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Encyclopedia > Hazardous material

A hazardous material (HAZMAT) is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans, other living organisms, or the environment due to being radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, a biohazard, an oxidizer, an asphyxiant, or capable of causing severe allergic reactions. The term hazardous material is used in this context almost exclusively in the United States. The equivalent term in the rest of the English-speaking world is Dangerous Goods. In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... A gas is one of the four main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Dangerous goods are substances which pose risk to health, safety, property or the environment during operation and/or transportation. ...


Mitigating the risks associated with hazardous materials may require the application of safety precautions during their transport, use, storage and disposal. Most countries regulate hazardous materials by law, and they are subject to several international treaties as well. Storage is the at least semi-permanent holding of an amount of something. ...


Persons who handle hazardous materials will often wear protective equipment, and metropolitan fire departments often have a "Hazmat team" specifically trained to deal with accidents and spills. These teams train at a variety of specialized locations. One of the most well-known is the TTCI Emergency Response Training Center (ERTC) located in Pueblo, Colorado. Others are Texas A & M University's Texas Engineering Extension Service National Emergency Response & Rescue Training Center, Louisiana State University's Fire and Emergency Training Institute, and the California Specialized Training Institute (CSTI). Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Pueblo is a city located in Pueblo County in southern Colorado. ... Texas A&M University at College Station Texas A&M University, often Texas A&M, A&M or TAMU for short, is one of the flagship universities of Texas, and is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System. ... Memorial Tower. ...


Laws and regulations on the use and handling of hazardous materials may differ depending on the activity and status of the material. For example one set of requirements may apply to their use in the workplace while a different requirements may apply to spill response, sale for consumer use, or transportation. Most countries regulate some aspect of hazardous materials.


The most widely applied regulatory scheme is that for the transportation of hazardous materials. The Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of the United Nations Economic and Social Council issues a Model Regulation on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. Most regional and national regulatory schemes for hazardous materials are harmonized to a greater or lesser degree with the UN Model Regulation. For instance, the International Civil Aviation Organization has developed regulations for air transport of hazardous materials that are based upon the UN Model but modified to accommodate unique aspects of air transport. Individual airline and governmental requirements are incorporated with this by the International Air Transport Association to produce the widely used IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. Similarly, the International Maritime Organization has developed the IMO Dangerous Goods Regulations for transportation on the high seas. Many individual nations have also structured their hazardous materials transportation regulations to harmonize with the UN Model in organization as well as in specific requirements. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... IATA logo The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organization of airlines headquarted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organization of airlines headquarted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to...

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United States

Due to the increased threat of terrorism in the early 21st century, funding for greater HAZMAT-handling capabilities was increased throughout the United States, in recognition of the fact that flammable, poisonous, explosive, or radioactive substances in particular could make attractive vectors for terrorist attacks. The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence or the threat of violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks that typically fall within the time, manner of conduct, and place commonly understood as unconventional warfare. ... The 21st century is the century that began on 1 January 2001 and will last to 31 December 2100. ...


The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US. The regulations are found in 49 CFR (Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations) Subchapter C. Established October 15, 1966 Activated April 1, 1967 Secretary Norman Mineta Deputy Secretary Maria Cino Budget $58 billion (2004 estimate) Employees 58,622 (2004 estimate) The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ...


The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates the handling of hazardous materials in the workplace as well as response to hazardous materials-related incidents, most notably through HAZWOPER (HAZ-ardous W-aste OP-erations and E-mergency R-esponse) regulations found at 29 CFR 1910.120. The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


The Environmental Protection Agency regulates hazardous materials as they may impact the community and environment, including specific regulations for environmental cleanup and for handling and disposal of waste hazardous materials. EPA redirects here. ...


The Consumer Product Safety Commission regulates hazardous materials that may be used in products sold for houshold and other consumer uses. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government created in 1972 to protect “against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products”. As of 2005 its chairman is Hal Stratton. ...


Hazard Classes for Materials in Transport

Following the UN Model, the DOT divides regulated hazardous materials into nine classes, some of which are further divided into divisions. Hazardous materials in transportation must be placarded. Some materials must always be placarded, others may only require placarding in certain circumstances (example, amount). Some examples of the various classes and divisions are given. If any material falls into subclasses it must be marked with the lowest subclass of those classes. All applicable classes must be listed unless it falls into class one, then class 3, 4, and 5 don't need to be listed.

A pic of the U.S. DOT classes in use. Click for a bigger version
A pic of the U.S. DOT classes in use. Click for a bigger version

Class 1: Explosives — Six subclasses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1807x1265, 157 KB) Summary Pic of the HAZMAT prohibition board approaching Kittatinny Tunnel (I think) on the main line of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1807x1265, 157 KB) Summary Pic of the HAZMAT prohibition board approaching Kittatinny Tunnel (I think) on the main line of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

1.1 — Explosives with a mass explosion hazard. (nitroglycerin/dynamite)
1.2 — Explosives with a blast/projection hazard.
1.3 — Explosives with a minor blast hazard. (rocket propellant, display fireworks)
1.4 — Explosives with a major fire hazard. (consumer fireworks, ammunition)
1.5 — Blasting agents.
1.6 — Extremely insensitive explosives.

Class 2: Compressed Gases — Three subclasses. Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Dynamite recovered in a mine in Eastern Oregon. ... The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Years Eve Fireworks 2005 A fireworks event (also called a fireworks display or fireworks show) is a spectacular display of the effects produced by firework devices on various occasions. ... A gas is one of the four main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ...

2.1 — Flammable gases. (propane, hydrogen, oxygen)
2.2 — Non-flammable gases. (helium, nitrogen)
2.3 — Poison gases. (chlorine, phosgene)

Class 3: Flammable Liquids — Liquids with a flashpoint at or below 140 degrees F (gasoline, some alcoholic beverages) R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point -104 °C Autoignition temperature 432 °C Explosive limits 2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... -1... Gasoline (or petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ...

Combustible Liquids — Liquids with a flashpoint between 140 and 200 degrees F

Class 4: Flammables — Three subclasses.

4.1 — Flammable solids. (magnesium powder, red phosphorus, etc.)
4.2 — Spontaneously combustible materials. (white phosphorus)
4.3 — Water reactive materials. (sodium, potassium)

Class 5: Oxidizing Materials — Two subclasses. General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A water reactive substance is one that spontaneously undergoes a chemical reaction with water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidising agents An oxidizing agent is a compound that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions. ...

5.1 — Oxidizers. (ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide)
5.2 — Organic peroxides. (benzoyl peroxide)

Class 6: Toxic Materials — Three subclasses. RTECS number BR9050000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that has found use as a disinfectant, as an oxidizer, and in rocketry (particularly in high concentrations as high-test peroxide (HTP) as a monopropellant), and... Benzoyl peroxide is a chemical in the organic peroxide family. ... Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

6.1 — Poisonous liquids or solids. (potassium cyanide, mercuric chloride)
6.2 — Infectious/biohazardous substances. (anthrax, HIV)
6.3 — Liquids and solids with a lower toxicity than those in group 6.1.

Class 7: Radioactive Materials — Three subclasses. Potassium cyanide or KCN is the potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid. ... Mercury chloride is a white poisonous soluble crystalline sublimate of mercury, used as a pesticide or antiseptic or wood preservative. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles (radiation). ...

7.1-7.3 — Radioactive I, II, III. (uranium, plutonium, radioactive waste)

Class 8: Corrosive Materialsacids and bases (sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid) General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements that does not have a practical purpose. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... It has been suggested that strong acid be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... Flash point non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Class 9: Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods — materials that are hazardous during transportation but do not meet the definition of any of the other hazard classes, for example dry ice in an airplane or hot asphalt). Dry ice is a genericized trademark for solid (frozen) carbon dioxide. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ...


Trailers of goods in transport are usually marked with a four digit UN (United Nations) number. This number can be referenced by first responders (Firefighters, Police Officers, and ambulance personnel) who can find information about the material in the North American Emergency Response Guidebook. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Firefighter in full turn out gear with a pickhead axe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Police. ... An ambulance is a vehicle designated for the transport of sick or injured people. ... The Emergency Response Guidebook is a book used by first responders (firefighters, police officers, and ambulance personnel) when responding to a transportation emergency involving hazardous materials. ...


Fixed Facilities

Different standards usually apply for handling and marking HAZMATs at fixed facilities, including NFPA 704 diamond markings (a non-governmental standard), and OSHA regulations requiring chemical safety information for employees and CPSC requirements requiring infomrative labeling for the public. NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ...


References

Canada

Transport of hazardous materials in Canada is under the jurisdiction of Transport Canada. Hazard classifications are also based upon the UN Model and so are similar, but not identical, to those used in the United States. Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. ...


Europe

The European Union has passed numerous directives & regulations to avoid the dissemination & restrict the usage of Hazardous Substances, the most famous being the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive and the REACH directive. There are also long standing European Treaties such as ADR and RID that regulate the transportation of hazardous materials by road, rail, river and inland waterways, following the guide of the UN Model Regulation. A European Union Directive is the (mutually binding) collective decision made by the member states, acting through their national Government Ministers in the Council of the European Union and the Parliament. ... See the Wikipedia:Legal disclaimer. ... Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) is a proposal from the European Commission to modify the legislation on chemical safety in the European Union. ...


See also

Dangerous goods are substances which pose risk to health, safety, property or the environment during operation and/or transportation. ... Chemistry resources is a collection of links and references that are useful for chemistry-related work. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hazard symbol. ...

External links


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