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Encyclopedia > Hematopathology

Hematopathology is the branch of pathology which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells (see below). A hematopathologist looks at peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirates and biopsies, lymph nodes, and other tissues, and uses his/her expertise to diagnose diseases such as lymphomas and leukemias. The hematopathologist uses traditional microscopy to look at the specimen, but also relies on laboratory values, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic tests to make the most accurate diagnosis. The hematopathologist works closely with the hematologist/oncologist specialty doctor who sees the patient and decides on the best treatment based upon the diagnosis. Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ... In biology, specimen is an individual animal or a plant or a microorganism that is used as a representative to study the properties of the whole population of that species. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but... A physician specialising in the treatment of blood diseases. ... Please refer to cancer for the biology of malignant disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... Pediatric polysomnography patient Childrens Hospital (Saint Louis), 2006 A patient or invalid is any person who receives medical attention, care, or treatment. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but...


Diseases of Hematopoietic Cells

The major disease of hematopoietic cells fall into several categories, which include chronic myeloproliferative disease, myelodysplastic syndromes, leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell neoplasms, and histiocytic and mast cell neoplasms. Hematopathologists from all over the world have agreed on a standard classification system, called the "WHO classification".[1] Leukemias are mainly bone marrow and blood based and can be subclassified as chronic leukemia and acute leukemia. Chronic leukemia is the proliferation of too many mature blood cells, and is called that because it is a chronic process clinically. Examples are chronic myelogenous leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Acute leukemia is the proliferation of too many immature blood cells, called myeloblasts, which have lost the ability to become mature cells. This is usually a very aggressive disease if untreated. Fortunately, treatment of both types of leukemia has improved greatly over the past few decades. Lymphomas are diseases that are mainly based in lymph nodes. Hematopathologists have named different lymphomas after the type of lymphocyte that has become malignant. Thus there are B cell lymphomas, T cell lymphomas, and NK cell lymphomas. The hematopathologist uses immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, techniques using antibodies to specific lymphocyte surface markers, to determine the type of lymphoma in the pathology specimen. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Multiple myeloma (also known as MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahlers disease after Otto Kahler) is a type of cancer of plasma cells which are immune system cells in bone marrow that produce antibodies. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Chronic leukemia may refer to: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Hairy cell leukemia Category: ... Acute leukemia may refer to: Acute myelogenous leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Chronic leukemia may refer to: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Hairy cell leukemia Category: ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease which has developed slowly or gradually. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (or chronic lymphoid leukemia), known for short as CLL, is a type of leukemia in which too many lymphocytes are produced. ... Acute leukemia may refer to: Acute myelogenous leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Myeloblasts or blasts are new, immature blood cells developed in the bone marrow that are the precursors of myelocytes. ... It has been suggested that Refractory disease be merged into this article or section. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Natural killer cells (NK) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of nonspecific immune defense. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... In biology, specimen is an individual animal or a plant or a microorganism that is used as a representative to study the properties of the whole population of that species. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Jaffe, ES, Harris, NL, Stein, H., and Vardiman, JW, eds. Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, World Health Organization Classification of Tumors Series. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001.

External links

  • Society for Hematopathology

 
 

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