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Encyclopedia > Health care in Iran

Health care in Iran and medical sector's market value was almost US $240 billion in 2002 and is forecasted to rise to US $310 billion by 2007. [1] With a population of almost 70 million, Iran is one of the most populous countries in the Middle East. The country faces the common problem of other young demographic nations in the region, which is keeping pace with growth of an already huge demand for various public services. Fifty per cent of Iran’s population are currently under 20 years old. Soon they will be old enough to start new families, which will boost the population growth rate and subsequently the need for public health infrastructures and services. Image File history File links Newspaper_nicu_buculei_01. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOV Wikipedia policy is that all articles should be written from a neutral point of view. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ...


The World Health Organization in the last report on health systems ranks Iran's performance on health level 58th, and its overall health system performance 93rd among the world's nations.[2] The health status of Iranians has improved over the last two decades. Iran has been able to extend public health preventive services through the establishment of an extensive Primary Health Care network. As a result child and maternal mortality rates have fallen significantly, and life expectancy at birth has risen remarkably. Infant (IMR) and under-five (U5MR) mortality have decreased to 28.6 and 35.6 per 1,000 live births respectively in 2000, compared to an IMR of 122 per 1,000 and an U5MR of 191 per 1,000 in 1970. [3] Immunization of children is accessible to most of the urban and rural population. WHO redirects here. ... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... A child being immunized against polio. ...

Contents

Health services

The constitution entitles Iranians to basic health care, and most receive subsidized prescription drugs and vaccination programs. An extensive network of public clinics offers basic care at low cost, and general and specialty hospitals operated by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) provide higher levels of care. In most large cities, well-to-do persons use private clinics and hospitals that charge high fees. About 73% of all Iranian workers have social security coverage. Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ...


Iran has been very successful in training/educating the necessary human resources for its health system. The system of almost 30 years ago where the country was facing a shortage of all kinds of skilled personnel in the health and medical sector has been completely changed into one in which the necessary professionals now completely suffice the country’s needs. There were 0.5-1.1 physicians per 1000 population in 2004 according to various estimates (about 46 percent of physicians were women). [4] For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Although overall improvements have been achieved in all health areas since the 1979 revolution, the present challenging economic conditions of the country, combined with rapid advances in medical technology and information technology, individuals’ expectations, and the young demographic of the population will undoubtedly challenge the sustainability of past improving trends. Moreover there is a considerable variation in the human development index and the human poverty index across different provinces in the country. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in 2006 census. ...


Health network

Today the largest healthcare delivery network is owned and run by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) through its network of health establishments and medical schools in the country. MOHME is in charge of provision of healthcare services through its network, medical insurance, medical education, supervision and regulation of the healthcare system in the country, policymaking, production and distribution of pharmaceuticals, and research and development. Additionally, there are other parallel organisations such as Medical Services Insurance Organizations (MSIO) that have been established to act as a relief foundation as well as an insurance firm. Health Insurance is a type of insurance whereby the insurer pays the medical costs of the insured if the insured becomes sick due to covered causes, or due to accidents. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... A healthcare system is the organization by which health care is provided. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


According to the last census that Statistical Centre of Iran undertook in 2003, Iran possesses 730 medical establishments (eg. hospitals, clinics) with a total of 110,797 beds, of which 488 (77,300 beds) are directly affiliated and run by the MOHME and 120 (11,301 beds) owned by the private sector and the rest belong to other organisations, such as the Social Security Organization of Iran (SSO). There were about seven nurses and 17 hospital beds per 10,000 population. For other uses, see Bed (disambiguation). ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... This article is about the occupation. ...


An elaborate system of health network has been established which has ensured provision of Primary Health Care (PHC) to the vast majority of public. However, access and availability of health care continues to be somewhat limited in lesser developed provinces where the health indices are also lower as compared to national averages. The country is in an epidemiologic transition and faces double burden of the diseases. New emerging threats should also be considered. The demographic and epidemiological transition underway will have a significant effect on the pattern of morbidity and mortality in the near and distance future, especially as it affects the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases and the health problems of an aging population. In the early 2000s the main natural causes of death have been cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Primary Health Centre (PHC) is the basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. ... In telecommunications and reliability theory, the term availability has the following meanings: 1. ... Look up chronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Water and sanitation

Iran has one of the highest percentages of population in the Middle East with access to safe drinking water, with an esimated 92% of its people enjoying such access (nearly 100% in urban areas and about 80% in rural areas as of 2007)[5][6]. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ...


There is a considerable shortfall in wastewater treatment; for example, in Tehran the majority of the population has no wastewater treatment, with raw sewage being injected directly into the groundwater[7]. As the water crisis deepens with an expanding population, this pollution of groundwater causes increasing health risks. Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


Nutrition

Despite the fact that Iran consists of an agrarian economy, there is a high degree of malnutrition within the country. Approximately one fourth of all young children have stunted or wasted growth characteristics due to undernourishment [8]; moreover, as an indicator of the poor food distribution capability, the percentage of undernourished children in villages is much higher. As an additional measure of public health and inefficient food distribution, about thirteen percent of the young people are classified as obese, according to the same United Nations FAO sources. Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Communicable diseases

Cholera has been a persistent problem in Iran. In the 2005 epidemic which involved loss of lives, state television warned people not to eat vegetables or buy ice blocks on the streets [9]. Salads were also banned in some restaurants. The 1998 epidemic involved considerably more cases and loss of life. Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


According to the United Nations, AIDS has been increasing in Iran at a rapid rate [10]. The major factor fuelling the epidemic until now has been injecting drug use, while there is an increase in sexual transmission of the disease." The rate of the epidemic in Iran is however still very low compared to international standards. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ...


Opium, which is being smuggled through the border with Afghanistan and other drug addictions constitute a major and growing health problem; in 2005, estimates of the number of drug addicts ranged from 2 to 4 million (1.2 million according to the Government) [11]. Reasons for addiction include lack of economic prospects among the youth and lack of freedom. Increased drug use has driven up the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2005 two-thirds of the official total of 9,800 HIV cases were attributed to drug use. Iran has established a national HIV treatment system, including 150 testing sites and a free needle exchange program [12]. This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ...


Pharmaceuticals

Iran has a rather developed pharmaceutical production capability, however, the country still relies on imports for raw materials and many specialised drugs. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...


Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has a mission to provide access to sufficient quantities of safe, effective and high quality medicines that are affordable for the entire population. Since the 1979 revolution, Iran has adopted a full generic-based National Drug Policy (NDP), with local production of essential drugs and vaccines as one of the main goals. [13]. A National Pharmaceuticals Policy is one that aims at ensuring that people get good quality drugs at the lowest possible price, and that doctors prescribe the minimum of required drugs in order to treat the patients illness. ... Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization are those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ...


Currently 55 pharmaceutical companies in Iran produce more than 96 per cent (quantitatively) of medicines on the market, worth $1.2 billion annually[14]. Although over 85 per cent of the population use an insurance system to reimburse their drug expenses, the government heavily subsidises pharmaceutical production/importation in order to increase affordability of medicines. The regulatory environment of the country is rather strict on the import of drugs and pharmaceuticals towards companies that intend to enter into the market for the first time. Please see listing criteria on the discussion page before listing. ...


Major Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies:

  • Darupakhsh
  • Pars Darou
  • Iran Pharmaceutical Development & Investment Co. (IPDIC)
  • Pharmieco
  • CinnaGen

An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

Medical equipment

The Department of Medical Equipments in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) is responsible for supervising imports in this segment, but the import and distribution of such equipment is mostly handled by the private sector. Iran has undergone the primary stages of development in terms of industrialisation and a rather strong indigenous manufacturing capability exists in the country. Therefore one can expect to find a handful of local producers for basic medical equipment, making it very hard to penetrate into the Iranian market for similar imported ones. The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


There are over 100 Iranian companies representing the international suppliers in this market, handling both promotion and the after-sales service of the products. Iran is a mature market when it comes to medical equipment. Most of the major international players in this sector are present in the Iran market (American sanctions against Iran do not apply to medical equipment or pharmaceuticals): This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ...

3M Company (NYSE: MMM), formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002, is an American corporation with a worldwide presence. ... Cordis is: A medical device company owned by Johnson & Johnson. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Guidant announces more defibrillator problems Guidant Corporation NYSE: GDT designs and manufactures artificial pacemakers, implantable defibrillators, stents, and other cardiovascular medical products. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. ... Medtronic, Inc. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Smith & Nephew is a British medical devices company headquartered in London and active internationally. ... For other uses, see Stryker (disambiguation). ... Varian Medical Systems NYSE: VAR is engaged in designing and manufacturing advanced equipment and software solutions for treating cancer with radiation, as well as x-ray tubes for original equipment manufacturers, replacement x-ray tubes and flat-panel digital subsystems for imaging in medical, scientific and industrial applications. ... A Zimmer Frame is the trademarked name for a supportive frame designed to assist the elderly or disabled. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ WHO, World Health Organisation. The World Health Report 2000. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ http://www.wssinfo.org/pdf/country/IRN_wat.pdf
  7. ^ [5]
  8. ^ [6]
  9. ^ [7]
  10. ^ [8]
  11. ^ [9]
  12. ^ Country profile - US library of Congress
  13. ^ Iran-Daily: Biggest Pharmaceutical Plant to Open Soon
  14. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1386/2880/html/national.htm

For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ... This is a list of hospitals in Iran. ... During the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988, a large population was viewed as a comparative advantage for Iran. ... The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed to... Please see listing criteria on the discussion page before listing. ... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... The Swiss (Poma)-built gondolas that carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain in Tehran. ...

External links

  • Ministry of Health and Medical Education - Iran
  • World Health Organization - Iran
  • Health services and pharmaceuticals to Iran - Australian Trade
  • Statistical center of Iran

 
 

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