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Encyclopedia > Health Psychology
Psychology
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RESEARCH Ψ

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Transpersonal Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

APPLIED Ψ

Clinical
Educational
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Industrial/Org
Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness.[1] Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, although many also teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different approaches to health psychology have been defined: clinical, public health, community and critical health psychology[2] Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the concept. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...

Contents

Overview

Many researchers believe that physical health may be influenced by psychology through a variety of direct and indirect means. There is some evidence that certain negative mental states (such as depression and anxiety) can directly affect physical immunity through production of stress hormones, such as the catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Although this research is widely debated, there is also some indication that negative psychological states may lead to faster disease progression in certain diseases (such as HIV and heart disease) through these direct biological mechanisms. Negative emotional states may also indirectly affect disease processes through their influence on health behaviors. For example, depression has been related to many risk factors for poor health including overeating, smoking, physical inactivity, and poor medication compliance. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Health psychology is the “…use of psychological principles to promote health and to prevent illness" (Taylor 1990); it is also part of clinical treatment for established illness. This approach considers the biological, cognitive, behavioral, emotional, social, psychosomatic and environmental factors as they relate to health, illness and health care at the level of individuals. This approach has adopted what it calls the biopsychosocial model. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... A psychosomatic illness is one with physical manifestations and supposed psychological cause, often diagnosed when any known or identifiable physical cause was excluded by medical examination. ... please be mindful of the scientific process - if you are going to edit, hold you bias in check and provide citations! The biopsychosocial model is a general model that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors) and social factors (abbreviated BPS) all play a significant role in...

  • Clinical health psychology (ClHP) adopts a definition reflecting the fact that the field was originally a branch of clinical psychology; it is also a major contributor to the field of behavioral medicine within psychiatry. Clinical practice includes the techniques of education, behavioral change, and psychotherapy; with additional training, a clinical health psychologist can become a medical psychologist in certain countries and, consequently, prescribe medication.
  • Organizational health psychology (OHP) is the use of health psychology knowledge and techniques as applied to health and illness in the workplace, at the individual and group levels.
  • Public health psychology (PHP) tries to determine causation between psychological factors and health for the population as a whole, and present this information to educators, policy makers, and health care practitioners for the promotion of better public health. It gives prominence to population-level health outcomes and interventions. It is allied to other disciplines in the fields of global and public health including epidemiology, nutrition, genetics and statistics. Interventions are determined and "targeted" using population health statistics which evaluate health needs of various population groups as perceived by health authorities and policy makers. These interventions are "top-down" and tend to have varying levels of effectiveness across diverse population groups.
  • Community health psychology (CoHP) approach tries to understand what is happening at a local level. Interventions are generated collaboratively with coalitions of stakeholders and are aimed to facilitate community empowerment to improve the physical and/or mental health of local people outside of any formal involvement of the health care system.
  • Critical health psychology (CrHP) is concerned with the distribution of power and the impact of power differentials on health experience and behavior, health care systems and health policy. It prioritizes social justice and the universal right to health of peoples of all races, genders, ages, and socioeconomic positions. A major concern is health inequalities. The CrHPist is an agent of change, not simply an analyst or cataloger. The field was developed through the foundation of the Journal of Health Psychology and the International Society of Critical Health Psychology.

Health psychology is both a theoretical and applied field. Many different methods are employed including questionnaires, interviews, controlled studies, and actions designed to bring about change using "action research". Health psychologists conduct health interviews with clients that aim to construct a more holistic picture of each person’s health, one that includes their genes, religious beliefs, social supports, living conditions, emotional state, and beliefs of health, etc. They use this information to work alongside a person’s physicians and therapists to develop a treatment tailored for individual needs or to develop greater empowerment among the community's members so that the community is able to strengthen and sustain its own quality of life. Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Medical psychology (also known as Clinical Health Psychology, Psychosomatic Medicine, Health Care Psychology, Behavioral Medicine, or Health Psychology) revolves around the idea that both the body and mind are one, indivisible structure. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Biomedical researchers subdivide populations into groups with the goal of improving the prevention and treatment of diseases. ... The International Society of Critical Health Psychology is a society devoted to debate about critical ideas within health psychology and developing new ways of health psychology practice. ... A change agent or agent of change is someone who engages either deliberately or whose behavior results in social, cultural or behavioral change. ... The Journal of Health Psychology is an interdisciplinary, international journal edited by David Marks, Professor of Psychology at City University, London, UK // Aims and Scope Recent years have seen a dramatic international growth of research, debate and teaching in health psychology, with scholars throughout the social sciences, medicine and health... The International Society of Critical Health Psychology is a society devoted to debate about critical ideas within health psychology and developing new ways of health psychology practice. ...


Objectives of health psychology

Understand behavioral factors

Health psychologists seek to identify the behaviors and experiences that promote health, lead to illness, influence the effectiveness of health care, and recommend improvements to health policy in their life. There are many examples of this. For instance, smoking, diet, and regular exercise all have an impact on the contribution or prevention to the formation of physical and mental disease. There are some minor associations between illness and individual characteristics such as personality. For example, it is claimed that individuals with thrill seeking personalities are more likely to drive fast, making them more likely to injure themselves in car accidents. And also that people distrustful of physicians will not get regular checkups. However there are contextual factors in the form of political, economic, cultural, community, social and lifestyle factors that have a more major influence on the health of particular individuals, although they will not generally recognize these.


Factors that lead to the behaviors that cause illness are of interest because they help psychologists to predict who is most susceptible to illness and why. There are many contributing factors that help determine our behaviors, and all of the dimensions of the biopsychosocial model can be applied to understand these inter-connections. Biologically, physical addiction plays an important role in smoking cessation. As does the psychological dependency on tobacco brought about largely by seductive advertising and other forms of tobacco promotion. Psychologically, people with high stress jobs are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease. Socially, people with low incomes have less access to health resources and screening processes. They also are exposed to greater environmental toxins, lower levels of education, poorer housing, less healthy foods, higher smoking prevalence, and many other toxic socially determined living conditions. please be mindful of the scientific process - if you are going to edit, hold you bias in check and provide citations! The biopsychosocial model is a general model that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors) and social factors (abbreviated BPS) all play a significant role in... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


Health psychologists also aim to change health behaviors for the dual purpose of helping people stay healthy and helping patients adhere to disease treatment regimens. Cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior modification are techniques often used for this purpose. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... This article is about the behaviorist technique. ...


Prevent illness

Psychologists work towards promoting health through behavioral change, as mentioned above, but they prevent illness in other ways as well. Practitioners emphasize education as a large part of illness prevention, as many people do not recognize the risk to illness present in their lives. Or they are unable to implement the knowledge that they have owing to the pressures of their everyday existence. A common example of this is anti-smoking campaigns. Those least able to afford tobacco products consume them the most. It is a method for controlling emotional states, the daily experiences of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable people. Health psychologists also aim at educating health professionals like physicians and nurses in communicating with patients in a way that highlights the psychosocial barriers to understanding, memorizing and implementing effective strategies for reducing risk factors and making behavior changes and that will help them to develop appropriate means for communicating information relevant to diagnosis, treatment and prognosis (Ogden, 2004). Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ...


Explore the effects of disease

There is much to know about how disease affects our mental well being. When illness or accidents befall a person, their entire life is affected. A psychologically healthy individual who gets severely injured, say, now has many different practical issues to contend with that will in turn affect their psychological wellbeing. Who will take care of them while they recover? If they can’t work, how will they pay for bills or care for dependents? If this person sees themselves as being self-reliant, how do they handle this new identity? What if they cannot pursue their usual hobbies and interests? All of these possibilities can affect a person’s relationships, self-esteem, stress level, happiness and belief system. Many of these issues are economic and social in nature rather than psychological but they have a direct impact on psychological wellbeing.


This important field of study considers how those with terminal illnesses can lead a better life. When there is little hope of recovery, health psychology therapists can improve the quality of life of the patient by helping them to recover their mental well-being. This article is about incurable disease. ...


Critical analysis of health policy

Critical health psychologists are exploring how health policy can impact on inequities, inequalities and social injustice. This expands the scope of health psychology beyond the level of individual health to an examination of the social and economic determinants of health experience both within and between regions and nations. The individualism of mainstream health psychology has been critiqued and deconstructed by critical health psychologists and newer qualitative methods and frameworks for investigating health experience and behavior are advocated (Marks, Murray et al., 2005).


Applications of Health Psychology

Improving doctor-patient communication

Health psychologists attempt to aid the process of communication between doctors and patients during medical consultations. There are many problems in this process, particularly the use of jargon by doctors (using long, complex, usually medicine-specific words often not understood by the patient). Researchers such as Boyle and McKinlay have investigated this process and discovered not only that patient understanding is low (40% of women on a maternity ward understood 13 medical terms that they were given), but that even doctors do not expect their patients to understand their jargon! One main area of research on this topic involves 'doctor centered' or 'patient centered' consultations. Doctor centered consultations are generally directive, with the patient answering questions and taking little part in decision-making. Although this style is preferred by elderly people and others, many people dislike the sense of hierarchy or ignorance that it inspires. They prefer the patient centered consultations, which focus on the patient's needs, involve the doctor listening to the patient completely before making a decision, and involving the patient in the process of choosing treatment and finding a diagnosis.[3] For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ...


Improving adherence to medical advice

Getting people to obey medical advice and adhere to their treatment regimens is a difficult task for health psychologists. Mostly, people forget to take their pills or find their side effects too difficult to cope with (rational non-adherence), but failing to take prescribed medication costs the Health Service millions of pounds per year, as well as wasting millions of usable, viable medicines that could otherwise be used to help other people. Estimated adherence rates are very hard to measure due to the issues raised by the various techniques available (see below). Sarafino estimates adherence to be very low, however, he judges adherence to be following every part of the treatment program, whereas Taylor encourages the tailoring of the program to one's personal routine.[4] Taylor may refer to: // Electoral district of Taylor, a state electoral district in South Australia. ...


Ways of measuring adherence

  • Counting the number of pills in the medicine bottle - although this has problems with privacy and seems patronizing or showing lack of trust in patients
  • Using self report measures - although participants may fail to return the self report or lie about their adherence
  • Asking doctor or health worker - although this presents problems on doctor-patient confidentiality
  • Using 'Trackcap' bottles, which measure the number of times the bottle is opened - however, this either raises problems of informed consent or, if informed consent is gained, demand characteristics.[4]

Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... In research, and particularly psychology, demand characteristics refers to a an experimental artifact where participants form an interpretation of the experiments purpose and subconsciously change their behavior accordingly. ...

Managing Pain

Health psychology attempts to find treatments to reduce and eliminate pain, as well as understanding pain anomalies such as episodic analgesia, causalgia, neuralgia and phantom limb pain. Problems of measuring and describing pain are prominent, although have been reduced by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Treatments for pain involve patient-administered analgesia, acupuncture (found by Berman to be effective in reducing pain for osteo-arthritis of the knee), biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) — also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS)— is a chronic condition characterized by severe burning pain, pathological changes in bone and skin, excessive sweating, tissue swelling, and extreme sensitivity to touch. ... Neuralgia is a painful disorder of the nerves. ... The gate control theory of pain of Ron Melzack and Patrick Wall arises from evolutionary psychology. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Biofeedback mechanism. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ...


Managing stress

Stress is a common problem in modern life, but extreme levels of stress can cause fatigue, irritability, burnout and even illness. Health psychology attempts to define, measure and treat stress. The most effective treatment so far is the Stress Inoculation program pioneered by Meichenbaum.


Religiosity

The longitudinal Life Cycle Study began in 1921 with 1500 children of average age 11. Class ethnicity variables were removed by only using white children from middle-class families. The children had an IQ of 150+ and had been identified as "gifted" by their teachers. In 1950, the participants were asked to rate their religiosity on a scale of 1 to 4. In 1990, researchers compared this score with morality of the sample and concluded that religious people live longer. However, it is not clear why this is - it may be related to happiness and feelings of fulfillment. Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Poverty

In a study by Fraser, it was found that affluent people were more likely to seek medical help earlier that the less affluent, who had less access to a car.


Personality

Freidman and Rosenman found that Type A personalities were twice as likely to develop coronary heart disease. They studied 2500 men over a period of 12 years. In some psychological theories, the Type A personality, also known as the Type A Behavior Pattern, is a set of characteristics that includes being impatient, excessively time-conscious, insecure about ones status, highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...


Ethnicity

John Henryism John Henryism, based on the African American folk hero John Henry, is recognized as a style of strong coping behaviors used . ...


References

  1. ^ APA, Division 38. What a Health Psychologist Does and How to Become One. Retrieved 03-04-2007.
  2. ^ Marks, D.F., Murray, M. et al. (2005). "Health Psychology: Theory, Research & Practice." London, England : Sage Publications. ISBN 141290336X
  3. ^ Banyard, Philip, Psychology in Practice, (Hodder and Stoughton, 2002), pg 19-38.
  4. ^ a b Banyard, Philip, Psychology in Practice (Hodder and Stoughton, 2002) pg 39-54

Bibliography

  • Michie, S. and Abraham, C. (2004). (editors) Health Psychology in Practice. London. BPS Blackwells.
  • Cohen, L.M., McChargue, D.E., Collins, Jr. F.L., (2003). "The Health Psychology Handbook: Practical Issues for the Behavioral Medicine Specialist". Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
  • Ogden, J. (2004). Health Psychology: A textbook third edition. Open University Press: Berkshire, England.
  • Taylor, S. E. (1990). Health psychology. American Psychologist, 45(1), 40-50.

See also

  • Body-mind

The seperation of the mind from the body is of relatively recent origin. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSc Health Psychology / Psychology and Health (355 words)
Health Psychology is a discipline devoted to furthering an understanding of scientific relationships between behavioural principles on the one hand and physical health and illness on the other.
The MSc in Health Psychology at City was one of the first three such courses to be established, and was set up, along with those at University College, London and Middlesex University, in 1988.
The recent formation, by the British Psychological Society (BPS), of a Division of Health Psychology has led to the requirement for master's courses in health psychology to be accredited by the BPS as Stage 1 of professional health psychology training.
Psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4203 words)
Psychology as a medical discipline can be seen in Thomas Willis' reference to psychology (the "Doctrine of the Soul") in terms of brain function, as part of his 1672 anatomical treatise "De Anima Brutorum" ("Two Discourses on the Souls of Brutes").
Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care.
Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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