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Encyclopedia > Hebrews

Hebrews (or Hebertes, Eberites, Hebreians; Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Standard ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm, "traverse or pass over") are an ancient people defined as descendants of the prophet Eber, son of Shelah. The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ...


In the Bible, the patriarch Abraham is referred to a single time as the ivri, which is the singular form of the Hebrew-language word for Hebrew (plural ivrim, or ibrim). But the term Hebrew almost always occurs in the Hebrew Bible (Tenach, or to Christians, the Old Testament) as a name given to the Israelites by other peoples, rather than one used by themselves. For that matter, the origins of the term Hebrew itself are uncertain. It could be derived from the word eber, or ever, a Hebrew word meaning the “other side” and conceivably referring again to Abraham, who crossed into the land of Canaan from the “other side” of the Euphrates or Jordan rivers. For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Some authors believe Hebrew/Ibri denotes the descendents of the biblical patriarch Eber (Hebrew עבר), a great grandson of Noah and an ancestor of Abraham[1], though the term has not been found in biblical or extra-biblical sources for any tribe or nation other than Abraham and his descendents.[2] Note however that Abraham is once referred to as "Abram the Hebrew" (Genesis 14:13). Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Hebrews are known as the ancestors of the Israelites, who used the Hebrew language. Israelites were the writers of the Hebrew Bible. They are also the theological and historical ancestors of the Jews. In the Bible and in current language, the word Hebrews is often used as a synonym for Israelites, and sometimes for the users of the Hebrew language (Jews and Israelis). Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...

Contents

Etymology

From Middle English Ebreu < Old French Ebreu < Latin Hebraeus or Hebraic < Ancient Greek Ἑβραῖος < Aramaic עברי ('ibrāy) < Hebrew עברי (ʿIḇrî), meaning to traverse or pass over. The origins of the term remains uncertain.[3] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Hebrews vs. Israelites vs. Jew

Israelites are defined as the descendants of Jacob, son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham. Eber, an ancestor of Jacob (6 generations removed), is a distant ancestor of many people, including the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Edomites, Ammonites, Midianites, Qahtanite, and Moabites. Among historical scholars, there is some disagreement about the relationship between the Hebrews and Israelites. Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ...


The terms "Hebrews" and "Israelites" usually describe the same people, called Hebrews before the conquest of the Land of Canaan and Israelites afterwards.[4][5] Occasionally, "Hebrews" is used to designate the Jews, who use the Hebrew language.[6] The Epistle to the Hebrews was probably written for Jewish Christians.[7]
In some modern languages, including Greek, Italian, Romanian and many Slavic languages, the name Hebrews survives as the standard ethnonym for Jews, but in many other languages in which there exist both terms, it is considered derogatory to call modern Jews "Hebrews." Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... An ethnonym (Gk. ...


The term "Jew" describe all followers of the Jewish faith. The word comes from the Latin Iudaeus meaning "from the Iudaea Province". The Latin was derived from Hebrew: יְהוּדִי‎, Yehudi which sometimes refer to the members of the Biblical tribe of Judah but, most often, refers to the people of the kingdom of Judah. Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Tribe of Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Praise; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Judah, son of Jacob(Israel). ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...

Language

Within the area known as the Land of Israel and prior to the establishment of the Israelite civilization, the Land of Israel was politically dominated by Phoenician, Philistines, and Canaanite tribes. There is a modern debate to the degree that the biblical account of a mass emigration to the Land of Israel is accurate or whether, as some archaeologists believe, that the Israelites simply arose as a subculture within Canaanite society[citation needed]. The Hebrews lived within the Land of Israel by at least the 2nd millennium BCE and in addition to speaking Hebrew also spoke Canaanite languages and dialects, which played a role in the Hebrew languages. The extent of the distinction between the culture of the Canaanites and the Hebrews is a matter of great debate, touching as it does on strong religious sensibilities. It has been argued that the Israelites were themselves Canaanites, and that "historical Israel", as distinct from "literary" or "Biblical Israel" was a subset of Canaanite culture. It is also known that Israelites and later the subdivision of Israelites known as the Judeans spoke Hebrew as their main language and it is still used in Jewish holy scriptures, study, speech and prayer. Since the late 19th century, Hebrew has undergone a secular revival, to become the primary everyday language of Jews in Israel and became one of the official languages of the State (the other being Arabic). Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : PhoiníkÄ“, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ...

Habiru vs. Hebrews

Some argue that the name “Hebrew” is related to the seminomadic Habiru people, who are recorded in Egyptian inscriptions of the 13th and 12th centuries BC as having settled in Egypt.[8] This is rebutted by others who propose that the Hebrews are mentioned in these Egyptian texts as Shasu. [9] Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr. ... Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr. ... Shasu is an Egyptian term for nomads who appeared in the Levant from the 15th Century BC all the way to the Third Intermediate Period. ...

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia article on Eber
  2. ^ entry in britannica.com
  3. ^ "Hebrew". Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite.. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. 
  4. ^ Hebrews entry in Jewish Encyclopedia
  5. ^ entry in britannica.com
  6. ^ entry in thefreedictionary.com
  7. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: Hebrews, Epistle to the
  8. ^ "Hebrew". Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite.. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. 
  9. ^ Rainey, Anson (2008-11). "Shasu or Habiru. Who Were the Early Israelites?". Biblical Archeology Review (Biblical Archaeology Society) 34 (06 (Nov/Dec)). 

References

... Ancient Judaism (book) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hebrew alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1589 words)
The Hebrew alphabet was in origin an abjad, in other words it had letters for consonants only, but means were later devised to indicate vowels, first by using consonant letters as matres lectionis, later by separate vowel points or nikud.
The number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, their order, their names, and their phonetic values are virtually identical to those of the Aramaic alphabet, as both Hebrews and Arameans borrowed the Phoenician alphabet for their uses during the end of the 2nd millennium BC.
The Hebrew alphabet was retained as the alphabet used for writing down the Hebrew language during its rebirth in the end of the 19th century, despite several unsuccessful attempts to replace it with the Latin alphabet.
Hebrew language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5523 words)
Hebrew was revitalized during the late 19th and early 20th century as the spoken language of Israel, called New Hebrew and also called Israeli Hebrew or Modern Hebrew.
Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE, corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and Tosefta within the Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba Letters and the Copper Scroll.
Hebrew functioned as the local mother tongue, Aramaic functioned as the international language with the rest of the Mideast, and eventually Greek functioned as another international language with the eastern areas of the Roman Empire.
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