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Encyclopedia > Helladic period

The Helladic is a modern term to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. The term is commonly used in archaeology and art history. Ancient Greece is the period of Greek history spanning much of the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Art history usually refers to the history of the visual arts. ...

Contents


Periodization

The Helladic period is subdivided as:

  • Early Helladic 2800 - 2100 BC
    • EH I 2800-2500
    • EH II 2500-2300
    • EH III 2300-2100
  • Middle Helladic 2100 - 1550 BC
  • Late Helladic 1550 - 1060 BC: Mycenaean Greece
    • LH I 1550-1500
    • LH II 1500-1400
    • LH III 1400-1060

Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of The Golden Age Greece, is the Late Helladic The Golden Age civilization of ancient Greece. ...

EH

See also Aegean civilization

The Early Helladic is marked by the arrival in Greece of an agricultural population that did not speak an Indo-European language, whose culture soon diverged from its origins in the Cyclades. Very little is known of this society except that the basic techniques of bronze-working were first developed in Anatolia, and cultural contacts with Western Anatolia were maintained. Their arrival coincides with the beginning of the Bronze Age in Greece. The Early Helladic period corresponds in time to the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Important Early Helladic sites are clustered on the Aegean shores of the mainland in Boeotia and Argolid (Lerna, Pefkakia, Thebes, Tiryns) or coastal islands such as Aegina (Kolonna) and Euboea (Lefkandi, Manika) and are marked by pottery showing Western Anatolian influences and the introduction of the fast-spinning version of the potter's wheel. The large "longhouse" called a megaron is introduced in EH II. The infiltration of Anatolian cultural models was not accompanied by widespread site destruction. No similar Early Helladic material has yet been positively identified in the interior of the Peloponnesus. Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Cyclades, from the Greek Κυκλάδες, (circular, modern Greek Kykládes; see also List of traditional Greek place names) form an island group south-east of the mainland of Greece. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... For the municipality, see Myloi (Argolida), Greece, the seat of the municipality of Lerna In classical Greece, Lerna was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Map ot Tiryns Tiryns (in ancient greek Τίρυνς) is a Mycenaean archeological site in the Greek nomos of Argolis in the Peloponnese peninsula, some kilometres north of Nauplion. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα Egina) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... The potters wheel is a horizontal wheel or turntable used in the making of many types of pottery. ... The megaron is the great hall of Minoan-Mycenaean culture, a rectangular hall, fronted by an open, two-columned porch and a more or less central hearth traditional in Greece since Mycenaean times. ...


MH

The Middle Helladic begins with the wide-scale settlement in Greece of a people known as the Minyans, who spoke an Indo-European language; a group of monochrome burnished pottery from Middle Helladic (and EH III) sites was conventionally dubbed "Minyan" ware by Troy's discoverer Heinrich Schliemann. Until about 1960, Gray Minyan ware was often identified as the pottery of northern invaders who destroyed Early Helladic civilization ca. 1900 BCE and introduced Middle Helladic material culture into the Greek peninsula; excavations at Lerna have revealed the development of pottery styles to have been continuous. In general, painted pottery decors are rectilinear and abstract until Middle Helladic III, when Cycladic and Minoan influences inspire a variety of curvilinearand even representational motifs. See Minyan (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ...


The Middle Helladic period corresponds in time to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. It ends with the great explosion of the Santorini volcano. Settlements draw more closely together and tend to be sited on hilltops. Middle Helladic sites are located throughout the Peloponnese and central Greece (including sites in the interior of Aetolia such as Thermon) as far north as the Spercheios River valley. Malthi in Messenia is the only Middle Helladic site to have been thoroughly excavated, but Lerna V will be the type site when it is fully published (Rutter). The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC. The Eleventh Dynasty Information needed. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... The Spercheios (Greek: Σπερχειός, Latin: Spercheus) is a river in Thessaly, Greece. ... Messinia Messinia (also spelled Messenia) is a district in the Peloponnesus, a region of Greece. ... For the municipality, see Myloi (Argolida), Greece, the seat of the municipality of Lerna In classical Greece, Lerna was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. ...


LH

The Late Helladic is the time when Mycenaean Greece flourished, under new influences from Minoan Crete and the Cyclades. Those who made LH pottery sometimes inscribed their work with a syllabic script recognizable as a form of Greek. LH is divided into I, II, and III; of which I and II overlap Late Minoan ware and III overtakes it. LH III is further subdivided into IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of The Golden Age Greece, is the Late Helladic The Golden Age civilization of ancient Greece. ... Linear B script sample Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. ...


Table 1 provides the approximate dates of the Late Helladic phases (LH) on the Greek Mainland. The early history of Greece is commonly described as: Early Helladic (c. ...

Approx. date Period
1000 protogeometric
1060–1000 submycenean
1090–1060 LHIIIC late
1130–1090 LHIIIC middle
1190–1130 LHIIIC early
1230–1190 LHIIIB2
1300–1230 LHIIIB1
1350–1300 LHIIIA2
1400–1350 LHIIIA1
1450–1400 LHIIB
1500–1450 LHIIA
1550–1500 LHI

LHI

The LHI pottery is known from the fill of the shaft graves of Lerna and the settlements of Voroulia and Nichoria (Messenia), Ayios Stephanos, (Laconia) and Korakou. Furumark divided the LH in phases A and B, but Furumark's LHIB has been reassigned to LHIIA by Dickinson. A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of burial structure formed from a deep and narrow shaft sunk into natural rock. ... For the municipality, see Myloi (Argolida), Greece, the seat of the municipality of Lerna In classical Greece, Lerna was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. ... Messinia Messinia (also spelled Messenia) is a district in the Peloponnesus, a region of Greece. ... Laconia (Λακωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, was in ancient Greece the portion of the Peloponnesus of which the most important city was Sparta. ...


Some recent C-14 dates from the Tsoungiza site north of Mycenae indicate LHI there was dated to between 1675/1650 and 1600/1550 BC, which is earlier than the assigned pottery dates by about 100 years. The Bryn Mawr website (External links) gives 1675 to 1600 as conventional dates.


LHII

The description of the LHIIA is mainly based on the material from Kourakou East Alley. Domestic and Palatial shapes are distinguished. LHIIB sees a lessening of Cretan influences. Pure LHIIB assemblages are rare and originate from Tiryns, Asine and Korakou.


C-14 dates from Tsoungiza indicate LHII was dated to between 1600/1550 and 1435/1405 BC, the start of which is earlier than the assigned pottery date by about 100 years, but the end of which nearly corresponds to the pottery phase.


LHIII

The uniform and widely spread LHIIIA:1 pottery was originally defined by the material from the Ramp house at Mycenae, the palace at Thebes (now dated to LHIIIA:2 or LHIIIB by most researchers) and Triada at Rhodes. There is material from Asine, Athens (wells), Sparta (Menelaion), Nichoria and the 'Atreus Bothros', rubbish sealed under the Dromos of the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae as well.
C-14 dates from Tsoungiza indicate LHIIIA:1 should be more nearly 1435/1406 to 1390/1370 BC, slightly earlier than the pottery phase, but by less than 50 years. For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (pron. ... Sparta the rock (Doric: Σπάρτα, Attic (and Koine): Σπάρτη) was a state in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... off portions of the courts of law. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ... Mycenae (ancient Greek: , IPA, , in modern Greek: Μυκήνες, , U.S. English: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90km south-west of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese. ...


LH IIIA:1 ware has been found in Catal Masat in Hittite Anatolia. According to dendrochronology, Masat's last known building was erected in 1375 +4/-7 BCE (Kuniholm et al., p. 46). Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree ring patterns. ...


The LHIIIA:2 pottery marks a Mycenaen expansion covering most of the Eastern Mediterranean. There are many new shapes. The motifs of the painted pottery continue from LHIIIA:1 but show a great deal of standardisation. Again, Tsoungiza dates are earlier, 1390/1370 to 1360/1325; but LH IIIA:2 ware is in the Uluburun shipwreck, which sank 1318 +/- 2 BCE. The Uluburun Shipwreck is a well-documented ancient shipwreck of the Late Bronze Age period, discovered off the southern Turkish coastline on the Mediterranean Sea near the city of KaÅŸ in the early 1980s, and recovered using techniques of underwater excavation in 11 consecutive campaigns of 3-4 months duration...


The definition of the LHIIIB by Furumark was mainly based on grave finds and the settlement material from Zygouries. It has been divided into two subphases by E. French, based on the finds from Mycenae and the West wall at Tiryns.
LHIIIB2 assemblages are sparse, as painted pottery is rare in tombs and many settlements of this period ended by destruction, leaving few complete pots behind.
Tsoungiza dates for all of LHIIIB are 1360/1325 to 1200/1190. In Egypt, the Amarna site, palace of Amenhotep III and his son Akhenaten, contains mostly LH IIIA:2 ware and the barest beginnings of LH IIIB. The transition period between IIIA and IIIB begins after 1320 BCE, but not long after (Cemal Pulak thinks before 1295 BCE). Map of Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tell el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of al... nomen or birth name Nebmaatre Amenhotep III (called Nibmu(`w)areya in the Amarna letters) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ...


LH IIIB pottery is associated in the Greek mainland palaces with the Linear B archives. (Linear B had been in use in Crete since Late Minoan II.) Pulak's proposed LH IIIA/B boundary would make LH IIIB contemporary in Anatolia with the Hittite resurgence led by Suppiluliumas I; in Egypt with the 19th Dynasty, also known as the Ramessides; and in northern Mesopotamia with Assyria's ascendancy over Mitanni. Suppiluliuma I (also rendered as Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (1390 BC – 1354 BC). ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Syria during the later 2nd millennium BC. The name was later used as a geographical term for the area between the Khabur and Euphrates rivers in Neo-Assyrian times. ...


The dating of the LH IIIC hinges on the destruction of Ugarit. The beginning of LH IIIC is now commonly set into the reign of Queen Twosret. The LHIIIC has been divided into LHIIIC:1 and 2 by Furumark, based on materials from tombs in Mycenae, Asine, Kephallonia and Rhodes. In the 1960s, the excavations of the Citadel at Mycenae and of Lefkandi in Euboea yielded stratified material that allowed the ss. There is a lot of regional variation in the LHIIIC, especially in the later phases. Late LHIIIC pottery is found in Troy VIIa and a few pieces in Tarsus. It was also made locally in the Philistine settlements of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza. Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Archaeological site and cemetery on the island of Euboea, occupied between about 1500 BC through 331 BC. Lefkandi is thought to be one of the locations settled by the Mycenaeans after the fall of Knossos. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Ancient Greek Τροία Troia, also Ίλιον; Latin: Troia, Ilium; German: Troja) is a legendary city, center of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) into the Mediterranean. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ...


See also

The Cyclades, from the Greek Κυκλάδες, (circular, modern Greek Kykládes; see also List of traditional Greek place names) form an island group south-east of the mainland of Greece. ... Fresco from the Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2600 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture, which drew upon the Minoans. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of The Golden Age Greece, is the Late Helladic The Golden Age civilization of ancient Greece. ... Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Linear B script sample Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. ... Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

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