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Encyclopedia > Henry Every
Henry Every
c. 1653–?

Captain Every escorted by an enslaved man. From an eighteenth century woodcut.
Nickname: The Arch Pirate
Type: Pirate
Place of birth: Flag of England Plymouth, England
Place of death: Bideford, Devon
Allegiance: None
Years of service: 1695 - 1696
Rank: Captain
Base of Operations: Indian Ocean
Commands: Fancy
Pirates and privateers

PiratesPrivateers
BuccaneersCorsairs
Barbary piratesWokou
Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (579 × 702 pixel, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Every, Henry. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , Bideford is a small port town on the estuary of the River Torridge in north Devon, south-west England. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Jan. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ...

Jolly Roger
Golden Age of Piracy
Timeline of piracy
List of pirate films
Places:

Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
Port RoyalTortugaSaint-Malo
LibertatiaBarbary Coast
Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... For other uses, see Tortuga (disambiguation). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...

Famous Pirates and Privateers:

Sir Francis Drake • Sir Henry Morgan
Bartholomew RobertsGrace O'Malley
Blackbeard • Redbeard
Anne BonnyMary Read
Robert Surcouf • René Duguay-Trouin
Stede BonnetJean Bart
François l'OllonaisWilliam Kidd
Calico Jack RackhamHenry Every
List of pirates This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... A flag often attributed to Blackbeard. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre#Students killed in Room 211 Mary Read Mary Read ( 1690–1721) was a female English pirate. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... An illustration of François lOllonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America Jean-David Nau (c. ... William Captain Kidd (c. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

Naval officers:

Robert MaynardCaptain Ogle
William Rhett Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Colonel William Rhett moved to South Carolina in 1698. ...

 v  d  e 

Henry Every or Avery (born c. 1653 in Plymouth, disappeared from record 1696) was a pirate whose aliases included John Avary, Long Ben, and Benjamin Bridgeman. He is most famous for being apparently one of the few major pirate captains to retire with his loot without being arrested or killed in battle. Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Early life

Every was a sailor from youth, serving on various Royal Navy ships. Accounts of uncertain veracity place him aboard the English fleet bombarding Algiers in 1671, buccaneering in the Caribbean Sea, and captaining a logwood freighter. By the early 1690s he had entered the Atlantic slave trade, in which he was known to buy slaves on the West African coast, then seize the slave traders themselves and chain them in his ship's hold alongside their former captives. Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Events and Trends Thomas Neale designed Seven Dials The Salem Witchcraft Trials are held in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1692). ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Slave redirects here. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


==Piratical care Every only made one voyage in his capacity as a pirate captain. But in that single journey he succeeded in committing, as Fraser puts it, "the single richest crime in history."


Mutiny and ascension to captaincy

In the spring of 1994, Every was serving as first mate aboard the 46-gun privateer Charles II, under a Captain Gibson, then anchored at La Coruña, Spain. Every and a few fellow conspirators succeeded in a well-planned mutiny and set Captain Gibson ashore. Then, he renamed the ship the Fancy and sailed for the Cape of Good Hope. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Mate (C/M) or Chief Officer is a licensed member and head of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... Firing of a 18-pounder aboard of French ship During the Age of Sail, when large, sail-powered wooden naval warships dominated the high seas (roughly: 1571-1863), these warships mounted a bewildering variety of different types and sizes of cannons as their main armament. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name A Coruña (Galician) Spanish name La Coruña Postal code 15xxx Area code 34 (Spain) + 981 (A Coruña) Website http://www. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ...


At the Cape Verde islands, Every committed his first piracy, robbing three English merchantmen. He proceeded next around the Cape of Good Hope to the island of Johanna in the Comoro Islands. Here he had the Fancy careened and razeed her, cutting away some of her superstructure to improve her speed. With this modification, the Fancy became one of the fastest ships then sailing in the Indian Ocean. Every promptly exploited his new speed advantage to capture a passing French pirate ship, looting the vessel and recruiting some forty of the crew to join his own company. His total strength was now possibly 150 men. Map of Anjouan Anjouan (also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani) is an island in the Comoros. ... Categories: Comoros archipelago | Stub ... The careening of a sailing vessel is laying her up on a calm beach at high tide in order to expose one side or another of the ships hull for maintenance below the water line when the tide goes out. ... A razee is a sailing ship that has been cut down (razeed) to one with fewer decks. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ...


From Johanna, Every wrote a letter addressed to the English ship commanders in the Indian Ocean, falsely stating that he had not attacked any English ships, describing a signal English skippers could use to identify themselves so he could avoid them, and warning them that he might not be able to restrain his crew from plundering their ships if they failed to use the signal.


Taking the talllyyy and Ganj-I-Sawai

In August, 1694, Eve This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ...


Headline text

ry and the Fancy reached the Mandab Strait, where he teamed up with four other pirate ships, including Thomas Tew's sloop Amity. Although a 25-ship Mughal convoy bound for India eluded the pirate fleet during the night, the following day they encountered the greatest ship in Aurangzeb's fleet, the Ganj-I-Sawai, and its escort Fateh Muhammed, both passing the straits en route to Surat. The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic for the gate of tears) is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Somalia on the Horn of Africa), connecting the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden). ... The flag of Thomas Tew Thomas Tew aka the Rhode Island Pirate. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Every and his men attacked the Fateh Muhammed, which had earlier repulsed an attack by the Amity, killing Captain Tew. Perhaps intimidated by the Fancy's 46 guns or weakened by their earlier battle with Tew, the Fateh Muhammed's crew put up little resistance, and Every's pirates sacked the ship for £50,000 worth of treasure.


Every now sailed in pursuit of the Ganj-I-Sawai, overtaking her about eight days out of Surat. The Ganj-I-Sawai was a fearsome opponent, mounting 62 guns and a musket-armed guard of four to five hundred, as well as six hundred other passengers. But the opening volley evened the odds, as one of the Indian ship's cannons exploded, killing three or four gunners and causing great confusion and demoralization among the crew, while Every's broadside shot his enemy's mainmast by the board. The Fancy drew alongside the Ganj-I-Sawai and the pirates clambered aboard. USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ...

A contemporary depiction of Every, with the Fancy engaging his prey in the background.

A ferocious hand-to-hand battle ensued, in which Every's outnumbered crew lost 20 men. However, the superior Indian force was let down by its leader, Ibrahim Khan, who rushed below and hid among his concubines. After two hours of fierce but leaderless resistance, the Indians surrendered. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (618 × 749 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This print dates to the 18th century. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (618 × 749 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This print dates to the 18th century. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ...


The victorious pirates then subjected their captives to several days of horror, raping and murdering prisoners at will, and using torture to force them to reveal the location of the ships' treasure. Some of the Muslim women committed suicide to avoid violation or humiliation. Those women who did not kill themselves or die from the pirates' brutality were taken aboard the Fancy. The other survivors were left aboard their ships, which the pirates set free. Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The loot from the Ganj-I-Sawai totalled between £325,000 and £600,000, including 500,000 gold and silver pieces. Every and the surviving pirate captains set sail for Réunion, where they shared out £1,000 and some gemstones to every man in the crew. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For the Gemstone as a mineral see Gemstone. ...


Return and disappearance

Every and the Fancy parted from their allies at Réunion. They set course, after some dissension, for Nassau in the Bahamas. Every took on 90 slaves on the way. At São Tomé he stopped to take on supplies, defrauding the Portuguese sellers. The Fancy's next stop was St. Thomas. where the pirates sold some of their booty. Finally they reached Nassau, where they bribed Governor Nicholas Trott to give them refuge. For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... São Tomé (population 53,300 in 2003) is the capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nations largest town. ... Saint Thomas is an island in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), a United States territory, in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Unable to buy a pardon from Trott or from the governor of Jamaica, Every's crew split up, some heading to North America, while the majority, including Every, returned to Britain aboard the sloop Isaac, landing in Ireland. The female prisoners were not aboard, and it is unknown whether they escaped, were released, or were murdered. Although 24 of his men were caught, many soon after disembarking. Every was never seen again. His last words to his men were a litany of conflicting stories of where he planned to go, doubtless intended to throw pursuers off his trail. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


In 1967, while rebuilding a temple dedicated to their god of sea at a fishermen's settlement opposite Fort Colaba (near Alibaug 100 km south of Mumbai on Arabian sea coast) a plaque was found inscribed "Henry Every -County Donegal, Ireland-Death 1699" written in Indian vernacular language Modi or 17 th centuary Marathi dialect. Unfortunately, the same settlement was destroyed and was rebuilt a number of times by natural forces, Siddis or in Civil wars between Angrey brothers as well as punitive action taken jointly by East India Co.with the help from the Prime Minister of the Maratha confederacy Peshwa. It canot be determined whether the significance of the stone plaque (which is available in the Mumbai museum) whether it is a grave stone or a memorial stone where Henry Every was cremated. Marratha naval history acknowledges the services of Europeean (French, Irish, Portuguese, Dutch and English,) buccaneers from or Africaan, Arab pirates as well as Persian, Gujarati, Jew, Malabari sailors had been hired to modernise Marratta navy. These freebooters served in Marratta navy giving training to maratha sailors, manufacture of ships, procuring Cannons, muskets or ammunition from Europe.Nor it can be confirmed that this is same famous Henry Every or his namesake.Still 50 years name Henry & Every was a popular name in Alibaug fishermen community though most of them practice Hindu religion.[Author Charles Johnson suggested that Every died poor in Devon, after being cheated out of his wealth by merchants. It is unclear how Johnson could have discovered this. Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Legacy

The plunder of Aurangzeb's treasure ship had serious consequences for the British East India Company. The furious Mughal emperor closed four of the company's factories in India and imprisoned their officers, blaming them for their countryman's robberies and murders. To appease Aurangzeb, Parliament exempted Every from all of the several pardons and amnesties it would subsequently issue to pirates. It was partly the hope of catching Every that motivated several of England's most powerful Whigs to commission Captain William Kidd to hunt down pirates in the Indian Ocean. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... William Captain Kidd (c. ...


Every's life inspired a number of accounts including the The Life and Adventures of Captain John Avery (c. 1709); a 1712 play, The Successful Pyrate by Charles Johnson; and a 1724 book by Daniel Defoe, The king of the pirates, being an account of the famous enterprises of Captain Avary. His career inspired, very loosely, that of Captain Ben Avery, the hero of George MacDonald Fraser's 1983 spoof novel The Pyrates. // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... The Successful Pyrate is a play by Charles Johnson, first performed 1712, published 1713, dealing with the life of the pirate Henry Avery. ... Charles Johnson (1679 – March 11, 1748) was an English playwright, tavern keeper, and enemy of Alexander Popes. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was an English writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... George MacDonald Fraser, OBE (born 2 April 1926 in Carlisle) is a British author of both historical novels and non-fiction books. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


Every's flag

Popular version of Every's Jolly Roger.
Popular version of Every's Jolly Roger.

According to contemporary observers, Henry Every's pirate flag was red with four silver chevrons. Although red was a popular color for pirate flags of the time, the meaning of the four chevrons is not obvious. Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Henry_Every. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Henry_Every. ... A chevron (also spelled cheveron, especially in older documents) is a V-shaped pattern. ...


At some point long after Every's disappearance, another flag was ascribed to him: a white skull in profile wearing a kerchief and an earring, above a saltire of two white crossed bones, on a black field (see image at right). The original source in which this flag first appears is not known. If the flag is genuine, it contradicts the generally accepted belief that Emanuel Wynn was the first pirate to use the skull and crossbones motif, in the year 1700. For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The arms of St Albans: Azure, a saltire Or (a gold saltire on a blue field) For The Saltire (proper noun) see Flag of Scotland. ... Emanuel Wynns flag Emanuel Wynn (or Emanuel Wynne) was a French pirate of the 1700s, and was the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ...


References

  • David Cordingly, ‘Avery, Henry (bap. 1659, d. 1696?)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
  • The Pyrates, George MacDonald Fraser, William Collins & Sons, 1983, ISBN 0-330-28390-1
  • J. Franklin Jameson, Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period: Illustrative Documents, New York: A.M. Kelley, 1923.
  • Douglas Botting, The Pirates, Time-Life Books, 1978.

 
 

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