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Encyclopedia > Hellenistic Egypt
This article is part of the
History of Egypt series.
Ancient Egypt
Persian (Achaemenid) Egypt
Greek and Roman Egypt
Early Arab Egypt
Ottoman Egypt
Muhammad Ali and his successors
Modern Egypt
List of Egyptians

The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. After 300 years of rule by the Macedonian Ptolemies, Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BC, and was ruled first from Rome and then from Constantinople until the Persian and Arab conquests in 616 and 639 respectively. Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... General context: Ancient Egypt. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... From the initial Islamic invasion in 639 CE Egypt became part of the Arab world. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe. ... The History of Modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ... The following is a list of Egyptians: See also: List of Ancient Egyptians // Actors and actresses Adel Adham عادل أدهم Adel Imam عادل إمام Ahmed El Sakka أحمد السقا Ahmad Zaki أحمد زكي Amina Rizq أمينة رزق Anwar Wagdi أنور وجدي Farid Shawki فريد شوقى Faten Hamama فاتن حمامة Foad AlMohandess فؤاد المهندس Hanan Tork حنان ترك Hany Ramzy هاني رمزي Hend Rostom هند رستم Hisham Selim هشام سليم Hussein Fahmy حسين فهمي Ismail Yasin إسماعيل ياسين Laila Elwy ليلي علوي Laila... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Aléxandros ho Mégas) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ...

Contents


Alexander the Great

Dynasties of Pharaohs
in Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)
Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
15th 16th 17th
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Late Period
26th 27th 28th
29th 30th 31st
Græco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Roman
[edit this template]

In 332 BC Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, conquered Egypt, with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. He visited Memphis, and went on pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. He conciliated the Egyptians by the respect which he showed for their religion, but he appointed Greeks to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the ruling nomarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt. Pharaoh (Arabic فرعون ) (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה ); is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Ancient Egypt was an African civilization located along the Lower Nile, reaching from the Nile Delta in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal at the time of its greatest extension (15th century BC). ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is the period that culminates in the rise of the Old Kingdom and the first of the thirty dynasties based on royal residences, by which Egyptologists divide the history of pharaonic civilization using a schedule laid out first by Manethos... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... History of Egypt Third Dynasty While Manetho names one Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka, as the first pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, some contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... This article has recently been written with incorrect information that actually corresponds with the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt ... The last shadowy pharaohs of the Old Kingdom period, probably having a very limited nominal authority in and around the capital of Memphis, Egypt, the real power now in the hands of the nobility (nomarchs). ... The Ninth Dynasty was founded at Hereklepolis by Meryibra, and the Tenth Dynasty continued there. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Thebes [Θηβαι ThÄ“bai] is the Greek designation of ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the Nile (25. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC. The Eleventh Dynasty The Middle Kingdom has been usually dated to the time when Pharaoh Mentuhotep... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... Unlike as explained as being chaos and disorder by later texts, the Thriteenth dynasty wasnt as bad as once thought. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruling from Itjtawy, without control of the entire land. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twentieth Dynasty. ... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... These rulers are known in the History of Egypt, as the Twenty-Third Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest, and had its capital was Sais. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of... Nefaarud I, or Nepherites, founded the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Aléxandros ho Mégas) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of... Memphis was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi I... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, Africa, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan desert. ... This article needs to be updated. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC - 331 BC - 330 BC 329 BC... Cleomenes (in Greek Kλεoμενης; died 322 BC), a Greek of Naucratis in Egypt, was appointed by Alexander the Great as nomarch of the Arabian district (νoμoÏ‚) of Egypt and receiver of the tributes from all the districts of Egypt and the neighbouring part of Africa (331 BC). ... A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ...


Ptolemaic Egypt

Ptolemy I, King of Egypt
Ptolemy I, King of Egypt

Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon, and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV of Macedon, who had not been born at the time of his father's death. Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy (Greek: Πτολεμαίος), son of Lagus (Greek: Λάγος), one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. However, as Alexander the Great's empire disintegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself as ruler in his own right. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccus in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322 BC-301 BC). In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years. Ptolemy I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ptolemy I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... , Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... In general, the word Diadochi means successors in Greek, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Perdiccas (d. ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ... Alexander IV Aegus (in Greek Aλεξανδρος Aιγος; 323–309 BC was the posthumous son of Alexander the Great by his wife Roxana, a princess of Bactria. ... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was a Macedonian Greek who became the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Lagus (in Greek ΛαγoÏ‚; lived 4th century BC) was the father, or reputed father, of Ptolemy, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... In general, the word Diadochi means successors in Greek, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Greek royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared...


All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name "Ptolemy", while princesses and queens preferred the names Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, Of Glorious Ancestry) and Berenice (Greek: Βερενίκη, the Macedonian form of Pherenike, the Bringer of Victory). Because the Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of marrying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra V did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Berenice III (120-80 BC), sometimes called Cleopatra Berenice, ruled as queen of Egypt from 81-80 BC, and possibly from 101-88 BC jointly with her uncle/husband Ptolemy X Alexander. ... Berenice IV, daughter of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and probably Cleopatra V of Egypt Tryphaena, sister of Cleopatra VI of Egypt Tryphaena, the famous Cleopatra VII (loved by Julius Caesar and Mark Antony). ... Cleopatra V of Egypt is the mother of Cleopatra VII, by her husband Ptolemy XII, and is possibly the mother of Cleopatra VI of Egypt and Berenice IV. External link Genealogy of Ptolemaic Dynasty Categories: Stub | Pharaohs ... Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator (December, 70 BC or January, 69 BC–August 12?, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt. ... Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (lived 62 BCE/61 BCE–January 13, 47 BCE?, reigned from 51 BCE) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Ptolemy XIV (lived 60 BC/59 BC - 44 BC, reigned 47 BC - 44 BC), a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Ptolemy XV Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC) was the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ...


The early Ptolemies were wiser rulers than the Persians had been. They did not disturb the religion or customs of the Egyptians, and indeed built magnificent new temples for the Egyptian gods and soon adopted the outward display of the Pharaohs of old. During the reign of Ptolemies II and III thousands of Macedonian and Greek veterans were rewarded with grants of farm lands, and Greeks were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled themselves in the villages throughout the country. Upper Egypt, farthest from the centre of government, was less immediately affected, though Ptolemy I established the Greek colony of Ptolemais Hermiou to be its capital, but within a century Greek influence had spread through the country and intermarriage had produced a large Greco-Egyptian educated class. Nevertheless, the Greeks always remained a privileged minority in Ptolemaic Egypt. They lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities, just as they had been in Greece. The Egyptians were rarely admitted to the higher levels of Greek culture, in which most Egyptians were not in any case interested.


Ptolemy I

The first part of Ptolemy I's reign was dominated by the Wars of the Diadochi between the various successor states to the empire of Alexander. His first object was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. Within a few years he had gained control of Libya, Coele-Syria (with Judea), and Cyprus. When Antigonus, ruler of Syria, tried to reunite Alexander's empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. In 312 BC, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza. The word Diadochi means successors in Greek. ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... Coele-Syria, meaning hollow Syria, was the region of southern Syria disputed between the Seleucid dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and... Antigonus was the name of several Macedonian kings of the Antigonid dynasty that succeeded Alexander the Great. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC _ 312 BC _ 311 BC... Seleucus was the name of several Macedonian kings of the Seleucid dynasty ruling in the area of Syria. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... A number of notables in classical antiquity are named Demetrius: Demetrius, a writer of Old Comedy ca. ... Gaza City (alternatively, simply Gaza; Arabic غزة Ġazzah; Hebrew עזה Azza). ...


In 311 BC a peace was concluded between the combatants, but in 309 BC war broke out again, and Ptolemy occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus after a sea-battle in 306 BC. Antigonus then tried to invade Egypt but Ptolemy held the frontier against him. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, and when Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus in 301 BC Ptolemy secured Palestine in the resulting settlement. Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306... Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC Cassander becomes King of... The battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the successors of Alexander the Great in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292...


Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy abdicated in 285 BC in favour of one of his younger sons by Queen Berenice. He devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander, which is unfortunately lost but was the principal source for the later work of Arrian. Ptolemy I died in 283 BC at the age of 84. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his son. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282... Head of Ptolemy I and Berenice I Berenice I, daughter of Lagus, was first the wife of Philip, an obscure Macedonian nobleman, with whom she gave birth to the future Magas of Cyrene. ... Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c 92-c 175), known in English as Arrian, was a Roman historian. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280...


Ptolemy II

Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who succeeded his father as King of Egypt in 283 BC, was a peaceable and cultured king, and no great warrior. He did not need to be, because his father had left Egypt strong and prosperous. Three years of campaigning at the start of his reign left Ptolemy the master of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands and the coastal districts of Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Aegean Sea. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) was a region, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Lycia is a region on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Location of Caria Caria (Greek Καρία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a region of Asia Minor, situated south of Ionia, and west of Phrygia and Lycia. ...


Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children. After her repudiation he followed Egypytian custom and married his sister, Arsinoë II, beginning a practice which, while pleasing to the Egyptian population, was to have serious consequences in later reigns. The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Callimachus, keeper of the Library of Alexandria, Theocritus and a host of other poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronise scientific research. He spent lavishly on making Alexandria the economic, artistic and intellectual capital of the Greek world. It is to the academies and libraries of Alexandria that we owe the preservation of so much of the literary heritage of Ancient Greece. Arsinoe I (305/295-?) was queen of Egypt 284/1-ca. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoe II ( 316-270 BC). ... Callimachus (ca. ... This article or section contains inappropriate citations. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ...


Ptolemy III

Ptolemy III Euergetes ("the benefactor") succeeded his father in 246 BC. He abandoned his predecessors' policy of keeping out of the wars of the other Greek kingdoms, and plunged into a war with the Seleucids of Syria, when his sister, Queen Berenice, and her son were murdered in a dynastic dispute. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far at any rate as Babylonia, while his fleets in the Aegean made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace. Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, Thrákē, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ...


This victory marked the zenith of the Ptolemaic power. Seleucus II Callinicus kept his throne, but Egyptian fleets controlled most of the coasts of Asia Minor and Greece. After this triumph Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in war, although he supported the enemies of Macedon in Greek politics. His domestic policy differed from his father's in that he patronised the native Egyptian religion more liberally: he has left larger traces at any rate among the Egyptian monuments. In this his reign marks the gradual "Egyptianisation" of the Ptolemies. Coin of Seleucus II. Reverse shows Apollo leaning on a tripod. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


The decline of the Ptolemies

In 221 BC Ptolemy III died and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy IV Philopater, a weak and corrupt king under whom the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the influence of favourites, male and female, who controlled the government. Nevertheless his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. A sign of the domestic weakness of his reign was rebellions by the native Egyptians. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. He married his sister Arsinoë, but was ruled by his mistress Agathoclea. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ... Antiochus III the Great, (c. ... The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle of the Syrian Wars between Ptolemy IV of Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Arsinoe III (246 BC or 245 BC - 204 BC) was Queen of Egypt (220 - 204 BC). ...


Ptolemy V Epiphanes, son of Philopator and Arsinoë, was a child when he came to the throne, and a series of regents ran the kingdom. Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedon made a compact to seize the Ptolemaic possessions. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 198 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Egypt to Syria. After this defeat Egypt formed an alliance with the rising power in the Mediterranean, Rome. Once he reached adulthood Epiphanes became a tyrant, before his early death in 180 BC. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204-181 BCE), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was not more than five years old when he came to the throne, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralysed. ... Coin of Philip V of Macedon (r. ... Location of Caria Caria (Greek Καρία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a region of Asia Minor, situated south of Ionia, and west of Phrygia and Lycia. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... The Battle of Panium was fought in 198 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC - 198 BC - 197 BC 196 BC... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC - 180 BC - 179 BC 178 BC... Ptolemy VI (c. ...


In 170 BC Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt and deposed Philometor, and his younger brother (later Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) was installed as a puppet king. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra II. They soon fell out, however, and quarrels between the two brothers allowed Rome to interfere and to steadily increase its influence in Egypt. Eventually Philometor regained the throne. In 145 BC he was killed in the battle of Oenoparas near Antioch. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 160s BC 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC Years: 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC - 170 BC - 169 BC 168 BC 167... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Ptolemaios VIII Euergetes II) (c. ... Cleopatra II (c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The later Ptolemies

Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son Ptolemy VII Neos Philopater. But Euergetes soon returned, killed his young nephew, seized the throne and as Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. On his death in 116 BC he left the kingdom to his wife Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II. The young king was driven out by his mother in 107 BC, who reigned jointly with Euergetes's younger brother Ptolemy X Alexander. In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. He was succeeded by Ptolemy XI Alexander II, the son of Ptolemy X. He was lynched by the Alexandria mob after murdering his mother. These sordid dynastic quarrels left Egypt so weakened that the country became a de facto protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most of the Greek world. Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 121 BC 120 BC 119 BC 118 BC 117 BC - 116 BC - 115 BC 114 BC... Cleopatra III (161-101 BC) was Queen of Egypt 142-101 BC. She was born in 161 BC to Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II of Egypt. ... Ptolemy IX (Ptolemy Soter II) was king of Egypt three times, from 116 BC to 110 BC, 109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 80 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC - 107 BC - 106 BC 105 BC... Ptolemy X Alexander I was king of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC. He was the son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III of Egypt. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Ptolemy XI Alexander II was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty who ruled Egypt for a few days in 80 BC. Ptolemy IX Lathryos died in 81 or 80, leaving no legitimate heir, and so Cleopatra Bernice ruled alone for a time. ...

Cleopatra VII, last Queen of Egypt
Cleopatra VII, last Queen of Egypt

Ptolemy XI was succeeded by a son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos, nicknamed Auletes, the flute-player. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus. In 58 BC Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the Romans restored him to power three years later. He died in 51 BC, leaving the kingdom to his ten-year-old son, Ptolemy XIII, who reigned jointly with his 17-year-old sister and wife, Cleopatra VII. Cleopatra Information about this image, please? Presumed fair use for article about Cleopatra VII of Egypt This work is copyrighted. ... Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) (117 BCE - 51 BCE) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (lived 62 BCE/61 BCE–January 13, 47 BCE?, reigned from 51 BCE) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Cleopatra VII Philopator (January 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC,Greek:Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ) was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and hence the last Hellenistic ruler of Egypt. ...


During Cleopatra's reign Egyptian history merged with the general history of the Roman world, owing to the murder of Pompey in Egypt in 48 BC and the appearance in the country of Julius Caesar in 47 BC. In the wars of that period the young king perished and his younger brother, Ptolemy XIV Philopator, was nominally king with Cleopatra till 44 BC, when she had him murdered. From then till her death in 30 BC, Cleopatra's nominal co-ruler was her infant son by Caesar, Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, known as Caesarion. Cleopatra then made her last, and ultimately fatal, alliance with Mark Antony, and when he was defeated by Octavian, she killed herself. Marble bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (IPA: Classical Latin: IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS1) (July 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC... Ptolemy XIV (lived 60 BC/59 BC - 44 BC, reigned 47 BC - 44 BC), a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Ptolemy XV Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC) was the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 BC to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC), the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, believed to be the son... For his relatives and other people with similar names, see Marcus Antonius (disambiguation). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ...


Roman Egypt

In 30 BC, following the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became part of the Roman Empire as the province Aegyptus, governed by a prefect selected by the Emperor from the Equestrian and not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent interference by the Roman Senate. The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. To this end the Roman administration made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, although Romans replaced Greeks in the highest offices. But Greeks continued to staff most of the administrative offices and Greek remained the language of government except at the highest levels. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans did not settle in Egypt in large numbers. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Categories: Ancient Roman provinces | Egyptian history | Africa geography stubs ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Roman Era Mummies
Roman Era Mummies

In his lifetime Strabo made extensive travels to among others Egypt and Ethiopia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1335x1000, 1076 KB) Summary Journalist-Photographer waives rights Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1335x1000, 1076 KB) Summary Journalist-Photographer waives rights Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ...


Roman rule in Egypt

The first prefect of Egypt, Gaius Cornelius Gallus, brought Upper Egypt under Roman control by force of arms, established a protectorate over the southern frontier district, which had been abandoned by the later Ptolemies. The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia: the Red Sea coast of Egypt was not brought under Roman control until the reign of Claudius. The third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Gaius Cornelius Gallus (69 BC – 24 BC), was the first prefect of Roman Egypt. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...

Aegyptus as a Roman province, 120 AD
Enlarge
Aegyptus as a Roman province, 120 AD

From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Roman province of Aegyptus. ... Roman province of Aegyptus. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after AD 120. ... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37–June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... Marble statue of Trajan at Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana) Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... A bust of Hadrian. ... Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome Antinous or Antinoos (Greek: Αντινοος, born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the province of Bithynia in what is now north-west Turkey. ...


Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting. This Bucolic War caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Egypt's economic decline. Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, declared himself Emperor, and was acknowledged by the armies of Syria and Egypt. On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, however, he was deposed and killed, and the clemency of the emperor restored peace. A similar revolt broke out in 193, when Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a constitution to Alexandria and the provincial capitals in 202. Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... Gaius Avidius Cassius (ca. ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Pescennius Niger as emperor. ... Pertinax (Archaeological museum, Antakya) Publius Helvius Pertinax (August 1, 126 - March 28, 193) was proclaimed Roman Emperor the morning following the assassination of Commodus on December 31, AD 192. ... Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146-February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ...


The most revolutionary event in the history of Roman Egypt was the introduction of Christianity in the 2nd century. It was at first vigorously persecuted by the Roman authorities, who feared religious discord more than anything else in a country where religion had always been paramount. But it soon gained adherents among the Jews of Alexandria. From them it rapidly passed to the Greeks, and then to the native Egyptians, who found its promise of personal salvation and its teachings of social equality appealing. The ancient religion of Egypt put up surprisingly little resistance to the spread of Christianity. Possibly its long history of collaboration with the Greek and Roman rulers of Egypt had robbed it of its authority. Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ...

Earliest known use of cross symbol by Christians. Fayaom, Egypt 250 C.E.
Earliest known use of cross symbol by Christians. Fayaom, Egypt 250 C.E.

Caracalla (211-217) granted Roman citizenship to all Egyptians, in common with the other provincials, but this was mainly to extort more taxes, which grew increasingly onerous as the needs of the Emperors for more revenue grew more desperate. There was a series of revolts, both military and civilian, through the 3rd century. Under Decius, in 250, the Christians again suffered from persecution, but their religion continued to spread. In 272 Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, briefly conquered Egypt, but lost it when Aurelian crushed her rebellion against Rome. Two generals based in Egypt, Probus and Domitius Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves Emperor. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domitius in 296 and reorganised the whole province. His edict of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecution. But this was the last serious attempt to stem the steady growth of Christianity in Egypt. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (475x720, 131 KB)This is one of the best examples of the Egyptian origin of the cross as a symbol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (475x720, 131 KB)This is one of the best examples of the Egyptian origin of the cross as a symbol. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 186–April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD 211–217. ... This article is about the year 211. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... Bust of Decius. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Zenobia coin reporting her title, Augusta. ... Palmyra was the name of an ancient city in Syria, now called Tadmor. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This antoninianus minted under Probus (c. ... Emperor Diocletian. ... Events Galerius conquers Ctesiphon on the Persians; in the following peace settlement he returns it in exchange of Armenia Pope Marcellinus I succeeds Pope Caius Allectus, sucessor by assassination to Britain, is defeated by Constantius Chlorus and Britain is returned to the Roman Empire Births Deaths Pope Caius Categories: 296... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ...


Christian Egypt

For the survival into modern times of Christianity in Egypt, see Coptic Christianity.

Egyptian Christians believe that the Patriarchate of Alexandria was founded by Mark the Evangelist around AD 33, but little is known about how Christianity entered Egypt. The historian Helmut Koester has suggested, with some evidence, that originally the Christians in Egypt were predominantly influenced by gnosticism until the efforts of Demetrius of Alexandria gradually brought the beliefs of the majority into harmony with the rest of Christianity. While the collective embarrassment over their heretical origins would explain the lack of details for the first centuries of Christianity in Egypt, there are too many gaps in the history of Roman times to claim that our ignorance in this situation is a special case. Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Mark the Evangelist (Markus) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... Events The following Christian chronology uses traditional dates set by biblical scholars; 30 and 28 are also suggested as a date for the Messianic events. ... Helmut Koester (1926 - ) is a German-born American scholar of the New Testament, and currently Research Professor of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Demetrius was Patriarch of Alexandria (189 - 232). ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


Nevertheless, by AD 200 it is clear that Alexandria was one of the great Christian centres. The Christian apologists Clement of Alexandria and Origen both lived part or all of their lives in that city, where they wrote, taught, and debated. Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Origen (ca. ...


With the Edict of Milan in 312, Constantine the Great ended the persecution of Christians, and in 324 he made Christianity the religion of the Empire. Over the course of the 4th century, paganism gradually lost its following, as the poet Palladius bitterly noted. It lingered underground for many decades: the final edict against paganism was issued in 390, but graffiti at Philae in Upper Egypt proves worship of Isis persisted at its temples into the 5th century. Many Egyptian Jews also became Christians, but many others refused to do so, leaving them as the only sizeable religious minority in a Christian country. They became the object of bitter hostility, and this may be seen as the beginning of anti-Semitism in the modern sense of the word. The Edict of Milan (AD 313) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution, especially of Christianity. ... Events October 28 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine defeats Maxentius in the fight to become emperor of Rome. ... Constantine. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Palladius (fl. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Isis in literature be merged into this article or section. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


No sooner had the Egyptian Church achieved freedom and supremacy, however, than it became subject to schism and prolonged conflict which at times descended into civil war. Alexandria became the centre of the first great split in the Christian world, between the Arians, named for the Alexandrian priest Arius, and orthodoxy, represented by Athanasius, who became Archbishop of Alexandria in 326 after the First Council of Nicaea rejected Arius's views. The Arian controversy caused years of riots and rebellions throughout most of the fourth century. In the course of one of these, the great temple of Serapis, the stronghold of paganism, was destroyed. Athanasius was alternately expelled from Alexandria and reinstated as its Archbishop between five and seven times. The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. ... Arius (AD 256 - 336, poss. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in AD 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ...


It was never easy to impose religious orthodoxy on Egypt, a country with an ancient tradition of religious speculation. Not only did Arianism flourish there, but other heresies, such as Gnosticism and Manichaeism, either native or imported, found many followers. Another religious development in Egypt was the monasticism of the Desert Fathers, who renounced the material world in order to live a life of poverty in devotion to the Church. Egyptian Christians took up monasticism with such enthusiasm that the Emperor Valens had to restrict the number of men who could become monks. Egypt exported monasticism to the rest of the Christian world. Another development of this period was the mutation of the Ancient Egyptian language into Coptic, which became the liturgical language of Egyptian Christianity and remains so to this day. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Coptic is the last phase of ancient Egyptian. ...


Byzantine Egypt

The reign of Constantine also saw the founding of Constantinople as a new capital for the Roman Empire, and in the course of the 4th century the Empire was divided in two, with Egypt finding itself in the Eastern Empire with its capital at Constantinople. This meant that within a few years Latin, never well established in Egypt, disappeared, and Greek reasserted itself as the language of government. During the 5th and 6th centuries the Eastern Roman Empire gradually became the Byzantine Empire, a Christian, Greek-speaking state that had little in common with the old Empire of Rome, which disappeared in the face of the barbarian invasions in the 5th century. Another consequence of the triumph of Christianity was the final demise of the old Egyptian culture: with the disappearance of the pagan priesthood, no-one could read the hieroglyphics of Pharaonic Egypt, and its temples were converted to churches or abandoned to the desert. Map of Constantinople. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ...


The Eastern Empire became increasingly "oriental" in style as its links with the old Græco-Roman world faded. The Greek system of local government by citizens had now entirely disappeared. Offices, with new Byzantine names, were almost hereditary in the wealthy land-owning families. The rule of the Church in alliance with the State grew more oppressive. But Alexandria, the second city of the Empire, continued to be a centre of religious controversy and violence. Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria, convinced the city's governor to expel the Jews from the city in 415 with the aid of the mob, in response to the Jews' nighttime massacre of many Christians. The murder of the philosopher Hypatia marked the final end of classical Hellenic culture in Egypt. Another schism in the Church produced a prolonged civil war and alienated Egypt from the Empire. Cyril I (376 – June 27, 444), surnamed The Pillar of Faith, was Pope of Alexandria. ... The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Hypatia could refer to: Hypatia of Alexandria (?370–415), a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher. ...


The new religious controversy was over the nature of the Trinity. The majority of the Christian world supported the orthodox view that God is three persons in one (Father, Son and Holy Spirit), and that Jesus was therefore of the same nature as God. But Egypt was a stronghold of Monophysitism: the belief that God has only one nature, that of God the Father, and that Jesus (God the Son) and the Holy Spirit are of a different nature: they are from God but not of God. This may seem an arcane distinction, but in an intensely religious age it was enough to divide an empire. The Monophysite controversy arose after the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and continued until the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which ruled in favour of the orthodox position. Many of the monophysites claimed that they were misunderstood, that there was really no difference between their position and the orthodox position, and that the Council of Chalcedon ruled against them because of political motivations. But Egypt and Syria remained hotbeds of Monophysite sentiment, and organised resistance to the orthodox view was not suppressed until the 570s. For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE – 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ, where Christ is a Greek title meaning Anointed, corresponding to the Hebrew term Messiah. The main sources of information... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE – 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ, where Christ is a Greek title meaning Anointed, corresponding to the Hebrew term Messiah. The main sources of information... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8–November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s Years: 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 Events and Trends Birth of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, (possibly) Category: ...


The reign of Justinian (482565) saw the Empire recapture Rome and much of Italy from the barbarians, but these successes left the Empire's eastern flank exposed. Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Persian and Arab Conquests

The Persian occupation of Egypt, beginning in 619 or 618, was one of the triumphs in the last Sassanid war against Byzantium. Khosrow II Parvêz, of the revived Persian Empire had begun this war in retaliation for the assassination of the emperor Mauricius (582-602) and had achieved a series of early successes, culminating in the conquests of Jerusalem (614) and Alexandria (619). A Byzantine counteroffensive launched by Heraclius in spring 622 shifted the advantage, however, and the war was brought to an end by the fall of Khosrow on 25 February 628 (Frye, pp. 167-70). The Egyptians had no love of the Emperor in Constantinople and put up little resistance. Khosrow's son and successor, Kavadh II Šêrôe (Šêrôy), who reigned until September, concluded a peace treaty returning territories conquered by the Sasanians to the eastern Roman empire. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the third Persian Empire from 226 until 651. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


The Persian occupation allowed Monophysitism to resurface in Egypt, and when imperial rule was restored by Heraclius in 629, the Monophysites were persecuted and their patriarch expelled. Egypt was thus in a state of both religious and political alienation from the Empire when a new invader appeared. Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ...


An army of 4,000 Arabs led by Amr ibn al-As, was sent by the Caliph Umar, successor to the Prophet Muhammad, to spread his new faith, Islam, to the west. The Arabs crossed into Egypt from Palestine in December 639, and advanced rapidly into the Nile Delta. The Imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more. But the Arabs sent for reinforcements, and in April 641 they captured Alexandria, thus completing the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Most of the Egyptian Christians welcomed their new rulers: the accession of a new regime meant for them the end of the persecutions by the Byzantine state church. Thus ended 973 years of Græco-Roman rule over Egypt. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ...


See also

The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Greek royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...

References

  • Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 BC–AD 642; From Alexander to the Arab Conquest. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press
  • Chauveau, Michel. 2000. Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society under the Ptolemies. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
  • Ellis, Simon P. 1992. Graeco-Roman Egypt. Shire Egyptology 17, ser. ed. Barbara G. Adams. Aylesbury: Shire Publications, ltd.
  • Hölbl, Günther. 2001. A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. Translated by Tina Saavedra. London: Routledge Ltd.
  • Lloyd, Alan Brian. 2000. "The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC)". In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 395–421
  • Peacock, David. 2000. "The Roman Period (30 BC–AD 311)". In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 422–445


Ankh Topics about Ancient Egypt edit Ankh
Places: Nile river | Niwt/Waset/Thebes | Alexandria | Annu/Iunu/Heliopolis | Luxor | Abdju/Abydos | Giza | Ineb Hedj/Memphis | Djanet/Tanis | Rosetta | Akhetaten/Amarna | Atef-Pehu/Fayyum | Abu/Yebu/Elephantine | Saqqara | Dahshur
Great Ennead of Heliopolis: Atum | Shu | Tefnut| Geb | Nuit (Nut) | Osiris | Isis | Set | Nephthys
Major Deities: Amun | Anubis | Apophis | Apis | Bastet | Hathor | Khepri | Khonsu | Maat | Min | Neith | Ptah | | Set | Sobek | Thoth |Wepwawet | Aten
Ogdoad of Heliopolis: Amun/Amunet | Huh/Hauhet | Kuk/Kauket | Nun/Naunet
War gods: Bast | Anhur | Maahes | Sekhmet | Pakhet
Deified concepts: Chons | Maàt | Hu | Saa | Shai | Renenutet| Min | Hapy
Other gods: Chnum | Taweret | Bes | Seker | Seshat
Death: Mummy | Four sons of Horus | Canopic jars | Ankh | Book of the Dead | KV | Mortuary temple | Ushabti
Buildings: Pyramids | Karnak Temple | Sphinx | Great Lighthouse | Great Library | Deir el-Bahri | Colossi of Memnon | Ramesseum | Abu Simbel
Writing: Egyptian hieroglyphs | Egyptian numerals | Transliteration of ancient Egyptian | Demotic | Hieratic
Chronology: Ancient Egypt | Greek and Roman Egypt | Early Arab Egypt | Ottoman Egypt | Muhammad Ali and his successors | Modern Egypt

  Results from FactBites:
 
Culture of Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2187 words)
For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that had a profound influence on later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
The "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, and was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, and was also studied by later Arabic scholars.
Islam in Egypt came to the country with the successors of Mohammed, and is today the dominant faith with 90% of the population adherents, almost all of the Sunni denomination.
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