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Encyclopedia > Health care
Surgery is one of the most difficult procedures in medicine.
Researchers looking at monoclonal antibodies.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a well-known international relief movement.

Health care, or healthcare, refers to the treatment and management of illness, and the preservation of health through services offered by the medical, dental, pharmaceutical, clinical laboratory sciences (in vitro diagnostics), nursing, and allied health professions. Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including “preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations”.[1] “Surgeon” redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... Red Cross redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... Allied health professions are clinical healthcare professions distinct from the medical and nursing. ...


Before the term health care became popular, English-speakers referred to medicine or to the health sector and spoke of the treatment and prevention of illness and disease. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... This article is about the medical term. ...

Contents

Provision

A health care provider is an organization that provides facilities and health care personnel to deliver proper health care in a systematic way to any individual in need of health care services. A health care provider could be a government, the health care industry, a health care equipment company, an institution such as a hospital or medical laboratory. Health care professionals may include physicians, dentists, support staff, nurses, therapists, psychologists, pharmacists, chiropractors, and optometrists. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... This article is about the occupation. ... Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία) or treatment is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. ...


Practicing health care without a license is generally a serious crime that could be punished by up to several years in prison.


Scope

  • Emergency medicine is a speciality of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. While not usually providing long-term or continuing care, emergency medicine physicians diagnose a wide array of pathology and undertake acute interventions to stabilize the patient. These professionals practice in hospital emergency departments, in the prehospital setting via emergency medical service and other locations where initial medical treatment of illness takes place. Just as clinicians operate by immediacy rules under large emergency systems, emergency practioniers aim to diagnose emergent conditions and stabilize the patient for definitive care.
  • Chronic care management encompasses the oversight and education activities conducted by professionals to help patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, lupus, multiple sclerosis and sleep apnea learn to understand their condition and live successfully with it. This term is equivalent to disease management (health) for chronic conditions. The work involves motivating patients to persist in necessary therapies and interventions and helping them to achieve an ongoing, reasonable quality of life.
  • Patient safety is a new health care discipline that emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical error that often lead to adverse health care events. The frequency and magnitude of avoidable adverse patient events was not well known until the 1990s, when multiple countries reported staggering numbers of patients harmed and killed by medical errors. Recognizing that health care errors impact 1 in every 10 patients around the world, the World Health Organization calls patient safety an endemic concern.[2] Indeed, patient safety has emerged as a distinct health care discipline supported by an immature yet developing scientific framework: there is a significant transdisciplinary body of theoretical and research literature that informs the science of patient safety.[3] The resulting patient safety knowledge continually informs improvement efforts such as: applying lessons learned from business and industry, adopting innovative technologies, educating providers and consumers, enhancing error reporting systems, and developing new economic incentives. This patient safety page provides an evidence-based and peer-reviewed forum to learn about contemporary error and adverse event knowledge.

For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Emergency Medicine is a speciality of medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... Emergency medical service (known by the acronym of EMS in the USA and Canada) is a branch of medicine that is performed in the field, pre-hospital, (i. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... // Wolf (latin). ... Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. ... Disease management (DM) is the concept of reducing healthcare costs and/or improving quality of life for individuals with chronic disease conditions by preventing or minimizing the effects of a disease, or chronic condition through integrative care. ... Patient safety is a relatively recent initiative in healthcare, emphasizing the reporting, analysis and prevention of medical error and adverse healthcare events. ... See also preventable medical errors In the United States medical error is estimated to result in 44,000 to 98,000 unnecessary deaths and 1,000,000 excess injuries each year. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...

Healthcare Industry

The delivery of modern health care depends on an expanding group of trained professionals coming together as an interdisciplinary team.[4][5] The health care industry or health profession is considered an industry or profession which includes peoples exercise of skill or judgment or the providing of a service related to the preservation or improvement of the health of individuals or the treatment or care of individuals who are injured, sick, disabled... This article is about people called professionals. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ...


The Healthcare industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing services and products dedicated to improving the health of individuals. According to market classifications of industry such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark the healthcare industry includes health care equipment & services and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology & life sciences. The particular sectors associated with these groups are: biotechnology, diagnostic substances, drug delivery, drug manufacturers, hospitals, medical equipment and instruments, diagnostic laboratories, nursing homes, providers of health care plans and home health care.[6] The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) was developed by Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI), a premier independent provider of global indices and benchmark-related products and services, and Standard & Poors (S&P), an independent international financial data and investment services company and a leading provider of global equity indices. ... It has been suggested that International Benchmark Classification be merged into this article or section. ...


According to government classifications of Industry, which are mostly based on the United Nations system, the International Standard Industrial Classification, health care generally consists of Hospital activities, Medical and dental practice activities, and other human health activities. The last class consists of all activities for human health not performed by hospitals or by medical doctors or dentists. This involves activities of, or under the supervision of, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic laboratiories, pathology clinics, ambulance, nursing home, or other para-medical practitioners in the field of optometry, hydrotherapy, medical massage, occupational therapy, speech therapy, chiropody, homeopathy, chiropractice, acupuncture, etc. [7] The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities is a United Nations system for classifying economic data. ...


Research

Top impact factor academic journals in the health care field include Health Affairs and Milbank Quarterly. The New England Journal of Medicine, British Medical Journal, and the Journal of the American Medical Association are more general journals. A variety of medical journals exist for each specialty. ... A representative list of scientific journals that publishing articles in Pharmaceutical Sciences. ... A medical journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of medicine. ... The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. Medical research can be divided into two general categories: the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials, and all other research that contributes to the development of new treatments. The latter is termed preclinical research if its goal is specifically to elaborate knowledge for the development of new therapeutic strategies. A new paradigm to biomedical research is being termed translational research, which focuses on iterative feedback loops between the basic and clinical research domains to accelerate knowledge translation from the bedside to the bench, and back again. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... Translational medicine is a branch of medical research that attempts to more directly connect basic research to patient care. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... Activities that need to be performed and results to be obtained a before a clinical trial in humans can begin. ... Translational medicine is a branch of medical research that attempts to more directly connect basic research to patient care. ...


In terms of pharmaceutical R&D spending, Europe spends a little less that the United States (€22.50bn compared to €27.05bn in 2006) and there is less growth in European R&D spending.[8][9]. Pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the leading high technology exports of Europe and the United States [10][9]. However, the United States dominates the biopharmaceutical field, accounting for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues and 80% of world R&D spending in biotechnology. [8][9]. Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ...


World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized United Nations agency which acts as a coordinator and researcher for public health around the world. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations. The WHO's constitution states that its mission "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health." Its major task is to combat disease, especially key infectious diseases, and to promote the general health of the peoples of the world. Examples of its work include years of fighting smallpox. In 1979 the WHO declared that the disease had been eradicated - the first disease in history to be completely eliminated by deliberate human design. The WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe from October 3, 2006, making it an international standard.[11] WHO redirects here. ... The term ‘global health’ refers to a component of the wider discipline of public health which concerns itself particularly with issues which transcend the geopolitical boarders of the nation-state. ... UN redirects here. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... This article is about the disease. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworm. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from donors. In recent years the WHO's work has involved more collaboration, currently around 80 such partnerships, with NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as with foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. Voluntary contributions to the WHO from national and local governments, foundations and NGOs, other UN organizations, and the private sector (including pharmaceutical companies), now exceed that of assessed contributions (dues) from its 193 member nations.[12] NGO redirects here. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC... The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the worlds largest charitable foundation. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


Economics

Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to scarcity in the allocation of health and health care. Broadly, health economists study the functioning of the health care system and the private and social causes of health-affecting behaviors such as smoking. Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to scarcity in the allocation of health and health care. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


A seminal 1963 article by Kenneth Arrow, often credited with giving rise to the health economics as a discipline, drew conceptual distinctions between health and other goals.[13] Factors that distinguish health economics from other areas include extensive government intervention, intractable uncertainty in several dimensions, asymmetric information, and externalities.[14] Governments tend to regulate the health care industry heavily and also tend to be the largest payer within the market. Uncertainty is intrinsic to health, both in patient outcomes and financial concerns. The knowledge gap that exists between a physician and a patient can prevent the patient from accurately describing his symptoms or enable the physician to prescribe unnecessary but profitable services; these imbalances lead to market failures resulting from asymmetric information. Externalities arise frequently when considering health and health care, notably in the context of infectious disease. For example, making an effort to avoid catching a cold, or practising safer sex, affects people other than the decision maker. Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... ... “Uncertain” redirects here. ... In economics and contract theory, an information asymmetry is present when one party to a transaction has more or better information than the other party. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... In economics, information asymmetry occurs when one party to a transaction has more or better information than the other party. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ...


The scope of health economics is neatly encapsulated by Alan William's "plumbing diagram"[15] dividing the discipline into eight distinct topics:

  • What influences health? (other than health care)
  • What is health and what is its value
  • The demand for health care
  • The supply of health care
  • Micro-economic evaluation at treatment level
  • Market equilibrium
  • Evaluation at whole system level; and,
  • Planning, budgeting and monitoring mechanisms.

Consuming just under 10 percent of gross domestic product of most developed nations, health care can form an enormous part of a country's economy. In 2001, health care consumed 8.4 per cent of GDP across the OECD countries[16] with the United States (13.9%), Switzerland (10.9%), and Germany (10.7%) being the top three. The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... Look up supply in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Microeconomics is the study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. ... Treatment may refer to: // Health Therapy - the act of remediation of a health problem. ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses. ... GDP redirects here. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


The United States and Canada account for 48% of world pharmaceutical sales, while Europe, Japan, and all other nations account for 30%, 9%, and 13%, respectively.[9] United States accounts for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues.


Systems

Many argue that a single-payer universal health care system will save money through reduced bureaucratic administration costs.[17] Social health insurance is where the whole population or most of the population is a member of a sickness insurance company. Most health services are provided by private enterprises which act as contractors, billing the government for patient care.[18] In almost every country with a government health care system a parallel private system is allowed to operate. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care. The scale, extent, and funding of these private systems is very variable. Map of countries with universal health care (click to enlarge) A health care system is an organization to deliver health care. ... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... Social Medicine Portal: http://www. ... Broadly speaking, health care systems across the world are funded in three different ways: by private contributions, social health insurance contributions or taxes. ... Two-tier health care is a form of national health care system that is used in most developed countries. ...


A traditional view is that improvements in health result from advancements in medical science. The medical model of health focuses on the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment. In contrast, the social model of health places emphasis on changes that can be made in society and in people's own lifestyles to make the population healthier. It defines illness from the point of view of the individual's functioning within their society rather than by monitoring for changes in biological or physiological signs.[19] Medical model is the term (cited by psychiatrist Ronald D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays) for the set of procedures in which all doctors are trained. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


The United States currently operates under a mixed market health care system. Government sources (federal, state, and local) account for 45% of U.S. health care expenditures.[20] Private sources account for the remainder with 38% of people receiving health coverage through their employer and 17% arising from other private payment such as private insurance and out-of-pocket copays. Government intervention into a market is generally thought to distort pricing as government agents lack market discipline; they have less short and medium-term incentives than private agents to make purchases that can generate revenues and avoid bankruptcy. Health system reform in the United State usually focuses around three suggested models; Single Payer, as described above. Employer or individual insurance mandates, which the state of Massachusetts has experimented with recently. And Consumer Driven Health, in which systems consumers and patients have more control of how they access care and a greater incentive to find cost-saving healthcare approaches.[21] Critics of Consumer Driven Health say that it would benefit the healthy but be insufficient for the chronically sick. Bank managers have strong incentives to be involved in risky activities with the deposits entrusted at their disposal. ...


Politics

The politics of health care depends largely on which country one is in. Current concerns in the UK, for instance, revolve around the use of private finance initiatives to build hospitals or the excessive use of targets in cutting waiting lists. In Germany and France, concerns are more based on the rising cost of drugs to the governments. In Brazil, an important political issue is the breach of intellectual property rights, or patents, for the domestic manufacture of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Health care often accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world, and as such it is surrounded by controversy. ... The Private Finance Initiative specifies a method, developed initially by the United Kingdom government, to provide financial support for Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) between the public and private sectors. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... HAART redirects here. ...


The South African government, whose population sets the record for HIV infections, came under pressure for its refusal to admit there is any connection with AIDS[22] because of the cost it would have involved. In the United States 12% to 16% of the citizens are still unable to afford health insurance. State boards and the Department of Health regulate inpatient care to reduce the national health care deficit. To tackle the problems of the perpetually increasing number of uninsured, and costs associated with the US health care system, President Barack Obama says he favors the creation of a universal health care system [23]. However, New York Times columnist Paul Krugman said that Obama's plan would not actually provide universal coverage.[24] (In contrast, Dennis Kucinich, an early candidate who did not get on the ballot, supported a single-payer system.) Factcheck.org alleges that Obama's predicted savings were exaggerated. [25] Barack and Obama redirect here. ...


Health care by country

The Commonwealth Fund, in its annual survey, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall", compares the performance of the health care systems in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada and the U.S. Its 2007 study found that, although the U.S. system is the most expensive, it consistently underperforms compared to the other countries.[26] Two differences between the U.S. and the other countries in the study is that the U.S. is the only country without universal health insurance coverage, and the highest cost of malpractice insurance than any nation in the study. Map of countries with universal health care (click to enlarge) A health care system is an organization to deliver health care. ...


See also

Health portal

A list of acronyms commonly used in health care. ... Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. ... The health care industry or health profession is considered an industry or profession which includes peoples exercise of skill or judgment or the providing of a service related to the preservation or improvement of the health of individuals or the treatment or care of individuals who are injured, sick, disabled... Health care often accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world, and as such it is surrounded by controversy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A health care proxy is a legal document used in the United States that allows an agent to make health care decisions in the event that the primary individual is incapable of executing such decisions. ... Legal topics related to health and the health profession. ... Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health. ... Managed care is a concept in U.S. health care. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... In the United States, a medical savings account (MSA) is an account, generally associated with self-employed individuals, in which tax-deferred deposits can be made for medical expenses. ... A Nurse-Managed Health Center (NMHC) provides health care services in medically underserved rural and urban areas where there is limited access to health care. ... School Health Services are services from medical, teaching and other professionals applied in or out of school to improve the health and well-being of children and in some cases whole families. ... Single-payer health care is a system of paying for health care, in which a single government entity pays for all health care costs, usually from taxes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ World Health Organization Report. (2000). "Why do health systems matter?". WHO. 
  2. ^ "World Alliance for Patient Safety". Organization Web Site. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/patientsafety/en/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-27. 
  3. ^ Patrick A. Palmieri, et al. (2008). "The anatomy and physiology of error in adverse health care events". Advances in Health Care Management 7: 33–68. doi:10.1016/S1474-8231(08)07003-1. 
  4. ^ Princeton University. (2007). health profession. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=health%20profession
  5. ^ United States Department of Labor. (2007, February 27). Health Care Industry Information. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/Indprof/Health.cfm
  6. ^ "[[1] Yahoo Industry Browser - Healthcare Sector - Industry List]". [2]. 
  7. ^ . 
  8. ^ a b Retrieved June 17, 2009, [3]
  9. ^ a b c d Stats from 2007 Europ.Fed.of Pharm.Indust.and Assoc. Retrieved June 17, 2009, from [4]
  10. ^ "2008 Annual Report" (pdf). PHRMA. http://www.phrma.org/files/PhRMA_annualreportFianl.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-06-20. 
  11. ^ Xinhua - English
  12. ^ "Implementation of budget resolutions". World Health Organization. 1999-12-16. http://ftp.who.int/gb/pdf_files/EB105/ee17a1.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
  13. ^ Arrow, K. (1963) Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care. American Economic Review, 53:941-73.
  14. ^ Phelps, Charles E. (2002) Health Economics 3rd Ed. Addison Wesley. Boston, MA
  15. ^ Williams A (1987) "Health economics: the cheerful face of a dismal science" in Williams A (ed.) Health and Economics, Macmillan: London
  16. ^ OECD data
  17. ^ Massachusetts Nursing Association. "Single Payer Health Care: A Nurses Guide to Single Payer Reform."
  18. ^ CBC Health Care Private verses Public
  19. ^ Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-04059-1. 
  20. ^ CMS Annual Statistics, http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/downloads/proj2008.pdf
  21. ^ HealthHarbor http://www.healthharbor.com
  22. ^ BBC News: Controversy dogs Aids forum
  23. ^ The Time Has Come for Universal Health Care | U.S. Senator Barack Obama
  24. ^ Clinton, Obama, Insurance, By Paul Krugman, February 4, 2008.
  25. ^ Obama's Inflated Health Savings
  26. ^ "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: An International Update on the Comparative Performance of American Health Care". The Commonwealth Fund. May 15, 2007. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Content/Publications/Fund-Reports/2007/May/Mirror--Mirror-on-the-Wall--An-International-Update-on-the-Comparative-Performance-of-American-Healt.aspx. Retrieved on March 7, 2009. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Freedom of information can mean: whether a particular piece of information can be freely created, read, modified, copied and distributed; see free content (as well as free culture and free software) freedom to express ones opinions or ideas, generally, within a society; see freedom of speech the accessibility of... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Compulsory education is education which is required by the government, usually at the national level. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... It is now time to consider access to safe drinking water and sanitation as a human right, defined as the right to equal and non-discriminatory access to a sufficient amount of safe drinking water for personal and domestic uses - drinking, personal sanitation, washing of clothes,food preparation and personal... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Oral contraceptives. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

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Health Care (0 words)
Health care workers also are more likely to remain employed in the same occupation, due, in part, to the high level of education and training required for many health occupations.
Employment in home health care and nursing and residential care should increase rapidly as life expectancies rise, and as aging children are less able to care for their parents and rely more on long-term care facilities.
Health care establishments that must be staffed around the clock to care for patients and handle emergencies often pay premiums for overtime and weekend work, holidays, late shifts, and time spent on call.
Health care - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (433 words)
Health care or healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions [1].
In 2003, health care costs paid to hospitals, doctors, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies, medical device manufacturers and other components of the health care system, consumed 15.3 percent [2] of the GDP of the United States, the largest of any country in the world.
The term underserved is used to refer to populations which are disadvantaged with regard to health care due to their ability to pay for care, ability to access care, ability to access comprehensive health care or that suffer health disparity for reasons of race, religion, language group or social status.
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