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Encyclopedia > Health

At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, Health was defined as being "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".[1][2] Health is the level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism, often implicitly human. ... WHO redirects here. ...


This definition invited nations to expand the conceptual framework of their health systems beyond issues related to the physical condition of individuals and their diseases, and it motivated us to focus our attention on what we now call social determinants of health. Consequently, WHO challenged political, academic, community, and professional organisations devoted to improving or preserving health to make the scope of their work explicit, including their rationale for allocating resources. This opened the door for public accountability [3].


Only a handful of publications have focused specifically on the definition of health and its evolution in the first 6 decades. Some of them highlight its lack of operational value and the problem created by use of the word "complete." Others declare the definition, which has not been modified since 1948, "simply a bad one." [4]. More recently, Smith suggested that it is "a ludicrous definition that would leave most of us unhealthy most of the time." [5].


In 1986, the WHO, in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said that health is "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities." Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC), which is composed of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) also define health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is a 1986 document produced by the World Health Organisation. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ...


Overall health is achieved through a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being, which, together is commonly referred to as the Health Triangle.

Contents

Aspects of health

Physical health

Physical fitness refers to body health, and is the result of regular exercise, proper diet and nutrition, and proper rest for physical recovery. Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


This is also influenced by the standard of living and quality of life. Genetics also plays a major role in people's height. The study of human growth, its regulators, and implications is known as Auxology. This article is about the general scientific term. ... Auxology is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth; though it is also a fundamental of biology generally. ...


Mental health

Mental health describes either a level of cognitive or emotional well-being or an absence of a mental disorder. The World Health Organization defines mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”.[3] However, despite official definitions, the term mental health, and the question of whether or not an individual is 'mentally well', remains a subjective assessment. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Determinants of health

The LaLonde report suggests that there are four general determinants of health including human biology, environment, lifestyle, and healthcare services.[4] Thus, health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. Social determinants of health are the social conditions in which people live which determine their health. ... The LaLonde report is a 1974 report produced in Canada entitled A new perspective on the health of Canadians. ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... Health science is the applied science dealing with health, and it includes many subdisciplines. ...


A major environmental factor is water quality, especially for the health of infants and children in developing countries.[5]  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


Studies show that in developed countries, the lack of neighborhood recreational space that includes the natural environment leads to lower levels of neighborhood satisfaction and higher levels of obesity; therefore, lower overall well being.[6] Therefore, the positive psychological benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use. World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


Maintaining health

Achieving health and remaining healthy is an ongoing process. Effective strategies for staying healthy and improving one's health include the following elements: Self-care is a personal choice in health maintenance; it is the extent to which an individual, family or community engages in any activity with the intention of improving health, preventing disease, managing conditions, and restoring health. ...


Social Activity

Personal health depends partially on the social structure of one's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships is linked to good health conditions, longevity, productivity, and a positive attitude. This is due to the fact that positive social interaction as viewed by the participant increases many chemical levels in the brain which are linked to personality and intelligence traits. Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ...


Sports nutrition

Sports nutrition focuses the link between dietary supplements and athletic performance. One goal of sports nutrition is to maintain glycogen levels and prevent glycogen depletion. Another is to optimize energy levels and muscle tone. An athlete's strategy for winning an event may include a schedule for the entire season of what to eat, when to eat it, and in what precise quantities (before, during, after, and between workouts and events). Sports Nutrition is a multi-disciplinary field of study that incorporates exercise physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, integrative physiology, and cell/molecular biology. ...


Hygiene

Hygiene is the practice of keeping the body clean to prevent infection and illness, and the avoidance of contact with infectious agents. Hygiene practices include bathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands especially before eating, washing food before it is eaten, cleaning food preparation utensils and surfaces before and after preparing meals, and many others. This may help prevent infection and illness. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are washed away with the germs, reducing their chance of entering the body. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleansing the hands with water or another liquid, with the use of soap, for the purpose of removing soil, dirt and/or microorganisms. ...


Stress management

Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, such as by weakening the immune system and mind. Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills and abilities builds confidence, which also reduces the stress reaction to situations where those skills are applicable. A cluttered environment with too many tasks can lead to stress. ... Relaxation techniques are used by people who wish to relax, for a wide variety of reasons. ... This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Attitude is a key concept in social psychology. ...


Reducing uncertainty, by increasing knowledge and experience related to stress-causing situations, has the same effect. Learning to cope with problems better, such as improving problem solving and time management skills, may also reduce stressful reaction to problems. Repeatedly facing an object of one's fears may also desensitize the fight-or-flight response with respect to that stimulus—e.g., facing bullies may reduce fear of bullies.


Prolonged hours of surfing on the Internet is a major concern that can affect the eyes significantly.[citation needed] White backgrounds on computer screens with a viewing distance of less than 14 inches is known to increase strain, mental fatigue and temporary di-chromatic visions in a normal healthy human being. Trying to opt for black or any non-white backgrounds can help in reducing eye strain in front of PCs.[citation needed]


Health care

Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... Professionals in the healthcare industry [1] are often referred to as allied health professionals which usually need formal training before they are hired, for example, medical assistants [2], dental hygienists and assistants, phlebotomists [3], physical therapists and physical therapy assistants, hemodialysis technicians, laboratory technicians, electrocardiographic technicians, x-ray technicians, medical...


Workplace wellness programs

Workplace wellness programs are recognized by an increasingly large number of companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, and for increasing morale, loyalty, and productivity.[citation needed] Workplace wellness programs can include things like onsite fitness centers, health presentations, wellness newsletters, access to health coaching, tobacco cessation programs and training related to nutrition, weight and stress management. Other programs may include health risk assessments, health screenings and body mass index monitoring. The workplace wellness program is offered by some employers as a combination of educational, organizational, and environmental activities designed to support behavior conducive to the health of employees in a business and their families. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... Look up body mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."[citation needed] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). Public health has many sub-fields, but is typically divided into the categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental, social and behavioral health, and occupational health, are also important fields in public health. Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... A hotel porter is an example of a service occupation. ... Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. ... ...


The focus of public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a disease through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. In addition to these activities, in many cases treating a disease can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak of an infectious disease. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of public health measures. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Child receiving an oral polio vaccine. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ...


Role of science in health

Health science is the branch of science focused on health, and it includes many subdisciplines. There are two approaches to health science: the study and research of the human body and health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals) function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases. Health science is the applied science dealing with health, and it includes many subdisciplines. ... This article is about the concept. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Sources

Health research builds primarily on the basic sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics as well as a variety of multidisciplinary fields (for example medical sociology). Some of the other primarily research-oriented fields that make exceptionally significant contributions to health science are biochemistry, epidemiology, and genetics. For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Medical sociology is the study of individual and group behaviors with respect to health and illness. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Application

Applied health sciences also endeavor to better understand health, but in addition they try to directly improve it. Some of these are: biomedical engineering, biotechnology, nursing, nutrition, pharmacology, pharmacy, public health (see above), psychology, physical therapy, and medicine. The provision of services to maintain or improve people's health is referred to as health care (see above). The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


See also

Health and fitness portal

Health is the functional and metabolic efficiency of an organism. ... mHealth (also written as m-health or sometimes mobile health) is a recent term for medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices, PDAs, and other wireless devices. ... Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. ... General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... Exercise is activity performed in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation). ... Health education is defined as the process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of health. ... The health care industry or health profession treats patients who are injured, sick, disabled, or infirm. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Mental health, mental hygiene and mental wellness are all terms used to describe the absence of mental illness. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Sleep hygiene is the practice of following simple guidelines in an attempt to ensure more restful, effective sleep which can promote daytime alertness and help treat or avoid certain kinds of sleep disorders. ... Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the basic shortness of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. ... Following is a list of topics related to life extension: Accelerated aging disease Cockaynes syndrome Progeria Werners syndrome Xeroderma pigmentosum Accident Advanced Cell Technology Corporation Aerobic exercise Age-adjusted life expectancy Age-Related Eye Disease Study Age-Related Macular Degeneration Aging Aging and memory Aging brain Aging population... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Adolescent medicine is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... Nutrition or nutrition science studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... Sex education is education about sexual reproduction in human beings, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. ... WHO redirects here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1] Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1947 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100); and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
  2. ^ [2] Constitution of the World Health Organization- Basic Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, October 2006.
  3. ^ World Health Organization (2005). Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging evidence, Practice: A report of the World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. World Health Organization. Geneva.
  4. ^ Lalonde, Marc. "A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians." Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services; 1974.
  5. ^ The UN World Water Development Report | Facts and Figures | Meeting basic needs
  6. ^ "Recreational Values of the Natural Environment in Relation to Neighborhood Satisfaction, Physical Activity, Obesity and Wellbeing."

References

  • Jadad, AR and O'Grady L. How should health be defined? BMJ 2008; 337:a2900 [6]
  • WHO (1979) Health for all.
  • WHO (1980) WHO Chr., 34(2)80
  • WHO (1986) Concepts of Health Behavior Research, Reg. Health Paper No.13, SEARO, New Delhi
  • WHO (1978) Health for all.
  • UNDP, Human Development Report 1999, Oxford University Press
  • UNICEF (2001) State of world's children, 2001
  • WHO (1979) Health for all.
  • Evang, K. (1967); In health of mankind; Ciba foundation; 100th symposium, Churchill, London
  • Last, J.M (1983) A Dictionary of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press
  • Raska, K (1966), WHO Chr., 20, 315

Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...

External links

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

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