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Encyclopedia > Health science

Health science is the applied science dealing with health, and it includes many subdisciplines. See also health science academic disciplines. // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ...


There are two approaches to health science: the study and research of the food that we eat; and the study and research of health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals) function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases. This article is about the concept. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Health research builds upon the natural sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics as well as a variety of multidisciplinary fields. Some of the other primarily research-oriented fields that make exceptionally significant contributions to health science are biochemistry, epidemiology, genetics, and pharmacology (see also life sciences and life science academic disciplines). The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ...


A myriad of applied health specializations and professions also endeavor to better understand health, but in addition they try to directly improve the health of individuals and of people in general, as well as of other animals (see also veterinary medicine). Some of these are: alternative medicine, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, clinical laboratory science, medicine, nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, public health, psychology, and physical therapy. The provision of services to improve people's health is referred to as health care (see also branches of medicine). Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


The health sciences industry, a multi-billion dollar business sector, is a cross-section of the life sciences and the health care and medical diagnostics industries.

Contents

Acquisition of health-related knowledge

Medical research is basic and applied research conducted to improve the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials, or to develop new treatments (referred to as preclinical research). Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... Activities that need to be performed and results to be obtained a before a clinical trial in humans can begin. ...


The increased longevity of humans over the past century is due in large part to medical research. Among the major advancements in medicine have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin treatment for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and other treatments for atherosclerosis, new surgical techniques such as microsurgery, and increasingly successful treatments for cancer. New, beneficial tests and treatments are expected as a result of the human genome project. Many challenges remain, however, including the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the obesity epidemic. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) form a class of hypolipidemic drugs used to lower cholesterol levels in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease. ... Microsurgery is a type of surgery where an operation microscope is required in order to perform opératoire precision acts. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Application of health-related knowledge (health care)

Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. According to the World Health Organization, health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including “preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations”.[1] The organized provision of such services may constitute a health care system. This can include a specific governmental organization such as the National Health Service in the UK, or a cooperation across the National Health Service and Social Services as in shared care. For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... Professionals in the healthcare industry [1] are often referred to as allied health professionals which usually need formal training before they are hired, for example, medical assistants [2], dental hygienists and assistants, phlebotomists [3], physical therapists and physical therapy assistants, hemodialysis technicians, laboratory technicians, electrocardiographic technicians, x-ray technicians, medical... WHO redirects here. ... NHS redirects here. ... Shared Care is a term used in health care and social care in Great Britain. ...


There is a wide range of traditional areas of health care. The most common areas are: medicine, nursing, midwifery, pharmacy, dentistry, clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics), and various forms of therapy to supplement the healing process and restore proper activity (e.g. dietetics, recreational, physical, occupational, orthoptic care, speech, and respiratory). For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... // Midwifery is the term traditionally used to describe the art of assisting a woman through childbirth. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Dietitians are experts in food and nutrition. ... Play therapy is generally employed with children ages 3 to 11, play provides a way forchildrento express their experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self-healing process. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... In the geometry of curves, an isoptic is the set of points for which two tangents of a given curve meet at a given angle. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Respiratory therapy is categorized as an allied health profession in the United States and Canada. ...


Like health science in general, health care includes both the study and application of preventing and curing human diseases and disorders. Medical doctors include physicians and surgeons. For other uses, see Doctor. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


There are many different branches of medicine; the other health care professions also have specialties or focus on specific populations or settings of care. Public health studies the effect of environmental factors such as available health care resources on the health of the general population, often focusing on particular populations, such as mothers and children. Dietitians educate people about proper nutrition, particularly specific dietary needs of populations such as people with diabetes, breastfeeding women, and people with celiac disease. Other less common medical areas include first aid and triage. Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Suckling redirects here. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...


Dental health has grown in importance in recent decades making dentistry a major field of health sciences. Counselling, hospice care, home care, nutrition, medical social work, alternative medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology are all considered part of health science. This article is about the dental profession. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Medical Social Work is a sub-discipline of social work. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ...


Clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics) is also a major field of health sciences.


Veterinary medicine is the health science dedicated exclusively to the care of animals. Veterinary medicine is involved in preventing and curing animal diseases and disorders, inspecting animal-originated food (such as milk and meat) and animal husbandry. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Health practices

Conventional Western practices

Athletic Training In 1893 there were atheletic trainers{| class=wikitable |- |}is an allied health care profession recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) that specializes in the prevention, evaluation, treatment, management and rehabilitation of injuries and illnesses. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Dietitians are experts in food and nutrition. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... Genetic counseling is the process by which patients or relatives, at risk of an inherited disorder, are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning in order to prevent, avoid or... Medical physics is a branch of applied physics concerning the application of physics to medicine. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. ... Orthoptics (from the Greek words ortho meaning straight, and optikas meaning vision [1]) is the discipline dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of defective eye coordination, binocular vision, and functional amblyopia by non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical methods, e. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... Orthotics is the field concerned with the application and manufacture of orthoses, devices which support or correct human function. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ... // Scope of Practice The practice of speech-language pathology includes prevention, diagnosis, habilitation, and rehabilitation of communication, swallowing, or other upper aerodigestive disorders; elective modification of communication behaviors; and enhancement of communication. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...

Historical western

A gallery of birds from the Vienna Dioscurides Byzantine manuscript. ... Astrology played an important part in Medieval medicine; most educated physicians were trained in at least the basics of astrology to use in their practice. ... Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late 19th century, involving the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient in the belief that this would cure or prevent illness and disease. ... Magnet therapy, or magnetic therapy, or magnotherapy is a form of alternative medicine involving magnetic fields. ... E.W. Kembles Deaths Laboratory in Colliers Magazine in 1906 Patent medicine is the somewhat misleading term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were, for the most part, actually medicines with trademarks, not patented medicines. ... Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i. ... 18th century French illustration of trepanation Trepanation (also known as trepanning, trephination, trephining or burr hole) is a form of surgery in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases, though in the...

Traditional or folk medicine

A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient Hindu system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Medical herbalism is a term that is used to the practice of using plants as medicinal remedies. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학, Hanja: 韓醫學) developed with the influence of Chinese medical techniques and procedures. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ...

Complementary and alternative medicine

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... The Dorn method is a form of manual, holistic alternative therapy used to correct misalignments in the spinal column and other joints. ... For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ... In alternative medicine, body work or massage therapy refers to any treatment which involves some form of touching or physical manipulation. ... Natural medicine is the practice of using any form of medicine that is in its natural form. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ...

New Age or spiritualist

Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ... Faith healing is the use of supernatural or spiritual intervention to cure disease. ... Johrei (Jo: to purify; ray: spirit) manifests through the focusing of Divine Light, through the Johrei channel and to the Johrei recipient. ... Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM, also known as Maharishis Consciousness-Based Health Care or Maharishi Ayurveda) was founded internationally in the mid 1980s by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, creator of the Transcendental Meditation technique. ... For the Japanese era name, see Reiki (era). ...

Contemporary themes

Because health science deal with human life, issues of medical ethics, an important area of ethics, arise frequently. Medical ethics includes questions on topics such as a patient's right to privacy and his/her right to be involved in treatment and decision-making. Euthanasia, abortion, human cloning, stem cell research and genetic engineering are especially controversial issues directly related to health science. Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Although genes are recognized as influencing [behavior] and [cognition], genetically identical does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...


History of health science

The foundations for the Health Sciences fields are as old as the human race. Humans have always been in need of solutions to address illness, injury, and various health related issues such as childbirth. With modern technology and the backing of the pure sciences, the scientific accuracy of these fields has greatly improved. Nevertheless, many cultures have used and continue to use various herbs and other culturally specific solutions to help solve health problems that may or may not be backed by any scientific support.


See also

The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Biomedical informatics is a discipline related to bioinformatics and has roots in medical informatics or healthcare informatics. ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Biomedical technology involves the application of engineering and technology principles to the domain of living or biological systems. ... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... A list of acronyms commonly used in health care. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the discipline that exists at the intersection of information technology and medicine. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Publicly-funded health care is a health care system that is financed entirely or in majority part by citizens tax payments instead of through private payments made to insurance companies or directly to health care providers (health insurance premiums, copayments or deductibles)[citation needed]. // Publicly-funded health care systems are...

External links and references

References

  1. ^ World Heath Organization Report. (2000). Why do health systems matter?. WHO. 
For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... Map of countries with universal health care (click to enlarge) A health care system is an organization to deliver health care. ... Health care often accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world, and as such it is surrounded by controversy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... Allied health professions are clinical healthcare professions distinct from the medical and nursing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Retirement home. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Rest home for seniors in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ... Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Vital signs are often taken by health professionals in order to assess the most basic body functions. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... Look up stethoscope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... The ophthalmoscope, invented by Hermann von Helmholtz, is an instrument used to examine the eye. ... Otoscope - Image of an otoscope (center) An Otoscope is a medical device which is used to look into the ears. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A bedpan is a toileting facility, usually consisting of a metal, glass, or plastic receptacle for urinary and fecal discharge. ... Diagram of a foley catheter Foley catheters are flexible (usually latex) tubes that are passed through the urethra during urinary catheterization and into the bladder to drain urine. ... An incontinence pad is a small impermeable multi-layered sheet with high absorbancy that is used in the health-care industry. ... Mechanism such as a wheelchair, a hobcart or calipers, designed to aid individuals with mobility impairments. ... Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists Roman theater, Alexandria, Egypt Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering Geology is the application of the science of geology to the understanding of geologic phenomena and the engineering solution of geologic hazards and other geologic problems for society. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance. ... The display of the Speech Recognition screensaver on a Toshiba laptop, in which the character responds to questions, i. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... Industrial Technology can be split up into careers for technicians and engineerss. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the worlds tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... In physics or engineering, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Engineering technology (ET) is a cross between engineering (which is more research-based), and technology (which is applications-based). ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... In telecommunication, the term network engineering has the following meanings: 1. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... Engineering Technician is a professional qualification (not an academic degree) offered by professional associations that are members of the Engineering Council UK. Engineering Technicians are technicians involved in the application of proven procedures and techniques to the solution of engineering problems. ... Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fibre or free space. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science and technology to improve the management of health conditions. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

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Office of Public Health and Science (659 words)
The Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) is comprised of 12 core public health offices and the Commissioned Corps, a uniformed service of more than 6,000 health professionals who serve at HHS and other federal agencies.
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