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Encyclopedia > Hellenism (neoclassicism)

Hellenism, from Greek Έλληνισμός ('Hellenismos'), imitation of the Greeks; German Hellenizein, to speak Greek.

1.) A Greek prase. ("His English was filled with hellenisms").

2.) Interest in or enthusiasm for the language and/or culture of Greece.

Hellenism, as distinct from other Roman or Greco-Roman forms of neoclassicism emerging after the European Renaissance, is most often associated with Germany and England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In Germany, the preeminent figure in the movement was Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the art historian and aesthetic theoretician who first articulated what would come to be the orthodoxies of the Greek ideal in sculpture (though he only examined Roman copies of Greek statues, and was murdered before setting foot in Greece). For Winckelmann, the essence of Greek art was noble simplicity and sedate grandeur, often encapsulated in sculptures representing moments of intense emotion or tribulation. Other major figures include Hegel, Schlegel, Schelling and Schiller. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Johann Joachim Winkelmann be merged into this article or section. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ...

In England, the so-called "second generation" Romantic poets, especially John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Lord Byron are considered exemplars of Hellenism. Drawing from Winckelmann (either directly or derivatively), these poets frequently turned to Greece as a model of ideal beauty, transcendent philosophy, democratic politics, and homosociality or homosexuality (for Shelley especially). Women poets, such as Mary Robinson, Felicia Hemans, Letitia Elizabeth Landon and Elizabeth Barrett Browning were also deeply involved in retelling the myths of classical Greece. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... δе|}:Keats redirects here. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ... Felicia Hemans Felicia Hemans (September 25, 1793 - 1835), was a British poet. ... Letitia Elizabeth Landon (August 14, 1802 - October 15, 1838), English poet and novelist, better known by her initials L. E. L. than as Miss Landon or Mrs Maclean, was descended from an old Herefordshire family, and was born in Chelsea, London. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was a member of the Barrett family and one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ...

In art and architecture, the Greek influence saw a zenith in the early nineteenth century, following from a Greek Revival that began with archaeological discoveries in the eighteenth century, and that changed the look of buildings, gardens and cemeteries (among other things) in England and continental Europe. This movement also inflected the worlds of fashion, interior design, furniture-making--even hairstyles. In painting and sculpture, no single event was more inspiring for the movement of Hellenism than the removal of Parthenon Marbles from Greece to England by Lord Elgin. The English government purchased the Marbles from Elgin in 1816 and placed them in the British Museum, where they were seen by generations of English artists. Elgin's activities caused a controversy that continues to this day. Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1811 - November 20, 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ...

The Victorian period saw new forms of Hellenism, none more famous than the social theory of Matthew Arnold in his book, Culture and Anarchy. For Arnold, Hellenism was the opposite of Hebraism. The former term stood for "spontaneity," and for "things as they really are; the latter term stood for "strictness of conscience," and for "conduct and obedience." Human history, according to Arnold, oscillated between these two modes. Other major figures include Swinburne, Pater, Wilde, and Symonds. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... Swinburne may be A. C. Swinburne the poet Swinburne University of Technnology in Melbourne, Australia Swinburne, Free State in South Africa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The database did not find the text of a page that it should have found, named Pater. If it is a recently changed page, trying again in a minute or two will usually work. ... Symonds is a name originating in the Cornwall area of Great Britain, sometime during the mid 1600s. ...

In the early nineteenth century, during the Greek War of Independence, many foreign parties--including prominent Englishmen such as Lord Byron--offered zealous support for the Greek cause. This particular brand of Hellenism, pertaining to modern rather than ancient Greece, has come to be called philhellenism. Byron was perhaps the best-known philhellene; he died in Missolonghi while preparing to fight for the Greeks against the Ottoman Turks. Combatants Greek revolutionaries, United Kingdom, Russia, France Ottoman Empire, Egyptian troops Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis, Alexander Ypsilanti Omer Vryonis, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


[1] A website from a graduate course at the University of Washington with a strong bibliography.

Anderson, Warren D. Matthew Arnold and the Classical Tradition. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1965.

Aske, Martin. Keats and Hellenism: An Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.

Bate, Walter Jackson. The Burden of the Past and the English Poet. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1970.

Bernal, Martin. Black Athena. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1987.

Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. London: Oxford UP, 1973.

Bush, Douglas. Mythology and the Romantic Tradition in English Poetry. Boston: Harvard UP, 1937.

Butler, E. M. The Tyranny of Greece over Germany. London: Cambridge UP, 1935; rpt. 1958.

Butler, Marilyn. "Myth and Mythmaking in the Shelley Circle," in Shelley Revalued, ed. Kelvin Everest. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes & Noble, 1983.

Buxton, John. The Grecian Taste: Literature in the Age of Neo-Classicism, 1740-1820. London: Macmillan Press, 1978.

Clarke, G. W., ed. Rediscovering Hellenism: The Hellenic Inheritance and the English Imagination. London: Cambridge UP, 1989.

Clarke, M.L. Greek Studies in England, 1730-1830. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1945.

Crook, J. Mordaunt. The Greek Revival: Neo-Classical Attitudes in British Architecture, 1760–1870. London: J. Murray, 1972.

Crompton, Louis. Byron and Greek Love: Homophobia in 19th-Century England. England: The Gay Men’s Press, 1985.

DeLaura, David. Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England. Austin: U of Texas P, 1969.

Dowling, Linda. Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian England. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1994.

Eitner, Lorenz, ed. Neoclassicism and Romanticism, 1750–1850: Sources and Documents. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Ferris, David. Silent Urns: Romanticism, Hellenism, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

Goldhill, Simon. Who Needs Greek? Contests in the Cultural History of Hellenism. London: Cambridge UP, 2002.

Harding, Anthony. The Reception of Myth in English Romanticism. Columbia, Mo.: U of Missouri P, 1995.

Helmick, E.T. “Hellenism in Byron and Keats.” Keats-Shelley Memorial Bulletin 22 (1971): 18–27.

Highet, Gilbert. The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature. London: Oxford UP, 1976.

Jenkyns, Richard. The Victorians and Ancient Greece. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1980.

Levin, Harry. The Broken Column: A Study in Romantic Hellenism. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1931.

Marchand, Suzanne. Down from Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750–1970 Princeton: Princeton UP, 1996.

Miller, Edward. That Noble Cabinet: A History of the British Museum. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd., 1973.

Prins, Yopie. Victorian Sappho. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1999.

Protopsaltis, E.G. "Byron and Greece," in Byron's Political and Cultural Influence in Nineteenth-century Europe, ed. Paul Graham Trueblood. London: Macmillan, 1981.

Roessel, David. In Byron's Shadow: Modern Greece in English and American Literature from 1770 to 1967. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.

St. Clair, William. Lord Elgin and the Marbles. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

---. That Greece Might Still Be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence. London: Oxford UP, 1972.

Spender, Harold. Byron and Greece. London: John Murray, 1924.

Stern, Bernard Herbert. The Rise of Romantic Hellenism in English Literature, 1732-1786. New York: Octagon Books, 1969.

Turner, Frank. The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 1981.

Vrettos, Theodore. A Shadow of Magnitude: The Acquisition of the Elgin Marbles. Toronto: Longman, 1974.

Webb, Timothy. English Romantic Hellenism, 1700-1824. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1982.

Winterer, Caroline. The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780–1910. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2002.

Woodhouse, C.M. Modern Greece: A Short History. London: Faber & Faber, 1968.



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