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Encyclopedia > Herbivorous
A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage

A herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat plants and not meat. This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, some protists and a small number of parasitic plants can be considered herbivores. However, herbivory is generally restricted to animals eating plants. Fungi, bacteria and protists that feed on living plants are usually termed plant pathogens. Microbes that feed on dead plants are saprotrophs. Flowering plants that obtain nutrition from other living plants are usually termed parasitic plants. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in general are known as primary consumers. Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are either partly or completely parasitic on other plants [1]. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem or phloem or both. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... A Saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds. ... About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are either partly or completely parasitic on other plants [1]. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem or phloem or both. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy...

Contents

Herbivores

Leaf miners feed on leaf tissue between the epidermal layers, leaving visible trails

A herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat plants and not meat. Herbivores form an important link in the food chain as they consume plants in order to receive the carbohydrates produced by a plant from photosynthesis. Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or herbivores. Due to a herbivore's ability to survive solely on tough and fibrous plant matter, they are termed the primary consumers in the food cycle(chain). Herbivores do not eat meat. Leaf miners are insect larvae that live within leaf tissue. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... Crows are omnivores. ...

Evolution of herbivory

A fossil Viburnum lesquereuxii leaf with evidence of insect herbivory; Dakota Sandstone (Cretaceous) of Ellsworth County, Kansas. Scale bar is 10 mm.

Our understanding of herbivory in geological time comes from three sources: fossilized plants, which may preserve evidence of defence (such as spines), or herbivory-related damage; the observation of plant debris in fossilised animal faeces; and the construction of herbivore mouthparts.[2] For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ...


Long thought to be a Mesozoic phenomenon, evidence for herbivory is found almost as soon as fossils which could show it. Within under 20 million years of the first fossils of sporangia and stems towards the close of the Silurian, around 420 million years ago, there is evidence that they were being consumed.[3] Animals fed on the spores of early Devonian plants, and the Rhynie chert also provides evidence that organisms fed on plants using a "pierce and suck" technique.[2] The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Rhynie chert is the name for fossiliferous material from a uniquely well-preserved layer in one site near the village of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ...


During the ensuing 75 million years[citation needed], plants evolved a range of more complex organs - from roots to seeds. There is no evidence for these being fed upon until the middle-late Mississippian, 326.4 million years ago. There was a gap of 50 to 100 million years between each organ evolving, and it being fed upon; this may be due to the low levels of O2 during this period, which may have suppressed evolution.[3] Further than their arthropod status, the identity of these early herbivores is uncertain.[3] Hole feeding and skeletonisation are recorded in the early Permian, with surface fluid feeding evolving by the end of that period.[2] “Mississippian” redirects here. ...


Arthropods have evolved herbivory in four phases, changing their approach to herbivory in response to changing plant communities.[4]
Another stage of herbivore evolution is characterized by the evolution of tetrapod herbivores, with the first appearance in the fossil record near the Permio-Carboniferous boundary approximately 300 MYA. The earliest evidence of herbivory by tetrapod organisms is seen in fossils of jawbones where dental occlusion (process by which teeth from the upper jaw come in contact with those in the lower jaw) is present. The evolution of dental occlusion lead to a drastic increase in food processing associated with herbivory and provides direct evidence about feeding strategies based on tooth wear patterns. Examination of phylogenetic frameworks reveals that dental occlusion developed independently in several lineages through dental and mandibular morphologes, suggesting that the evolution and radiation of tetrapod herbivores occurred simultaneously within various lineages.[5] A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...

Predator-prey Theory (herbivore-plant interactions)

Relationships between Predators (Herbivores) and Prey (Plants). As the plant population increases, the herbivore population also increases, then exceeds the carrying capacity. At this point both the plant population and subsequently the herbivore population start to decline

According to the theory of predator-prey interactions, the relationship between herbivores and plants is cyclic.[6] When prey (plants) are numerous their predators (herbivores) increase in numbers, reducing the prey population, which in turn causes predator number to decline.[7] The prey population eventually recovers, starting a new cycle. This suggests that the population of the herbivore fluctuates around the carrying capacity of the food source, in this case the plant.


Several factors play into these fluctuating populations and help stabilize predator-prey dynamics. For example, spatial heterogeneity is maintained, which means there will always be pockets of plants not found by herbivores. This stabilizing dynamic plays an especially important role for specialist herbivores that feed on one species of plant and prevents these specialists from wiping out their food source.[8] Prey defenses also help stabilize predator-prey dynamic, and for more information on these relationships see the section on Plant Defenses. Eating a second prey type helps herbivores’ populations stabilize[9]. Alternating between two or more plant types provides population stability for the herbivore, while the populations of the plants oscillate.[10] This plays an important role for generalist herbivores that eat variety of plants. Keystone herbivores keep vegetation populations in check and allow for a greater diversity of both herbivores and plants[9]. When an invasive herbivore or plant enters the system, the balance is thrown off and the diversity can collapse to a monotaxon system.[9]

Feeding strategies

Herbivores are limited in their feeding ability by either time or resources. Animals that are time limited, meaning they have a limited amount of time to consume the food they need, use a feeding strategy of grazing and browsing, while those animals that are resource limited, meaning that they are limited in the type of food they eat, use a selective feeding strategy. Grazers/browsers tend to be either very large herbivores that need to consume a lot of food in order to maintain their metabolism, or herbivores that have a very short amount of time to eat as much as possible before reproducing, like many generalist insects. Several theories attempt to explain and quantify the relationship between animals and their food, such as Kleiber's law, Holling's disk equation and Marginal Value Theorem.


Kleiber’s law explains the relationship between the size of the animal and the feeding strategy it uses. In essence, it says that larger animals need to eat less food, per unit weight, than smaller animals.[11] Kleiber’s law states that the metabolic rate (q0) of an animal is the mass of the animal (M) raise to the 3/4th power:
q0=M3/4
Therefore, the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate then the metabolic rate.[12]
There are many types of feeding strategies employed by herbivores. Many herbivores do not fall into one specific feeding strategy, but instead employ several strategies and eat a variety of plant parts. Kleibers law, named after Max Kleibers biological work in the early 1930s, is the observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animals metabolic rate scales to the 3/4 power of the animals mass. ...


Types of feeding strategies:

Feeding Strategy Diet Example
Frugivores Fruit Ring Tailed Lemur
Folivores Leaves Koalas
Nectarivores Nectar Honey Possum
Granivores Seeds Hawaiian Honeycreepers
Palynivores Pollen Bees
Mucivores Plant fluids, i.e. sap Aphids
Xylophages Wood Termites


Optimal Foraging Theory is a model for predicting animal behavior while looking for food or other niche, such as shelter or water. This model assesses both individual movement, such as animal behavior while looking for food, and distribution within a habitat, such as dynamics at the population and community level. For example, the model would be used to look at the browsing behavior of a deer while looking for food, as well as that deer’s specific location and movement within the forested habitat and its interaction with other deer while in that habitat.
This model can be controversial, where critics say that the theory is circular and untestable. Critics say that the theory uses examples that fit the theory, but that researchers do not use the theory when it does not fit the reality.[13] [14] Other critics point out that animals do not have the ability to assess and maximize their potential gains, therefore the optimal foraging theory is irrelevant and derived to explain trends that do not exist in nature.[15][16] A central concern of ecology has traditionally been foraging behavior. ...


Holling’s disk equation models the efficiency at which predators consume prey. The model predicts that as the number of prey increases, the amount of time predators spend handling prey also increases and therefore the efficiency of the predator decreases.[17] In 1959 S. Holling proposed an equation to model the rate of return for an optimal diet: Rate (R ) = Energy gained in foraging (Ef)/(time searching (Ts) + time handling (Th))
R = Ef / (Ts + Th)
Where s = cost of search per unit time f = rate of encounter with items, h = handling time, e = energy gained per encounter
In effect, this would indicate that an herbivore in a dense forest would spend more time getting handling (eating) the vegetation because there was so much vegetation around than an herbivore in a sparse forest, who could easily browse through the forest vegetation. Therefore, according to the Holling's disk equation, the herbivore in the sparse forest would be more efficient at eating than the herbivore in the dense forest


Marginal Value Theorem describes the balance between eating all the food in a patch for immediate energy, or moving to a new patch and leaving the plants in the first patch to regenerate for future use. The theory predicts that absent complicating factors, an animal should leave a resource patch when the rate of payoff (amount of food) falls below the average rate of payoff for the entire area.[18] According to this theory, therefore, locus should move to a new patch of food when the patch they are currently feeding on requires more energy to obtain food than an average patch. Within this theory, two subsequent parameters emerge, the Giving Up Density (GUD) and the Giving Up Time (GUT). The Giving Up Density (GUD) quantifies the mount of food that remains in a patch when a forager moves to a new patch.[19] The Giving Up Time (GUT) is used when a animal continuously assesses the patch quality.[20] In behavioural ecology, the marginal value theorem considers optimal forager who is exploiting resources that occur in patches, and who must decide when to quit a patch and move on to the next one. ...

Attacks and Counter-Attacks

Plant Defense

A plant defense is a trait that increases plant fitness when faced with herbivory. This is measured relative to another plant that lacks the defensive trait. Plant defenses increase survival and/or reproduction (fitness) of plants under pressure of predation from herbivores. Poison ivy produces urushiol to protect the plant from herbivores. ...


Defense can be divided into two main categories, tolerance and resistance. Tolerance is the ability of a plant to withstand damage without a reduction in fitness. This can occur by diverting herbivory to non-essential plant parts or by rapid regrowth and recovery from herbivory. Resistance refers to the ability of a plant to reduce the amount of damage it receives from an herbivore. This can occur via avoidance in space or time[21], physical defenses, or chemical defenses. Defenses can either be constitutive, always present in the plant, or induced, produced or translocated by the plant following damage or stress[22].


Physical, or mechanical, defenses are barriers or structures designed to deter herbivores or reduce intake rates, lowering overall herbivory. Thorns such as those found on roses or acacia trees are one example, as are the spines on a cactus. Smaller hairs known as trichomes may cover leaves or stems and are especially effective against invertebrate herbivores[23]. In addition, some plants have waxes or resins that alter their texture, making them difficult to eat. Finally, some plants sequester silica inside their tissues. These are basically small pieces of glass that wear down the teeth of herbivores. Thorn - a sharp structure or growth on plants Thorn - Icelandic letter, also used in Old English: Þ, þ Thorn - municipality in the Netherlands Thorn, California - town in the United States Thorn, Mississippi - town in the United States Thorn - German name for Toruń, city in Poland Thorn - racehorse that won the... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by bees (beeswax) and used by them in constructing their honeycombs. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ...


Chemical defenses are secondary metabolites produced by the plant that deter herbivory. There are a wide variety of these in nature and a single plant can have hundreds of different chemical defenses. Chemical defenses can be divided into two main groups, carbon-based defenses and nitrogen-based defenses. Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ...


Carbon-based defenses include terpenes and phenolics. Terpenes are derived from 5-carbon isoprene units and comprise essential oils, carotenoids, resins, and latex. They can have a number of functions that disrupt herbivores such as inhibiting adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, molting hormones, or the nervous system[24]. Phenolics combine an aromatic carbon ring with a hydroxyl group. There are a number of different phenolics such as lignins, which are found in cell walls and are very indigestible except for specialized microorgamisms; tannins, which have a bitter taste and bind to proteins making them indigestible; and furanocumerins, which produce free radicals disrupting DNA, protein, and lipids, and can cause skin irritation. Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ...


Nitrogen-based defenses are synthesized from amino acids and primarily come in the form of alkaloids and cyanogens. Alkaloids include commonly recognized substances such as caffeine, nicotine, and morphine. These compounds are often bitter and can inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis or block nervous system signal transmission. Cyanogens get their name from the cyanide stored within their tissues. This is released when the plant is damaged and inhibits cellular respiration and electron transport. An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... This article is about the drug. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Plants have also changed features that enhance the probability of attracting natural enemies to herbivores. Some emit semiochemicals, odors that attract natural enemies, while others provide food and housing to maintain the natural enemies’ presence (eg. ants that reduce herbivory[25]). A given plant species often has many types of defensive mechanisms, mechanical or chemical, constitutive or induced, which additively serve to protect the plant, and allow it to escape from herbivores.


Herbivore Offense

Aphids are fluid feeders on plant sap.

The myriad of defenses displayed by plants means that their herbivores need a variety of techniques to overcome these defenses and obtain food. These allow herbivores to increase their feeding and use of a host plant. Herbivores have three primary strategies for dealing with plant defenses: choice, herbivore modification, and plant modification. Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... Fluid feeders are organisms that feed on the fluids of other animals or even plants. ... Herbivores are dependent on plants for food, and have evolved mechanisms to obtain this food despite plants’ diverse arsenal of defenses. ...


Feeding choice involves which plants an herbivore chooses to consume. It has been suggested that many herbivores feed on a variety of plants to balance their nutrient uptake and to avoid consuming too much of any one type of defensive chemical. This involves a tradeoff however, between foraging on many plant species to avoid toxins or specializing on one type of plant that you can [26].


Herbivore modification is when various adaptations to body or digestive systems of the herbivore allow them to overcome plant defenses. This might include detoxifying secondary metabolites[27], sequestering toxins unaltered[28], or avoiding toxins, such as through the production of large amounts of saliva to reduce effectiveness of defenses. Herbivores may also utilize symbionts to evade plant defenses. For example, some aphids use bacteria in their gut to provide essential amino acids lacking in their sap diet[29].


Plant modification occurs when herbivores manipulate their plant prey to increase feeding. For example, some caterpillars roll leaves to reduce the effectiveness of plant defenses activated by sunlight[30].

The Adaptation Dance

The back and forth relationship of plant defense and herbivore offense can be seen as a sort of “adaptation dance” in which one partner makes a move and the other counters it[27]. This reciprocal change drives coevolution between many plants and herbivores, resulting in what has been referred to as a “coevolutionary arms race”[31]. The escape and radiation mechanisms for coevolution, presents the idea that adaptations in herbivores and their host plants, has been the driving force behind speciation[32][33]. Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...


It is important to remember that while much of the interaction of herbivory and plant defense is negative, with one individual reducing the fitness of the other, some is actually beneficial. This beneficial herbivory takes the form of mutualisms in which both partners benefit in some way from the interaction. Seed dispersal by herbivores and pollination are two forms of mutualistic herbivory in which the herbivore receives a food resource and the plant is aided in reproduction[34]. In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Biological dispersal refers to those processes by which a species maintains or expands the distribution of a population. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete...

Impacts of Herbivores

The impact of herbivory can be seen in many areas ranging from economics to ecological, and sometimes affecting both. For example, environmental degradation from white-tailed deer (Odocoilus virginianus) in the U.S. alone has the potential to both change vegetative communities through over-browsing and cost forest restoration projects upwards of $750 million annually. Agricultural crop damage by the same species totals approximately $100 million every year. Insect crop damages also contribute largely to annual crop losses in the U.S.[35] Another area in which herbivory greatly affects economics is through the revenue generated by recreational uses of herbivorous organisms, such as hunting and ecotourism. For example, the hunting of herbivorous game species such as white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbits, antelope, and elk in the U.S. contributes greatly to the billion-dollar annually hunting industry. Ecotourism is another major source of revenue, particularly in Africa, where many large mammalian herbivores such as elephants, zebras, and giraffes help to bring in the equivalent of millions of US dollars to various nations annually. Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, northern portions of South America as far south as Peru, and... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals. ...

See also

References

  1. ^ Campbell, N. A. (1996) Biology (4th edition) Benjamin Cummings, New York ISBN 0-8053-1957-3
  2. ^ a b c Labandeira, C.C. (1998). "Early History Of Arthropod And Vascular Plant Associations 1". Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Sciences 26 (1): 329–377. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.26.1.329. 
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  4. ^ Labandeira, C.C. (2005). "The four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time" (Free full text). Geologica Acta 4 (4): 409–438. http://www.geologica-acta.com:8080/geoacta/pdf/vol0404a01.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  5. ^ Origin of dental occlusion in tetrapods: signal for terrestrial vertebrate evolution? Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. Volume 306B Issue 3, Pages 261 - 277 Special Issue: Vertebrate Dentitions: Genes, Development and Evolution Published Online: 8 May 2006 Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company Robert R. Reisz * Department of Biology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ont., Canada L5L 1C6
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  35. ^ AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DEER DAMAGE CONTROL Publication No. 809 West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Cooperative Extension Service Wildlife Resources Section West Virginia University Law Enforcement Section Center for Extension and Continuing Education March 1999

Further reading

  • Bob Strauss, 2008, Herbivorous Dinosaurs, The New York Times
  • Danell, K., R. Bergström, P. Duncan, J. Pastor (Editors)(2006) Large herbivore ecology, ecosystem dynamics and conservation Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. 506 p. ISBN 0521830052
  • Crawley, M. J. (1983) Herbivory : the dynamics of animal-plant interactions Oxford : Blackwell Scientific. 437 p. ISBN 0632008083
  • Olff, H., V.K. Brown, R.H. Drent (editors) (1999) Herbivores : between plants and predators Oxford ; Malden, Ma. : Blackwell Science. 639 p. ISBN 0632051558

External links

The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The following are herbivorous animals: Bovids Horses (including all members of the horse family such as domestic horses, donkeys, and zebras) Deer Elephants Some rodents such as guinea pigs, porcupines, beavers, and capybaras Rabbits Grasshoppers Snails and slugs ... The suffix vore comes from the Latin word vorare, meaning to devour, and is used to form nouns indicating what kind of a diet an animal has. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Plant-based diets are diets that are primarily based on plant foods and include very little or no meat. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... Biological dispersal refers to those processes by which a species maintains or expands the distribution of a population. ... Seed predation includes any process inflicted on a plant’s seeds by an animal that results in the inviability of the seed. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... An Anopheles stephensi mosquito obtaining a blood meal from a human host through its pointed proboscis. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... Lepidophagy is a specialised feeding behaviour in fish that involves eating of scales of other fish. ... Mucophagy (literally mucus-eating, also referred to colloquially as picking ones nose and eating it where it refers to the picked mucus and not to the nose) is the consumption of the nasal mucus, boogers, and other detritus obtained from nose-picking. ... Ophiophagy (snake eating) is a specialized form of feeding or alimentary behavior of animals which hunt and eat snakes. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A spongivore is an organism that feeds primarily on animals of the Phylum Porifera, commonly called sea sponges. ... Oophagy (egg eating) is the practice of embryos feeding on eggs produced by the ovary while still inside the mothers uterus. ... Paedophagy literally means the consumption of children. It is a term used to describe the feeding behaviour of fish, or other animals, whose diet is partially, or primarily the eggs or larvae of other animals. ... Mother goat eating placenta Rat eating its offsprings placenta after birth Placentophagy (from placenta + Greek φαγειν, to eat) is the act of mammals eating the placenta of their young after childbirth. ... Suckling redirects here. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... Three Mormon crickets eating a fourth Mormon cricket In zoology, cannibalism is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1500 species (this estimate is from 1981, and likely a gross underestimation). ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Self-cannibalism is the practice of eating oneself, also called autocannibalism,[1] autophagy[2] and autosarcophagy. ... Sexual cannibalism is a special case of cannibalism in which a female organism kills and consumes male of the same species before, during, or after copulation. ... In Zoology, a folivore is an animal that specializes in eating leaves. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ... Red (Common) Crossbill In zoology, a granivore is an animal which selectively eats the nutrient-rich seeds produced by plants, including those of gymnosperms. ... A Broad-tailed Hummingbird feeding on nectar In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which eats the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants. ... Honeybee collecting pollen In zoology, a palynivore is an animal which selectively eats the nutrient-rich pollen produced by flowering plants, including gymnosperms. ... Xylophagy is a term used in biology to describe the habits of an animal whose diet consists primarily (often solely) of wood. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, from the Greek copros (feces) and phagein (eat). ... A dung beetle rolling a ball of dung Detritivores (also known as saprophages, detrivores or detritus feeders) are organisms that recycle detritus (decomposing organic material), returning it into the food chain. ... Geophagy is a practice of eating earthy substances such as clay, chalk, and laundry starch, often to augment a mineral-deficient diet. ... Crows are omnivores. ... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... Trophallaxis is the regurgitation of food by one animal for another. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ... Carnivorous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and digesting animals. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cheating, also known as exploitation, between organisms is a form of parasitism or specialized predation in which an organism engages in what appears to be a mutualistic relationship with another organism, but does not in fact provide any benefit to the other organism. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Herbivore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (415 words)
Herbivores can be further classified into various sub-groups, such as frugivores, which eat mainly fruit; or folivores, which specialize in eating leaves.
The diets of some herbivorous animals vary with the seasons, especially in the temperate zones, where different plant foods are most available at different times of year.
Herbivores form an important link in the food chain as they transform the sun's energy stored in the plants to food that can be consumable by other carnivores up the food chain.
Herbivore - definition of Herbivore in Encyclopedia (219 words)
In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat).
A true herbivore, such as a cow, is unable to chew or digest meat.
Some herbivores can be classified as frugivores, which eat mainly fruit; or folivores, which specialize in eating leaves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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