in Matabele and Mashona lands. 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... John Wyndham, Sir Pope-Hennessy (1913 - 1994) was a British art historian. ... Lobengula (d. ... The Matabele are a branch of the Zulus who split from King Shaka in the early 1820s under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shakas army. ... Shona (or ChiShona) is a native language of Zimbabwe; the term is also used to identify those Bantu tribes in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages. ...


In May of 1889, Robinson retired. In his farewell speech, he declared that there was no permanent place in South Africa for direct Imperial rule. This was interpreted to mean that South Africa must ultimately become independent — an idea repugnant to him. He explained in a letter to The Times in 1895 that he had referred to the "direct rule of Downing Street over the crown colonies, as contrasted with responsible colonial government." 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Robinson was made a baronet in 1891. Early in 1895, when he had entered his 71st year in below average health, he yielded to the entreaties of Lord Rosebery's cabinet, and went out again to South Africa, in succession to Sir Henry Loch. A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (May 7, 1847 - May 21, 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister. ... Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch (23 May 1827 – 20 June 1900) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ...


Second Term as Governor of South Africa

His second term of office was not fortunate. The Jameson Raid produced a permanent estrangement between him and Cecil Rhodes, and he was out of sympathy with the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, who had criticized his appointment, and now desired Robinson to take this opportunity of settling the whole question of the position of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal. The Right Honourable Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836–2 July 1914) was a British statesman. ... Uitlanders (outlanders) was a term used to describe foreigners and non-citizen settlers in the Orange Free State in South Africa, who accounted for around three quarters of the white population of the Orange Free State but who did not have voting rights and were taxed highly. ...


Robinson answered that the moment was inopportune, and that he must be left to choose his own time. Alarmed at the imminent danger of war, he confined his efforts to inducing the Johannesburgers to lay down their arms on condition that the raiders' lives were spared, not knowing that these terms had already been granted to Jameson. He came home to confer with the government, and was raised to the peerage as Baron Rosmead. He returned to South Africa later in the year, but was compelled by ill-health, in April 1897, to quit his post. City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Personal life

One of Robinson's children, a son, succeeded to the title of Baron Rosmead upon the death of Robinson.


Robinson died in London on 28 October 1897. October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Places named after him

In Hong Kong, Robinson Road, Rosmead Road, and Robinson Island (Chinese name 鴨洲) were all named after him. Robinson Road (羅便臣道) is a road on the Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... Ap Chau (鴨洲) or Robinson Island is an island in the Crooked Harbour, in the north-eastern New Territories of Hong Kong. ...


There was a Robinson Road in the Kowloon Peninsula that was named after him. However, the name was changed to Nathan Road on 19th March, 1909. The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... Categories: Hong Kong geography stubs | Streets and roads in Hong Kong ... (Redirected from 19th March) March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...



In Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) Rosmead Place


Honours

Preceded by:
(none)
Administrator of Montserrat
1854–1855
Succeeded by:
Edward Everard Rushworth
Preceded by:
Edward Drummond Hay
Lieutenant Governor of Saint Kitts
1855–1859
Succeeded by:
Benjamin Pine
Preceded by:
Acting William Caine
5th Governor of Hong Kong
1859–1865
Succeeded by:
Acting Administrator William Mercer
Preceded by:
Terence O'Brien
Governor of Ceylon
1865–1872
Succeeded by:
William Henry Gregory
Preceded by:
The Earl Belmore
Governor of New South Wales
1872–1879
Succeeded by:
Sir Augustus Loftus
Preceded by:
The Marquess of Normanby
Governor of New Zealand
1879–1880
Succeeded by:
Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon
Preceded by:
Sir Henry Bartle Frere
High Commissioner for Southern Africa
and
Governor of Cape Colony
1881–1889
Succeeded by:
Sir Henry Brougham Loch
Preceded by:
Sir Henry Brougham Loch
High Commissioner for Southern Africa
and
Governor of Cape Colony
1895–1897
Succeeded by:
Sir Alfred Milner

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Governor of Montserrat is the representative of the British monarch in the United Kingdoms overseas territory of Montserrat. ... This article lists Governors-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis. ... Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine was, in official terms, Western Australias eighth Governor, although he never actually took office. ... William Caine was an high official in Hong Kong. ... Governor of Hong Kongs Flag, 1959–1997 The Governor of Hong Kong (香港總督 / 港督) was a British official who ruled Hong Kong during the colonial period between 1841 and 1997 and was ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Hong Kong. ... William Mercer (Chinese : å­–æ²™) was a British colonial administrator, who ruled Hong Kong for one year, between March of 1865 to March of 1866. ... Rt Hon Major Sir Somerset Richard Lowry-Corry, The 4th Earl of Belmore KCMG GCMG (Born April 9, 1835, Bruton Street, Mayfair, London; Died April 6, 1913, Castle Coole, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland). ... List of Governors of New South Wales See Governors of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Governor. ... Sir Augustus William Frederick Spencer Loftus (Born October 4, 1817, Clifford, Bristol; Died March 7, 1909, Surrey). ... George Augustus Constantine Phipps, 2nd Marquess of Normanby (July 23, 1819 - April 3, 1890) was a politician of the United Kingdom. ... Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative in the Realm of New Zealand of the Queen of New Zealand, Queen Elizabeth II, and as such is the highest office in the Government of New Zealand. ... Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Baron Stanmore (November 26, 1829-January 30, 1912). ... Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet (March 29, 1815 - May 29, 1884) was a British administrator. ... Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch (23 May 1827 – 20 June 1900) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch (23 May 1827 – 20 June 1900) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... The Right Honourable Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, KG, GCB, GCMG, PC (March 23, 1854 – May 13, 1925), was a British statesman and colonial administrator. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hercules Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1206 words)
Robinson arrived in South Africa shortly before the disaster of Majuba, and was one of the commissioners for negotiating a peace.
Robinson's declaration that the advice of his ministers to patch up a settlement with the filibustering Boers was equivalent to a condonation of crime, led to the expedition of Sir Charles Warren and the annexation of Bechuanaland early in 1885.
One of Robinson's children, a son, succeeded to the title of Baron Rosmead upon the death of Robinson.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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