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Encyclopedia > Head and neck anatomy
An MRI scan of the head.

Head and neck anatomy focuses on the structures of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat. It is an area frequently studied in depth by surgeons, dentists, dental technicians, and speech language pathologists. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Dental perspective

Dental students focus their studies on teeth and the support structures of teeth. However, there are no independent structures or systems of the body. An abscessed tooth may quickly spread pathogens to other body organs and systems. For example an infected tooth may lead to heart disease (Endocarditis) and kidney disease (Glomerulonephritis) if the pathogen is either a staphylococcus aureus (staph) or streptococcal (strep) bacterium. Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis and abbreviated GN, is a primary or secondary immune-mediated renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. faecalis S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. suis S. viridans S. salivarius Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ...


Musculoskeletal system

The head is positioned upon the superior portion of the vertebral column, attaching the skull upon C-1, (the atlas). The skeletal section of the head and neck forms the superior segment of the axial skeleton and comprises skull, hyoid bone, auditory ossicles, and cervical spine. The skull can be further subdivided into: The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the topmost (first) cervical vertebra of the spine. ... diagram of the axial skeleton The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. ... A cervical vertebra Cervical vertebrae (Vertebrae cervicales) are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process. ...

  • (a) cranium, (8 bones: frontal, 2-parietal, occipital, 2-temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid)), and
  • (b) facial bones, (14 bones: 2-zygomatic, 2-maxillary, 2-palentine, 2-nasal, 2-lacrimal, vomer, 2-inferior conchae, mandible).

As the fetus develops, the facial bones usually form into pairs, and then fuse together. As the cranium fuses, sutures are formed that resemble stitching between bone plates. Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... Sutures are the stitches doctors, and especially surgeons, use to hold skin, organs, blood vessels and all other tissues of the human body together, after they have been severed in minor or major surgery. ...


In a newborn, the junction of the paritial bones with the frontal and occipital bones, form the anterior (front) and posterior (back) fontanelle, or soft spots. The separation of the cranial bone plates at time of birth facilitate passage of the head of the fetus through the mother's birth canal, or pelvic girdle. The parietial bones, and occipital bone can overlap each other in the birth canal, and form the unusual looking "cone head" appearance in a newborn when delivered in a natural, or vaginal, delivery. In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy The vagina (from the Latin for sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ...


The occipital bone articulates with the atlas near the foramen magnum. The atlas articulates with the occipital condyle superiorly and the axis inferiorly. The spinal cord passes through the foramen magnum providing continuity for the central nervous system (CNS). Articulation (anatomy) of the neck includes: flexion, extension, hyperextension (nodding yes), and rotation (shaking head no). The word occipital refers to several areas of the human body in the occiput, the rear of the skull: Occipital bun Occipital lobe Occipital bone Lesser occipital nerve Greater occipital nerve This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... In anatomy, in the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: great hole) is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A joint (articulation) is the location at which two bones make contact (articulate). ... In anatomy, Flexion is movement whereby bones or other objects are brought closer together. ... In metaphysics, extension is the property of taking up space; see Extension (metaphysics). ... In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ...

Group Name Nerve Function
facial expression Epicranius: Frontalis and Occipitalis facial nerve eyebrows and scalp
facial expression Orbicularis oris facial nerve closes lips
facial expression Zygomaticus facial nerve smiling
facial expression Levator labii superioris facial nerve upper lip
facial expression Depressor labii inferioris facial nerve lower lip
facial expression Buccinator facial nerve cheeks
facial expression Mentalis facial nerve chin
facial expression Platysma facial nerve frowning
facial expression Risorius facial nerve mouth angle
facial expression Orbicularis oculi facial nerve closes eye
facial expression Corrugator supercilli facial nerve eyebrow
facial expression Levator palpebrae superioris oculomotor nerve upper eyelid
chewing - lower mandible Masseter mandibular nerve closing and protruding mandible,
chewing - lower mandible Temporalis mandibular nerve elevates and controls side to side movement of mandible
chewing - lower mandible Medial pterygoid mandibular nerve elevates mandible,
chewing - lower mandible Lateral pterygoid mandibular nerve protracts mandible, opens mouth.
tongue - extrinsic Genioglossus hypoglossal nerve protraction,
tongue - extrinsic Styloglossus hypoglossal nerve elevation and retraction,
tongue - extrinsic Hyoglossis hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue
tongue - extrinsic Palatoglossus Pharyngeal plexus, pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve elevates tongue while swallowing
oral cavity floor Digastric Trigeminal nerve and Facial nerve hyoid and mandible movement
oral cavity floor Stylohyoid Facial nerve elevates hyoid
oral cavity floor Mylohyoid Trigeminal nerve, hyoid and mandible movement
oral cavity floor Geniohyoid Cervical nerve C-1 hyoid, tongue, and mandible movement
move head Sternocleidomastoid Accessory nerve nodding and turning
move head Semispinalis dorsal rami of cervical nerves extends head, supports turning
move head Splenius capitis dorsal rami of middle and lower cervical nerves extend head, supports turning
move head Longissimus capitus dorsal rami of middle and lower cervical nerves extends head, supports turning

The Frontalis is a muscle of the human body. ... The Occipitalis muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The orbicularis oris is the sphincter muscle around the mouth. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... Zygomaticus can refer to: Zygomatic bone Zygomaticus minor muscle Zygomatic major muscle Category: ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Levator labii superioris is a muscle of the human body used in facial expression. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Depressor labii is part of a small quadrilateral muscle. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... Buccinator The buccinator is a muscle of which the bulk of is located in the cheeks. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Mentalis is a muscle of the human body. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The platysma is a superficial muscle that stretches from the clavicle to the mandible overlapping the sternocleidomastoid. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Risorius is a muscle of the human body. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Orbicularis oculi is a muscle of the human body. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Corrugator supercilii is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle, placed at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the Frontalis and Orbicularis oculi. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The levator palpebrae superioris muscle is a muscle in the orbit that elevates the superior (upper) eyelid. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. ... Medial pterygoid can refer to: Medial pterygoid muscle Medial pterygoid plate Category: ... The lateral pterygoid (or external pterygoid) is a muscle of mastication with two heads. ... The Genioglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ... The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process, near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament. ... The Hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the Styloglossus and Longitudinalis inferior. ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers supplied by the pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve joining with branches from the glossopharyngeal nerve, sympathetic fibers, and the external laryngeal nerve. ... Pharyngeal branch can refer to any one of several different structures near the pharynx: Nerves pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve - ramus pharyngeus nervi vagi pharyngeal branches of recurrent laryngeal nerve - rami pharyngei nervi laryngei recurrentis pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve - rami pharyngei nervi glossopharyngei Arteries pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The Digastric is a muscle of the human body. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying in front of, and above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. ... Mylohyoid can refer to: Mylohyoid muscle Mylohyoid line This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated above the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. ... The cervical nerves are the spinal nerves from the cervical vertebrae. ... In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscles are muscles in the neck that acts to flex and rotate the head. ... In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the neck. ... The semispinalis muscle is a transversospinalis muscle of the human body. ... The posterior (or dorsal) branches (or divisions) of the spinal nerves are as a rule smaller than the anterior divisions. ... The Cervical Nerves—The posterior division of the first cervical or suboccipital nerve is larger than the anterior division, and emerges above the posterior arch of the atlas and beneath the vertebral artery. ... The splenius capitis arises from the lower half of the ligamentum nuchæ, from the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and from the spinous processes of the upper three or four thoracic vertebræ. The fibers of the muscle are directed upward and lateralward and are inserted, under cover of... The longissimus is the muscle lateral to the semispinalis. ...

Circulatory system

Blood circulates from the upper systemic loop originating at the aortic arch, and includes: the brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid and left subclavian artery. The head and neck are emptied of blood by the subclavian vein and jugular vein. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... For the embryological structure, see Aortic arches. ... The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck. ... In human anatomy, the common carotid artery is an artery that supplies the head and neck; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. ... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ...


Blood supply

Right side of neck dissection showing the brachiocephalic, right common carotid artery and its branches

The brachiocephalic artery or trunk is the first and largest artery that branches to form the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. This artery provides blood to the right upper chest, right arm, neck, and head, through a branch called right vertebral artery. The right and left vertebral artery feed into the basilar artery and upward to the Posterior cerebral artery, which provides most of the brain with oxygenated blood. The posterior cerebral artery and the posterior communicating artery are within the circle of Willis. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (725x800, 170 KB) Same as Gray520. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (725x800, 170 KB) Same as Gray520. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the common carotid artery is an artery that supplies the head and neck; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. ... In human anatomy, the subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries. ... The basilar artery is one of the arteries which the brain supplies with oxygen-rich blood. ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. ...


The left common carotid artery divides to form the: internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). The ICA supplies the brain. The ECA supplies the neck and face. The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


The left subclavian artery and the right subclavian artery, one on each side of the body form the internal thoracic artery, the vertebral artery, the thyrocervical trunk, and the costocervical trunk. The subclavian becomes the axiliary artery at the lateral border of the first rib. The left subclavian artery also provides blood to the left upper chest and left arm. Right internal thoracic artery and its branches. ... The thyrocervical trunk ( A12. ... The costocervical trunk (superior intercostal artery) arises from the upper and back part of the subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side. ...


Blood-brain barrier

The Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is semi-permeable membrane that controls the capillary leak potential of the circulatory system. In most parts of the body, the smallest blood vessels, called capillaries, are lined with endothelial cells. Endothelial tissue has small spaces between each individual cell so substances can move readily between the inside and the outside of the vessel. However, in the brain, the endothelial cells fit tightly together to create a tight junction and substances cannot pass out of the bloodstream. Some molecules, such as glucose, are transported out of the blood by active transport. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Diagram of Tight junction. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Sodium-Potassium pump, an example of Primary active transport secondary active transport Active transport (sometimes called active uptake) is the mediated transport of biochemicals, and other atomic/molecular substances, across membranes. ...


Specialized glial cells called astrocytes form a tight junction or protective barrier around brain blood vessels and may be important in the development of the BBB. Astrocytes may be also be responsible for transporting ions (electrolytes) from the brain to the blood. Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytes, also known as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped cells in the brain. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ...


Blood return

Blood from the brain and neck flows from: (1) within the cranium via the internal jugular veins, a continuation of the sigmoid sinuses. The right and left external jugular veins drain from the parotid glands, facial muscles, scalp into the subclavian veins. The right and left vertebral veins drain the vertebrae and muscles into the right subclavian vein and into the superior vena cava, into the right atrium of the heart. Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The internal jugular vein collects the blood from the brain, from the superficial parts of the face, and from the neck. ... The sigmoid sinuses (left & right), within a human head, are 2 areas beneath the brain, which allow blood veins to span the area, from the center of the head downward. ... The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the posterior facial with the posterior auricular vein. ... The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... Superior vena cava - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system drains the head and neck of excess interstitial fluid via lymph vessels or capillaries, equally into the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. In anatomy, lymph vessels are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph away from the tissues, through the lymph nodes and thoracic duct back to the general circulation. ... The right lymphatic duct, about 1. ... In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is an important part of the lymphatic system — it is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body. ...


Lymph nodes line the cervical spine and neck regions as well as along the face and jaw. Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


The tonsils also are lymphatic tissue and help mediate the ingestion of pathogens. The Palatine tonsils. ...


Tonsils in humans include, from superior to inferior: nasopharyngeal tonsils (also known as adenoids), palatine tonsils, and lingual tonsils. Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth. ... Adenoids, or pharyngeal tonsils, are folds of lymphatic tissue covered by ciliated epithelium. ... The Palatine tonsils with the soft palate, uvula, and tongue visible. ... The lingual tonsils are rounded masses of lymphatic tissue that cover the posterior region of the tongue. ...


Together this set of lymphatic tissue is called the tonsillar ring or Waldeyer's ring. Regional lymphatics. ...


Oral cavity

The mouth, also called the (oral cavity) or buccal cavity is the entranceway into the digestive system containing both primary and accessory organs of digestion. For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... Is the cavity of the mouth ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ...


The mouth is designed to support chewing, (mastication) and swallowing, (deglutition), and speech (phonation).


Two rows of teeth are supported by facial bones of the skull, the maxilla above and the mandible below. The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...


Teeth are surrounded by gingiva, or gums, part of the periodontium, support tissue of oral cavity protection. The gingiva (sing. ... PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ...


In addition to the teeth, other structures that aid chewing are the lips, cheeks, tongue, hard palate, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... The word cheek can mean several things. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, otherwise known as the palatine process of the maxilla, located in the roof of the mouth. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ...


Teeth

Humans normally will produce two sets of teeth called primary dentition, or deciduous teeth, and secondary dentition, or permanent teeth. ... Permanent teeth are the second set of teeth formed in humans. ...


A tooth is the toughest known substance in the body exceeding bones in density and strength. Tooth enamel lends great strength to the tooth structure. The formation of a developing tooth includes the process of dentin formation, (see: Dentinogenesis) and enamel formation, (see: amelogenesis. As the tooth breaks through the gum into the mouth, the process is called eruption. The formation of teeth begins in early fetal development and goes through six stages: A mans visible teeth. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... Parts of a tooth, including dentin Dentin (BE: dentine) is the substance between enamel (substance in the crown) or cementum (substance in the root) of a tooth and the pulp chamber. ... Dentinogenesis is the creation, of dentin a substance that forms the inside of teeth. ... Amelogenesis is the formation of enamel on teeth and occurs during the Apposition stage of tooth development after dentinogenesis, which is the formation of dentin. ...

  • (1) initiation stage, 6th - 7th week
  • (2) bud stage, 8th wk
  • (3) cap stage, 9th-10 wk
  • (4) bell stage, 11th-12th wk
  • (5) apposition
  • (6) maturation stage

Tooth enamel is white initially but is susceptible to stains from coffee and cigarette usage. A tooth sits in a specialized socket called gomphosis. The tooth is held in location by a periodontal ligament, with the assistance of cementum. The permanent teeth, viewed from the right . Gomphosis is the external layer of Gomphoses is where the teeth are anchored in place in a timely manor. ... // Headline text The periodontal ligaments are considered part of the periodontium, as they are supporting tissue of a tooth. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ...


The white visible part of a tooth is called the crown. The rounded upper projections of the back teeth are cusps. The hard white exterior covering of the tooth is the enamel. As the tooth tapers below the gumline, the neck is formed. Below the neck, holding the tooth into the bone, is the root of the tooth. The inner portions of the tooth consist of the dentin, a bonelike tissue, and the pulp. The pulp is a soft tissue area containing the nerve and blood vessels to nourish and protect the tooth, located within the pulp cavity.


There are various tooth shapes for different jobs. For example, when chewing, the upper teeth work together with the lower teeth of the same shape to bite, chew, and tear food. The names of these teeth are:

  • (1) Incisors, there are eight incisors located in the front of the mouth (four on the top and four on the bottom). They have sharp, chisel-shaped crowns that cut food.
  • (2) Cuspids. or canine tooth, the four cuspids are next to each incisor. Cuspids have a pointed edge to tear food.
  • (3) Premolars or (bicuspids), the four pairs of molars are located next to the cuspids. They crush and tear food.
  • (4) Molars, there are twelve molars, in sets of three, at the back of the mouth. They have wide surfaces that help to grind food.

Adults have 32 permanent teeth, and children have 20 deciduous teeth. Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... A molar is the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ...


Salivary glands

There are three sets of salivary glands: the parotid, the submandibular and the sublingual glands. The (exocrine) glands secrete saliva for proper mixing of food and provides enzymes to start chemical digestion. The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Exocrine gland refers to glands that secrete their products via a duct. ...


Saliva also helps to hold together the formed bolus which is swallowed after chewing. For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Look up bolus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Saliva is composed of primarily of water, ions, salivary amylase, lysozymes, and trace amounts of urea. Salivary amylase is an enzyme produced by the salivary glands that begins carbohydrate digestion in the mouth and continues in the body of the stomach after the food and saliva have been swallowed. ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...


Periodontium

The periodontium includes all of the support membranes of the dental structures surround and support the teeth such as the gums and the attachment surfaces and membranes. PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ...


This includes epithelial tissues (epithelium), connective tissues, (ligaments and bone), muscle tissue and nervous tissue. This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen molecules. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Nervous tissue is the fourth major class of vertebrate tissue. ...


Tongue

The tongue is a specialized skeletal muscle that is specially adapted for the activities of speech, chewing, developing gustatory sense (taste) and swallowing. For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses in life on Earth. ...


It is attached to the hyoid bone. The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ...


Terms meaning tongue include "glosso" and "lingual."


Mucosa

The protective tissues of the oral cavity are continuous with the digestive tract are called mucosa or mucous membranes. The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ...


They line the oral, nasal, and external auditory meatus, (ear), providing lubrication and protection against pathogens. Anatomy of the human ear. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


This is a stratified squamous epithelium containing about three layers of cells. A comparison of squamous epithelia to other epithelial types In anatomy, squamous epithelium is an epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of flat, scalelike cells called squamous cells. ...


The lips are also protected by specialized sensory cells called Meissner's corpuscles. For other uses, see Lip (disambiguation). ... Meissners corpuscles (discovered by the anatomist Georg Meissner (1829-1903) are a type of mechanoreceptor and more specifically, a tactile corpuscle(corpusculum tactus). ...


The cells of the inner oral cavity are called the buccal mucosa. Buccal mucosa is mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek. ...


Nervous system

The nervous system is composed of a central nervous system (CNS), brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The CNS is located within the dorsal cavity, and the PNS extends through the ventral cavity. The central nervous system provides control and coordination of all eleven body systems and utilizes the endocrine system to form hormone chemical messengers that transport through the blood to influence the activity of individual cells of the body and their associated tissues, organs and systems. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The human body consists of the following body cavities: dorsal body cavity cranial cavity, enclosed by the Skull and contains the brain, eyes, and ears. ... Major endocrine glands. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


The CNS receives sensory (afferent) input from the PNS and directs the flow of information to association neurons (interneurons), located in the grey matter of the spinal cord and brain to create chemical synapse responses which in turn cause the formation of motor (efferent nerve) responses to stimulus. In nervous systems, afferent signals or nerve fibers carry information toward the brain. ... An interneuron (also called relay neuron, association neuron or bipolar neuron) is a term used to describe a neuron which has two different common meanings. ... An interneuron is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ... Gray matter redirects here. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... In the nervous system, efferent nerves otherwise known as motor or effector neuron carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous systemto effectors - either muscles or glands. ... Look up stimulus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The CNS is protected by the cranium, vertebral column, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord, which is an extension of the brain, and brain stem are joined at the base of the cranium at the foramen magnum. Most of the functions of the head and neck are directly influenced by the brain and transmitted to the PNS via the cranial nerves and spinal nerves of the cervical portion of the spine. Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... In anatomy, in the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: great hole) is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault. ...


The PNS has two subdivisions

The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ...

Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves directly impact the sensing and processing of smell, olfactory nerve; the control and coordination of the eyes for movement and visual input, a complex task utilizing four cranial nerves, optic nerve, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abducens nerve. Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye away from the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The sixth of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve is a motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle and therefore controls each eyes ability to abduct (move away from the midline). ...


The control of the face and mouth also involves extensive coordination of cranial nerves. The face is controlled primarily by two nerves, trigeminal nerve which provides sensations to the face, and the facial nerve which controls facial expression and taste to two-thirds of the tongue, it also controls secretion of saliva and tears. Injury of the trigeminal nerve may result in loss of muscles of mastication. Injury to the facial nerve may result in paralysis of the facial muscles, Bell's palsy, loss of taste, and closure of the eyes. The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Paralysed redirects here. ... Bells palsy (or facial palsy) is characterised by facial drooping on the affected half, due to malfunction of the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve), which controls the muscles of the face. ...


The oral cavity control is also coordinated by three nerves; the glossopharyngeal nerve which also controls various sensations including taste and proprioception, salivary gland secretion, and muscles of the mouth and neck; accessory nerve that mediates swallowing movements and head positioning; and the hypoglossal nerve that controls the tongue muscles for speech and swallowing actions. Injury of the glossopharyngeal nerve may result in swallowing difficulty, reduction in saliva production, loss of sensation in the throat, and loss of taste. Injury of the accessory nerve may result in paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle, resulting in limited ability to produce shrugging movements with the shoulders and turning the head. Injury of the hypoglossal nerve may result in difficulty in chewing, speaking, and swallowing. The tongue may also be affected. The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the neck. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ... In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid (pronounced ) muscles are muscles in the neck that act to flex and rotate the head. ... This article is about the human skeletal muscle. ...


Hearing and balance are another control function the cranial nerves, the vestibulocochlear nerve, which transmits sound and balance sensory information from the inner ear to the brain. Injury to the vestibulocochlear nerve may result in ringing of the ears, tinnitis, deafness, and dizziness, vertigo. The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... Tinnitus is a phenomenon of the nervous system connected to the ear, characterized by perception of a ringing or beating sound (often perceived as sinusoidal) with no external source. ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ...


The vagus nerve can also impact the head and neck. If the nerve pair is injured in the upper body, it may lead to difficulty in swallowing, possibly paralyzing the vocal cords, and interruption of sensations from many organs. The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... For the Bush song, see Swallowed (song). ... Paralysed redirects here. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ...


Spinal nerves

The spinal nerves arise from the spinal column. The top section of the spine is the cervical section, which contains nerves that innervate muscles of the head, neck and thoracic cavity, as well as transmit sensory information to the CNS. The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ...


The cervical spine section contains seven vertabrae, C-1 through C-7, and eight nerve pairs, C-1 through C-8.


There is the formation of an extensive network of nerve groups or tracts attaching to the spinal cord in arrangements called rami or plexus. PLEXUS (Physics Learning EXperience Using Software) is a name of project that was started by Vibor Cipan, physics student form Croatia and it is based on utilization of usage of computer technology to enhance learning of physics. ...


The sensory branches of spinal nerves include: lesser occipital, C-2, greater articular, (C-2 and C-3); transverse cervical, C-2 and C-3; and supraclavicular, C-3 and C-4. These nerve groups transmit afferent (sensory) information from the scalp, neck, and shoulders to the brain. The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... The transverse cervical artery (transverse artery of neck, transversalis colli artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery; it passes transversely above the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle to the anterior margin of the trapezius, beneath which it divides into... The supraclavicular nerves (descending branches) arise from the third and fourth cervical nerves; they emerge beneath the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and descend in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the platysma and deep cervical fascia. ... In nervous systems, afferent signals or nerve fibers carry information toward the brain. ...


The motor branches of spinal nerves include: ansa cervicalis, dividing into a superior root, C-1, and an inferior root, C-2 and C-3, and the phrenic nerve, C-3 to C-5, the segmental nerve branches, C-1 to C-5. These nerve groups transmit efferent nerve (motor) information from the brain to muscle groups of the scalp, neck, diaphragm (anatomy), and shoulders. The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. ... The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5) in humans. ... In the nervous system, efferent nerves otherwise known as motor or effector neuron carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous systemto effectors - either muscles or glands. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ...


Additionally there are: (C5-C8, and T1) Brachial plexus, providing the entire nerve supply of the shoulder and upper limb; and includes supraclavicular branches (dorsal scapular, suprascapular, long thoracic) lateral cord (musculocutaneous, lateral antibrachial cutaneous, lateral head of median nerve), medial cord (ulnar, medial head of median nerve, medial antibrachial cutaneous, medial brachial cutaneous), posterior cord (axillary, radial), controlling the arm. The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... Dorsal scapular can refer to: Dorsal scapular nerve Dorsal scapular artery Dorsal scapular vein Category: ... The suprascapular artery (or transverse scapular artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk. ... The long thoracic nerve (external respiratory nerve of Bell; posterior thoracic nerve) supplies the Serratus anterior. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (or lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm) (branch of musculocutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) passes behind the cephalic vein, and divides, opposite the elbow-joint, into a volar and a dorsal branch. ... The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, also sometimes misspelled antibrachial) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. ... The Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. ...


Note: Damage to the spinal cord above C-5 may result in respiratory arrest and death if not medically treated. Respiratory arrest is the cessation of the normal tidal flow of the lungs due to paralysis of the diaphragm, collapse of the lung or any number of respiratory failures. ...


Endocrine system

The endocrine system is under the direct supervision of the nervous system, using the negative feedback principal of homeostasis, to create hormones which act as chemical instant messengers. The hypothalamus connects directly to the pituitary gland, both through the circulatory system and by direct connection of neurons. Also, within the cranium, the pineal gland, which attaches to the thalamus, controls the body's 24 hour rhythms circadian rhythm through the release of melatonin. Endocrine indicates that the secretion is used within the body. Endocrine glands are termed as ductless and release their secretions directly into the blood. The Human Nervous System. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...


The pituitary gland is also called hypophysis, or master gland. It secretes hormones that directly impact the body as well as hormones that indirectly control body functions because they activate other endocrine glands, such as the adrenal cortex (ACTH) and the thyroid gland (TSH). These two glands when stimulated by pituitary hormones then release their own hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes: growth hormone (GH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Prolactin (PRL), and the posterior lobe secretes: Antidieuretic hormone (ADH), and Oxytocin (OT). There is an intermediate lobe, in adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, nearly indistinguishable from the anterior lobe. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtrÉ’pɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn, əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtroÊŠpɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ...


In the neck are the thyroid and parathyroid glands, that secrete hormones that control metabolism and blood calcium levels. The four parathyroid glands are situated upon the dorsal (back) surface of the thyroid gland. The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Respiratory system

The respiratory System involves:

The critical pathway between the respiratory and digestive systems is the cartilage flap epiglottis which shuts during swallowing to prevent aspiration. The epiglottis is normally open to support respiration and shuts during swallowing to prevent food and fluids from enterng the trachea, activating the gag reflex or initiates the choking mechanism. The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of fibrocartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. ... Windpipe redirects here. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. ...


The respiratory system is involved in ventilation (physiology) and cellular respiration. Its functioning during oral procedures and surgery is essential to good patient care. If the patient stops breathing, heart failure will result within four to six minutes. The use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rescue breathing may be required to revive the patient. In respiratory physiology, ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... CPR redirects here. ... // Definition Rescue Breathing is a First Aid protocol which refers to the delivery of air from a person into a patient who has stopped breathing but continues to have a pulse. ...


Other illnesses that may present a concern to the health care professional include: influenza, pulmonary embolism, cystic fibrosis, and respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... ARDS has multiple meanings: Ards is a district in Northern Ireland ARDS is the abbreviation of Acute respiratory distress syndrome, formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Integumentary system

The integumentary system comprises skin, and the appendages of skin, such as hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and sensory nerves. For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... For other uses, see Nail. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ...


Skin comprises three layers: epidermis (skin), dermis, and hypodermis. Cross-section of all skin layers Optical Coherence Tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... The hypodermis is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system, which is present only in more recently-evolved vertebrates. ...


The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium and is divided into the following five sublayers or strata, listed in order from surface (superficial) to deep are: Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A comparison of squamous epithelia to other epithelial types In anatomy, squamous epithelium is an epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of flat, scalelike cells called squamous cells. ... Superficial is a general term meaning regarding the surface, often metaphorically. ...

The stratum corneum (the horny layer) is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). ... The Stratum Lucidum is one of the layers of the Epidermis. ... Stratum granulosum contains 3 to 5 rows of flattened cells whose cytoplasm contains small granules. ... It is a multiple-layered arrangement of cuboidal cells containing molecular bridges that conect them to adjacent cells. ... Stratum germinativum (also stratum basale or basal cell layer) is the layer of keratinocytes that lies at the base of the epidermis immediately above the dermis. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...

Sensory neurons

Specialized sensory nerves are scattered throughout the epidermis and dermis allowing for a wide range of sensations to be detected by the sensation of touch. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Located within stratum basale are the most superficial nerves, free nerve endings, called tickle receptors. Superficial is a general term meaning regarding the surface, often metaphorically. ... A free nerve ending (FNE) is an unspecialized, afferent nerve ending, meaning it brings information from the bodys periphery to the brain. ...


Located just below the epidermis are Meissner's corpuscles which are very important in detecting subtle differences in texture, and Merkel cells monitor skin pressure. Meissners corpuscles (discovered by the anatomist Georg Meissner (1829-1903) are a type of mechanoreceptor and more specifically, a tactile corpuscle(corpusculum tactus). ... Merkel cells are large oval cells found in the skin of vertebrates. ...


The hair follicle endings detect hair movements, Krause corpuscles respond to pressure and cold, and are located on lips, tongue, and genitals. The bulboid corpuscles (end-bulbs of Krause) are minute cylindrical or oval bodies, consisting of a capsule formed by the expansion of the connective-tissue sheath of a medullated fiber, and containing a soft semifluid core in which the axis-cylinder terminates either in a bulbous extremity or in a...


The Pacinian corpuscles lay deep within the hypodermis, as do Ruffini ending, which detect heat. (See references below) A Pacinian corpuscle is a structure that functions as a mechanoreceptor. ... Ruffini Endings are one of the four main cutaneous mechanoreceptors. ...


Inflammatory response

Within the deeper layers of the dermis and hypodermis, is a specialized type of connective tissue areolar connective tissue, which mediates the inflammatory response, or self-healing capacity of the body. The areolar tissue comprises collagen fibers and elastic fibers which contain several cells which are trapped within the tissue matrix. These cells, when disturbed by tissue damage, will release chemical and mechanical factors that signal the body's immune system to initiate clean-up, destruction of invading pathogens, and tissue repair. The cells involved are macrophages, mast cells, fibroblasts, and plasma cells. Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... woooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooot! - Howard Dean ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Plasma cells are B lymphocytes that secrete immunoglobulins (antibodies). ...


The macrophages when disturbed by tissue trauma will devour as many invading pathogens as possible and perform cleaning of damaged tissue. The mast cells release histamine and heparin which help initiate the inflammatory response. The fibroblast help repair or replace damaged sections of matrix, and the plasma cells are capable of producing antibodies for pathogen destruction. A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ...


The inflammatory response system produces four distinct signs of activation: redness, swelling, heat, and pain (or itching). When these symptoms are confined to a specific site, it is termed as localized inflammation. In severe reactions involving a widespread inflammation response, or systemic inflammation (anaphylactic shock). Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...


Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock requires advanced medical care immediately; but other first aid measures include rescue breathing (part of CPR) and administration of epinephrine using an EpiPen for immediate administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) to reverse swelling and to keep the respiratory airway (trachea) open. // Definition Rescue Breathing is a First Aid protocol which refers to the delivery of air from a person into a patient who has stopped breathing but continues to have a pulse. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Windpipe redirects here. ...


Disease awareness

Health care workers must exercise caution when performing care procedures on patients. The Universal precautions for health care workers are recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are the standard precaution for self protection. Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Severe viral infections that affect the mouth, lips, or the oral cavity include:

  • (2) Other viral infections may be just as easy to contact and as difficult to cure such as: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1), Herpes Simplex Virus Type II (HSV-2) genital herpes. Either form of the viral infection may present as a lesion on the lips. Direct skin to skin contact may cause infection.

Oral cancer may have a viral link. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the virus. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... The Herpes simplex virus infection (common names: herpes, cold sores) is a common, contagious, incurable, and in some cases sexually transmitted disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ...

  • (3) Minor viral infections include: Mumps is a viral infection of the parotid salivary glands. Chicken pox is a viral infection that can spread to the mouth.
  • (6) Autoimmune diseases such as: Crohn's disease of the oral cavity, see reference below.

Careful observation of the oral cavity, teeth and gums may reveal indicators of other medical conditions. For example, a person suffering from the eating disorder, Bulimia nervosa may show signs of excessive tooth and gum erosion. Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... The clap redirects here. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Throat with Tonsils Throat after tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed. ... The temporomandibular joint (From the Latin for too much jaw) is a diarthrodial joint that connects the condyle of the mandible (lower jaw) to the temporal bone at the side of a skull. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ...


Patient screening

Prior to any oral sedation methods being used on a patient, screening must be done to identify possible health concerns. Prevention is the best cure.


Identify any of the following that may apply:

A patient with any of these conditions must be evaluated for special procedures to minimize the risk of patient injury due to the sedation method. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... A congenital heart defect is a defect in the structure of the heart and great blood vessels of the newborn. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... A transient ischemic attack (TIA, often colloquially referred to as mini stroke) is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. ... Muscular dystrophy refers to a group of genetic, hereditary muscle diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness. ...


In addition to the above mentioned precautions, patients should be interviewed to determine if they have any other condition that may lead to complications while undergoing treatment. Any head, neck, or spinal cord injuries should be noted as well as any diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...


References

See also

A mans visible teeth. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ...

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