FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Heinrich Brüning
Heinrich Brüning

Order: 21st Chancellor of Germany
Term of Office: March 30, 1930 - May 30, 1932
Predecessor: Hermann Müller
Successor: Franz von Papen
Date of Birth: November 26, 1885
Date of Death: March 30, 1970
Political Party: Centre Party
Profession: economist

Dr. Heinrich Brüning (November 26, 1885March 30, 1970) was a German politician and was Chancellor of Germany. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Hermann Müller may refer to: Hermann Müller, ( 1829- 1883), German botanist whose work provided important evidence for Darwins theory of evolution, and with whom Darwin corresponded. ... Franz von Papen (October 29, 1879–May 2, 1969) was a German politician and diplomat associated with the Centre Party. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ...

Contents

Early career

Born in Münster in Westphalia, he lost his father when he was one year old and thus his elder brother Hermann Joseph played a major part in his upbringing. Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Westphalia (in German, Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony). ...


After finishing school, he first tended towards the legal profession, but then studied Philosophy, History, German and Political Science at Strasbourg, the London and Bonn, where he achieved his doctorate in national economy. City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Area 78. ... The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as the London School of Economics or the LSE, is a specialist university based in London, often regarded as the worlds most prestigious social science institutions. ... Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2004 est): 313,605 ; the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine. ...


A volunteer in World War I, he served as a machine gunner, receiving rank as an officer and earning an Iron Cross. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ...


After the revolution, of which he did not approve, he did not pursue his academic career further, but preferred helping those that had fallen into trouble. He collaborated with the social reformer Carl Sonnenschein and worked in the "Secretariat for social student work", helping demobilised soldiers to study and work. After six months he entered the Prussian welfare department and became a close associate of the minister Adam Stegerwald. Stegerwald, also leader of the Christian trade unions, made him chief executive of the unions in 1920, a post Brüning retained until 1930. In 1923 he was actively involved in origanizing the passive resistance in the "Ruhrkampf". As the editor of the union newspaper "the German", he advocated a "social popular state" and "christian democracy". Adam Stegerwald was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


He had also joined the Centre Party and in 1924 he was elected to the Reichstag, representing Breslau. In parliament, Brüning quickly made a name for himself as financial expert and managed to push rtough the "lex Brüning", which restricted the wage tax. He always insisted on an economical approach towards money, criticizing both an increase of civil service salaries and the luxury of profiteurs. Recognized for his expertise, this personal reserve and calmness hampered dealing with him on personal level. From 1928 to 1930 he was also a member of the Prussian parliament and in 1929 he was elected chairman of the Centre Party's fraction in the Reichstag. The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Reichstag [ɹaɪʃtag] (in English: Imperial Diet) is a composition of German Reich (Empire) and tag (which does not mean day here, but is a derivate of the verb tagen, which means assembling for debate). ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Reichstag [ɹaɪʃtag] (in English: Imperial Diet) is a composition of German Reich (Empire) and tag (which does not mean day here, but is a derivate of the verb tagen, which means assembling for debate). ...


Brüning's appointment as Chancellor

In 1930, when the Grand coalition under the Social Democrat Hermann Müller collapsed, Brüning was appointed chancellor on March 29, 1930. The government was confronted with the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression and had to tackle the difficult task of consolidating both budget and currency while faced with rising unemployment, and also of negotiating changes of the reparation payments. Brüning's financial and economic acumen combined with his openness to social questions made him a candidate for Chancellor and his service as a front officer made him acceptable to President Paul von Hindenburg. 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Hermann Müller may refer to: Hermann Müller, ( 1829- 1883), German botanist whose work provided important evidence for Darwins theory of evolution, and with whom Darwin corresponded. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to 1941. ... Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ... Chancellor (Latin: cancellarius), an official title used by most of the peoples whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of the Roman empire. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ...


As Chancellor, Brüning took a course of strict budget discipline, with severe cuts in public expenditure, and tax increases. By these policies he intended both to sanitize the German economy and to underscore his initiatives for alleviating the burden of reparation payments. Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ...


The Brüning administration and the Reichtag parties

The Reichstag however rejected his measures within a month. President Hindenburg, already bent on reducing the influence of the Reichstag, saw this event as the "failure of parliament" and, with Brüning's consent called for new elections. These elections cost the parties of the Grand coalition their majority and brought gains to both Communists and National Socialists. This left Brüning without any hope for reforging a party coalition and forced him to base his administration on the presidential decree ("Notverordnung") of article 48 of the Constitution, circumventing Parliament, and the informal toleration of this pratice by the parties. For this way of government based on both the President and cooperation of parliament, Brüning coined the term "authoritative (or authoritarian) democracy". Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ... The Communist Party of Germany (in German, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was formed in December of 1918 from the Spartacist League, which originated as a small factional grouping within the Social Democratic Party (SPD) opposed to the First World War on the grounds that it was an imperialist war in... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


Hindenburg desired to base the government on the parties of the right, but since the right-wing German National People's Party (DNVP) refused to support Brüning's government. To the President's dismay, Brüning therefore had to rely on his own Centre Party, the only party that fully supported him, and the toleration of the Social Democrats. Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national_conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ...


Brüning's measures were implemented in the summer by presidential decree and made him extremely unpopular among the lower and middle classes. As unemployment continued to rise, his cuts in welfare and reductions of wages combined with rising prices and taxes, increased misery among jobless and workers. This gave rise to the quote: "Brüning verordnet Not!" (Brüning decrees need), alluding to his measures being implemented by "Notverordnung". Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


These effects undermined the support of the Social Democrats for the government and the liberal and conservative cabinet members favoured opening the government to the right. President Hindenburg, pushed by his camarilla and military chief Kurt von Schleicher, also advocated such a move and insisted on a cabinet reshuffle and expecially the resignation of ministers Wirth and Guérard, both from the Centre. The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Dr. Karl Joseph Wirth (September 6, 1879–January 3, 1956) was a German Catholic Centre politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ...


The President's wishes also hampered the government's resolution in combating the extremist parties and their respective paramilitary organisations. Chancellor and President agreed, that the National Socialists's brutality, intolerance and demagogy rendered them unift for government. Brüning believed the government was strong enough to stear Germany through the crisis without the support of the Nazis, but on behalf of the President, he nonetheless negotiated with Hitler about toleration or a formal coalition, without however yielding to the Nazis any position of power or the full support by presidential decree. Because of these reservations, the negotiations came to nothing and as street violence rose to new heights in April 1932, Brüning had both the communist "Rotfrontkämpferbund" and the Nazi Sturmabteilung banned. The unfavourable reactions of the right-wing circles to that move further undermined Hindenburg's support for Brüning. The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ...


Brüning's foreign policy

On the international theatre Brüning tried to alleviate the burden of reparation payments and to achieve German equality in the rearmament question. In 1930 replied to Aristide Briand's iniative to form a "United States of Europe" by demanding full equality for Germany. In 1931 plans for a customs union between Germany and Austria were shattered by French opposition. In the same year the Hoover memorandum postponed reparation payments and in summer 1932, after Brüning's resignation, his successors could reap the fruits of his policy at the Lausanne conference, which reduced German reparations to a final installment of 3 billion marks. Negotiations over rearmament failed in 1932 at the Geneva conference failed shortly before his resignation, but in December the "Five powers agreement" accepted Germany's military equality. 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Aristide Briand, French politician Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862–March 7, 1932) was a French statesman. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Order: 31st President Vice President: Charles Curtis Term of office: March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933 Preceded by: Calvin Coolidge Succeeded by: Franklin D. Roosevelt Date of birth: August 10, 1874 Place of birth: West Branch, Iowa Date of death: October 20, 1964 Place of death: New York City, New... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...


Hindenburg's reelection and Brüning's fall

In 1932 the Centre Party vigorously campaigned for the re-election of Hindenburg, calling him a "venerate historical personality" and "the keeper of the constitution". Hindenburg was re-elected against Hitler, but he considered it shameful to be elected by the votes of "Reds" and "Catholes", as he called Social Democrats and the Centre Party and compensated this "shame" by moving further to the right. At the same time, his failing health only increased the influence of the Camarilla. 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... A Camarilla is a group of courtiers or favorites, that surround a king or ruler. ...


At that time, Brüning was viciously attacked by the Prussian Junkers , led by Oldenburg-Januschau. They opposed his policies of distributing land to unemployed workers and denounced him as an "Agro-bolshevik" to Hindenburg. See Junker (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ...


The President asked Brüning to make way by stepping down as Chancellor while remaining foreign minister. Brüning refused to serve as a figure-head for such a right-wing government and announced his cabinet's resignation on May 30, 1932, "hundred metres before the finish", as he called it. He however sternly rejected any attempt to make the President's disloyal behaviour public, both because he considered such a move indecent and because he still considered Hindenburg the "last bulwark" of the German people. The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Paul von Hindenburg President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg (full name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg) (October 2, 1847 – August 2, 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ...


After his resignation

After his resignation, Brüning supported his party's determined opposition to his successor, the renegate Franz von Papen, and also of re-establishing a working parliament by cooperation with the National Socialists, negotiating with Gregor Strasser. Franz von Papen (October 29, 1879–May 2, 1969) was a German politician and diplomat associated with the Centre Party. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (May 31, 1892 - June 30, 1934) was an early leader of the German National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP) or Nazi Party. ...


After Adolf Hitler had become Chancellor on January 30, 1933, Brüning vigorously campaigned against the new government in the March elections. Later that month, he was the main advocate for rejecting the Hitler administrations's Enabling Act, calling it the "most monstrous resolution ever demanded of a parliament." He nonetheless yielded to party discipline and voted in favour of the bill. After Centre Party's chairman Ludwig Kaas was held up in Rome and resigned from the post, Brüning was elected chairman on May 6. Brüning however could only preside over the party yielding to increasing government pressure and dissolving itself on July 6. Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: For the Nazi law, see Enabling Act. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Catholic priest and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ...


Exile and later years

Brüning fled Germany in 1934 to escape Hitler's political purges via the Netherlands and settled in the United Kingdom. In 1939 he became professor for political science at Harvard University. He warned the American public about Hitler's plans for war and later about Soviet expansionism, but in both cases his advice went unheeded. 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


In 1952 he returned to Germany and taught at the university of Cologne. He was a critic of Adenauer's policy of Western integration and as he saw no prospect of continuing his political career, he returned to the United States. In 1968 he published the tome "Speeches and essays". 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of Germany showing Cologne Cologne (German: Köln [kœln]  listen?) is, in terms of population, the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Konrad Adenauer (January 5, 1876–April 19, 1967) was a German statesman. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Bürning died in 1970 in Norwich, Vermont, and was buried in his home town Münster. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Posthumously, his "Memoirs 1918 - 1934" were published, a source not undisputed among historians.


Brüning remains a figure of controversy, since it is debated whether he was the "last bulwark of the Republic" or the "Republic's undertaker". His intentions certainly were to protect the Republican government, but his policies also contributed to the gradual demise of the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1933. The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (Pronounced Vye-Mar, and in German it is known as the Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Brünings First Government, March 1930 - October 1931

Changes The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... The Deputy Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor (Vizekanzler) in Germany is often the Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... This page lists German Economics Ministers. ... Julius Curtius (1877-1948) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1929 to 1931. ... The German Peoples Party (Deutsche Volkspartei, or DVP) was founded by the more right-wing elements of the old National Liberal Party in the early days of the Weimar Republic, led by Gustav Stresemann. ... This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... Dr. Karl Joseph Wirth (September 6, 1879–January 3, 1956) was a German Catholic Centre politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922. ... This page lists German State Secretaries and Ministers of the Interior. ... This page lists German finance ministers. ... Adam Stegerwald was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party. ... This page lists German Labour Ministers. ... This page lists German Justice Ministers. ... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... This page lists German Defence Ministers. ... The Bavarian Peoples Party (Bayerische Volkspartei) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1919 to pursue a more conservative, Bavarian particularist, course. ... This page lists German Postal Ministers. ... The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German Agriculture ministers. ... The Conservative Peoples Party (Konservative Volkspartei or KVP) was a short-lived German political party of the moderate right. ...

  • May 3, 1930 - Bredt resigns as Justice Minister. He is succeeded by acting Minister. Curt Joël
  • June 26, 1930 - Dietrich succeeds Moldenhauer as Finance Minister. Dietrich is succeeded as Economics Minister by acting Minister Ernst Trendelenburg.
  • October 1, 1930 - With the evacuation of the Rhineland by the Allies, Treviranus becomes Minister without Portfolio.

May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...

Brüning's Second Cabinet, October 1931 - May 1932

Changes This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Historical liberal parties ... The Deputy Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor (Vizekanzler) in Germany is often the Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... This page lists German finance ministers. ... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... This page lists German State Secretaries and Ministers of the Interior. ... This page lists German Defence Ministers. ... This page lists German Economics Ministers. ... Adam Stegerwald was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party. ... This page lists German Labour Ministers. ... This page lists German Justice Ministers. ... This page lists German Postal Ministers. ... The Conservative Peoples Party (Konservative Volkspartei or KVP) was a short-lived German political party of the moderate right. ... This page lists German Agriculture ministers. ...

  • May 6, 1932 - Warmbold resigns as Economics Minister and is succeeded by acting Minister Ernst Trendelenburg
Preceded by:
Hermann Müller
Chancellor of Germany
1930–1932
Succeeded by:
Franz von Papen

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m