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Encyclopedia > Haymarket affair

Coordinates: 41.8849° N 87.6441° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Haymarket Martyrs' Monument
(U.S. National Historic Landmark)
Marker placed in 1997
Location: Forest Park, Illinois
Coordinates: 41°52′11.2404″N, 87°49′11.1684″W
Built/Founded: 1887
Added to NRHP: February 18, 1997
Reference #: 97000343[1]
Governing body: Private

The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886 in Chicago is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers.[2] In popular literature this event inspired the caricature of "a bomb-throwing anarchist." The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating the business class and the working class in late 19th century Chicago are generally acknowledged as having precipitated the tragedy and its aftermath. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... USS Constitution A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, site, structure, or object, almost always within the United States, officially recognized for its historical significance. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2515 KB) Summary Bogdan Markiewicz Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Incorporated Village in 1907. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works. Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...

Contents

Strife and confrontation

May Day parade and strikes

In 1884 a convention of The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada set May 1, 1886 as the date by which the eight-hour work day would become law. [3] The FOTLU, and the International Working People's Association (IWPA) began preparing for a general strike. The Knights of Labor opposed the strike.[4] On Saturday 1 May, 1886 rallies were held throughout the United States. The largest was in Chicago, where an estimated 90,000 people participated. There were an estimated 10,000 demonstrators in New York and 11,000 in Detroit. Albert Parsons, an Anarchist and founder of the International Working People's Association, with his wife Lucy Parsons and seven children, led people down Michigan Avenue. In the next few days, 350,000 workers nationwide went on strike at 1,200 factories. The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Labor Party The Knights of Labor was originally founded as the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor by nine Philadelphia tailors in 1869, led by Uriah H. Stephens. ... Albert Parsons, ca. ... Lucy Parsons Lucy Parsons (1853-March 7, 1942) was an American radical labor organizer, anarchist and is remembered as a powerful orator. ... Michigan Avenue refers to remnants of Old U.S. Highway 12 that ran from downtown Detroit to Chicago. ...


On May 3 striking workers met near the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. plant where a fight broke out on the picket lines as replacement workers attempted to cross the picket line. Chicago police intervened and attacked the strikers, killing four, wounding several others and sparking outrage in the city's working community. May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... Cyrus McCormick Cyrus McCormick (February 15, 1809 - May 13, 1884) of Virginia was an Irish American farmer, inventor, businessman, marketer and newspaper editor. ... The reaper was a horse-drawn farm implement invented in 1831 and patented by Cyrus McCormick in 1834 to cut small grain crops. ...


Local anarchists distributed fliers calling for a rally at Haymarket Square, then a bustling commercial center (also called the Haymarket) near the corner of Randolph Street and Des Plaines Street in what was later called Chicago's west Loop. These fliers alleged police had murdered the strikers on behalf of business interests and urged workers to seek justice. The Loop is what locals call the historical center of downtown Chicago. ...


Rally at Haymarket Square

This 19th century engraving showing exaggerated flames and smoke was published in popular newspapers and magazines during the days and weeks following the Haymarket riot. It also appeared in some history textbooks.
This 19th century engraving showing exaggerated flames and smoke was published in popular newspapers and magazines during the days and weeks following the Haymarket riot. It also appeared in some history textbooks.

The rally began peacefully under a light rain on the evening of May 4. August Spies spoke to the large crowd while standing in an open wagon on Desplaines Street.[5] According to many witnesses Spies said he was not there to incite anyone. Meanwhile a large number of on-duty police officers watched from nearby. The crowd was so calm that Mayor Carter Harrison, Sr., who had stopped by to watch, walked home early. Some time later the police ordered the rally to disperse and began marching in formation towards the speakers' wagon. A bomb was thrown at the police line and exploded, killing policeman Mathias J. Degan.[6] The police immediately opened fire. While several of their number besides Degan appear to have been injured by the bomb, most of the casualties seem to have been caused by bullets. About sixty officers were wounded in the riot, as well as an unknown number of civilians. In all, seven policemen and at least four workers (there is no accurate count of the latter) were killed in the riot, [7][8] [9] (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Carter Henry Harrison, Sr. ...


Trial, executions and pardons

Part of the Politics series on

Anarchism Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ...

Schools of thought

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Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ... Some anarchists believe that Buddhism forms a philisophical ground for anarchism, as a result of basic Buddhist teachings. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Christian anarchism is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Eco-anarchism argues that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Green anarchism is a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, situationism, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. ... Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... Freie Arbeiter Stimme, vol 1 no 4, Friday, July 25, 1890. ... Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with National anarchism. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ... Social anarchism is a term self-applied by many anarchists of the libertarian socialist thread of anarchism. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Anarchism in culture

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This article discusses the anarchist critiques of society and proposed solutions from the anarchist perspective. ... Anarchism has long had an association with the arts, particularly in music and literature. ... Anarcho-primitivists assert that, for the longest period before recorded history, human society was organized on anarchist principles. ... Popular education is an educational technique designed to raise the consciousness of its participants and allow them to become more aware of how an individuals personal experiences are connected to larger societal problems. ... The theory and practice of anarchism has been controversial since it came to prominence in the 19th century. ...

Anarchist theory

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Long before anarchism emerged as a distinct perspective, human beings lived for thousand of years in societies without government. ... Anarchist economics entails theory and practice relating to economic activity within the philosophical outlines of anarchism. ... Though the libertarian socialist critique of capitalism is rooted in socialist theory, there are certain key distinctions in their critiques, which this article attempts to elucidate. ... Even though anarchist communism and Marxism are two very different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of some anarchists and some Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit, in an egalitarian fashion. ... Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ...

Anarchism by region

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African Anarchism This article is about the historical and contemporary Anarchist movement in Africa. ... In English speaking countries, anarchist ideas and practises initially developed within the context of radical Whiggery and Protestant religious dissent. ...

Anarchism lists

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Anarchist Daniel Guérin, Anarchism Robert Graham Anarchism. ... This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present. ... These are concepts which, although not exclusive to anarchism, are significant in historical and/or modern anarchist circles. ... This list uses the word organization in its loosest sense. ...

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Eight people connected directly or indirectly with the rally and its anarchist organisers were charged with Degan's murder: August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Louis Lingg, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden and Oscar Neebe. Five (Spies, Fischer, Engel, Lingg and Schwab) were German immigrants while a sixth, Neebe, was a U.S. citizen of German descent. August Vincent Theodore Spies (December 10, 1855 – November 11, 1887) was an anarchist labor activist hanged under doubtful circumstances following a bomb attack on police at the Haymarket Riot. ... Albert Parsons, ca. ... Adolph Fischer (1858 - November 11, 1887) was an anarchist and labor union activist executed after the Haymarket riot, along with Albert Parsons, August Spies, and George Engel. ... George Engel (1836 Cassel, Germany - November 11, 1887) was an anarchist and labor union activist executed after the Haymarket riot, along with Albert Parsons, August Spies, and Adolph Fischer. ... Louis Lingg (September 9, 1864 — November 10, 1887) was an anarchist who committed suicide while in jail, after being arrested as an agitator during the Haymarket Square bombing. ... Michael Schwab is a world-renowned graphic artist, based in Marin County, California. ... Samuel Fielden circa 1886 Samuel Fielden (February 25, 1847 - 1922) was sentenced to death for his role in the Haymarket Square rally. ... Oscar W. Neebe (1850-1916) Oscar William Neebe I (July 12, 1850—April 22, 1916) was a defendent in the Haymarket Square trial. ...


The trial was presided over by Judge Joseph Gary. The defense counsel included Sigmund Zeisler, William Perkins Black, William Foster and Moses Salomon. The prosecution, led by Julius Grinnell, did not offer evidence connecting any of the defendants with the bombing but argued that the person who had thrown the bomb had been encouraged to do so by the defendants, who as conspirators were therefore equally responsible. Joseph E. Gary (July 9, 1821 – October 31, 1906) was judge who presided over the trial of eight anarchists tried for their alleged role in the Haymarket Riot. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... William P. Black was a Medal of Honor Recipient during the Civil War. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ...


The jury returned guilty verdicts for all eight defendants, with death sentences for seven. Neebe received a sentence of 15 years in prison. The sentencing sparked outrage from budding labor and workers movements, resulted in protests around the world, and made the defendants international political celebrities and heroes within labor and radical political circles. Meanwhile, the press published often sensationalized accounts and opinions about the incident, which polarized public reaction. Journalist George Frederic Parsons, for example, wrote a piece for the Atlantic Monthly articulating the fears of middle-class Americans concerning labor radicalism, asserting that workers had only themselves to blame for their troubles.[10] The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ...

Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago in May 1986 during ceremonies commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Haymarket riot
Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago in May 1986 during ceremonies commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Haymarket riot

The case was appealed to the Supreme Court of Illinois,[11] then to the Supreme Court of the United States, where the defendants were represented by John Randolph Tucker, Roger Atkinson Pryor, General Benjamin F. Butler and William P. Black. The petition for certiorari was denied.[12] Download high resolution version (474x689, 119 KB)photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Haymarket Riot File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (474x689, 119 KB)photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Haymarket Riot File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Supreme Court of Illinois is the apex court of judicature of the state of Illinois, United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... John Randolph Tucker John Randolph Tucker was born in Winchester, Virginia on December 24, 1823, the son of Henry St. ... Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was an American jurist, politician, newspaper editor, and Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... William P. Black was a Medal of Honor Recipient during the Civil War. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ...


After the appeals had been exhausted, Illinois Governor Richard James Oglesby commuted Fielden's and Schwab's sentences to life in prison. On the eve of his scheduled execution, Lingg committed suicide in his cell using a smuggled dynamite cap which he reportedly held in his mouth like a cigar (the blast blew off half his face and he survived in agony for several hours). Richard James Oglesby (1824 - 1899) was a U.S. political figure. ...


The next day, November 11, 1887, Spies, Parsons, Fischer, and Engel were hanged together before a public audience. Taken to the gallows in white robes and hoods, they sang the Marseillaise, the anthem of the international revolutionary movement. Family members including Lucy Parsons who attempted to see them for the last time were arrested and searched for bombs. None were found. August Spies was widely quoted as having shouted out, "The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today." Witnesses reported that the condemned did not die when they dropped, but strangled to death slowly, a sight which left the audience visibly shaken.[citation needed] November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... // This page is about death by hanging. ... La Marseillaise (IPA: ; in English The Song of Marseille) is the national anthem of France. ... Lucy Parsons Lucy Parsons (1853-March 7, 1942) was an American radical labor organizer, anarchist and is remembered as a powerful orator. ...


Lingg, Spies, Fischer, Engel and Parsons were buried at the German Waldheim Cemetery in Forest Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Schwab and Neebe where also buried at Waldheim when they died, reuniting the "Martyrs." In 1893 the Haymarket Martyrs Monument by sculptor Albert Weinert was raised at Waldheim. Over a century later it was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, the only cemetery memorial to be noted as such. Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago in May 1986 during ceremonies commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Haymarket riot German Waldheim Cemetery, also known as Waldheim Cemetery, was a cemetery in Forest Park, a suburb of Chicago in Cook County, Illinois. ... Incorporated Village in 1907. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ...


The trial is often referred to by scholars as one of the most serious miscarriages of justice in United States history.[13] On June 26, 1893, Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld signed pardons for Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab after having concluded all eight defendants were innocent. The pardons ended his political career. June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Peter Altgeld (December 30, 1847 - March 12, 1902) was the governor of the U.S. state of Illinois from 1893 until 1897. ...


The police commander who ordered the dispersal was later convicted of corruption. The bomb thrower was never identified, although some anarchists privately indicated they had later learned his identity but kept quiet to avoid further prosecutions.[citation needed]


Haymarket Square in the aftermath

Activist Michael K at the statueless pedestal of the controversial police monument in the remains of Chicago's Haymarket Square on the tragedy's 100th anniversary in early May, 1986. He reportedly "took to his grave" whatever he knew about the 1969 and 1970 bombings (the pedestal has since been removed).
Activist Michael K at the statueless pedestal of the controversial police monument in the remains of Chicago's Haymarket Square on the tragedy's 100th anniversary in early May, 1986. He reportedly "took to his grave" whatever he knew about the 1969 and 1970 bombings (the pedestal has since been removed).

In 1889 a commemorative nine-foot bronze statue of a Chicago policeman by sculptor Johannes Gelert was erected in the middle of Haymarket Square with private funds raised by the Union League Club of Chicago. On the 41st anniversary of the riot, May 4, 1927, a streetcar jumped its tracks and crashed into the monument (statements made by the driver suggested this may have been deliberate). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1598x1165, 309 KB) photo from the Carpchives of Einar Einarsson Kvaran for Haymarket Riot - I think. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1598x1165, 309 KB) photo from the Carpchives of Einar Einarsson Kvaran for Haymarket Riot - I think. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ...


The city moved it to nearby Lincoln Park. During the early 1960s, freeway construction erased about half of the old, run down market square and the statue was moved back to a spot on a newly built outcropping overlooking the freeway, near its original location. In October 1969 it was blown up, repaired by the city and blown up again a year later, reportedly by the Weather Underground. Lincoln Park, also designated as Community Area 7, is one of the northside Chicago community areas that divide Chicago, Illinois in the United States. ... John Jacobs and Terry Robbins at the Days of Rage, Chicago, October 1969 (Photo credit: David Fenton; publicity photo for film Weather Underground) Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization, was a U.S. Radical Left organization consisting of splintered-off members and leaders of...


Mayor Richard J. Daley placed a 24-hour police guard around the statue for two years before it was moved to the enclosed courtyard of Chicago Police academy in 1972. The statue's empty, graffiti-marked pedestal stood in the desolate remains of Haymarket Square for another three decades, where it was known as an anarchist landmark. Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ...


In 1985, scholars doing research for a possible centennial commemoration of the riot were surprised to learn that most of the primary source documentation relating to the incident was not in Chicago, but had been transferred to then-communist East Berlin. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


In 1992 the site of the speakers' wagon was marked by a bronze plaque set into the sidewalk, reading:

Mary Brogger's 2004 bronze sculpture at Haymarket Square, Chicago.
Mary Brogger's 2004 bronze sculpture at Haymarket Square, Chicago.

A decade of strife between labor and industry culminated here in a confrontation that resulted in the tragic death of both workers and policemen. On May 4, 1886, spectators at a labor rally had gathered around the mouth of Crane's Alley. A contingent of police approaching on Des Plaines Street were met by a bomb thrown from just south of the alley. The resultant trial of eight activists gained worldwide attention for the labor movement, and initiated the tradition of "May Day" labor rallies in many cities. Image File history File links Mary Broggers bronze sculpture at the corner of Randolph and Des Plaines streets in Chicagos West Loop. ... Image File history File links Mary Broggers bronze sculpture at the corner of Randolph and Des Plaines streets in Chicagos West Loop. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...

Designated on March 25, 1992
Richard M. Daley, Mayor

On September 14, 2004, after 118 years of what some observers called civic amnesia, Daley and union leaders unveiled a monument by Chicago artist Mary Brogger, a fifteen-foot speakers' wagon sculpture echoing the wagon on which the labor leaders stood in Haymarket Square to champion the eight-hour day. The bronze sculpture, centerpiece of a proposed "Labor Park" there, is meant to symbolize both the assembly at Haymarket and free speech. The planned site was to include an international commemoration wall, sidewalk plaques, a cultural pylon, seating area and banners but a year later work had not yet begun. Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, powerful member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Defendants

  • August Spies, German immigrant, was hanged
  • Albert Parsons, U.S. citizen, was hanged
  • Adolph Fischer, German immigrant, was hanged
  • George Engel, German immigrant, was hanged
  • Louis Lingg, German immigrant, sentenced to death, took his own life with dynamite while in prison
  • Michael Schwab, German immigrant, death sentence commuted to life in prison, then pardoned in 1893
  • Samuel Fielden, English immigrant, death sentence commuted to life in prison, then pardoned in 1893
  • Oscar Neebe, U.S. citizen of German descent, sentenced to 15 years, served seven until pardoned in 1893

August Vincent Theodore Spies (December 10, 1855 – November 11, 1887) was an anarchist labor activist hanged under doubtful circumstances following a bomb attack on police at the Haymarket Riot. ... Albert Parsons, ca. ... Adolph Fischer (1858 - November 11, 1887) was an anarchist and labor union activist executed after the Haymarket riot, along with Albert Parsons, August Spies, and George Engel. ... George Engel (1836 Cassel, Germany - November 11, 1887) was an anarchist and labor union activist executed after the Haymarket riot, along with Albert Parsons, August Spies, and Adolph Fischer. ... Louis Lingg (September 9, 1864 — November 10, 1887) was an anarchist who committed suicide while in jail, after being arrested as an agitator during the Haymarket Square bombing. ... Michael Schwab is a world-renowned graphic artist, based in Marin County, California. ... Samuel Fielden circa 1886 Samuel Fielden (February 25, 1847 - 1922) was sentenced to death for his role in the Haymarket Square rally. ... Oscar W. Neebe (1850-1916) Oscar William Neebe I (July 12, 1850—April 22, 1916) was a defendent in the Haymarket Square trial. ...

See also

Organized Labour Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The history of the United States (1865–1918) covers Reconstruction and the rise of industrialization in the United States. ... The May Day Riots of 1894 were a series of violent demonstrations that occurred throughout Cleveland, Ohio on May 1 (May Day), 1894. ... The May Day Riots of 1919 were a series of violent demonstrations that occurred throughout Cleveland, Ohio on May 1 (May Day), 1919. ...

Notes

  1. ^ National Register Information System. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service (2006-03-15).
  2. ^ "The History of May Day" (in socialism), Alexander Trachtenberg, International Pamphlets (1932), March 2002, Marxists.org webpage: Marxists-MayDay
  3. ^ In 1884, the following resolution was introduced and accepted at the convention of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada (FOTLU)1:
    • (It is) Resolved ... that eight hours shall constitute a legal day's labor from and after May 1, 1886, and that we recommend to labor organizations throughout this district that they so direct their laws so as to conform to this resolution by the time named.
    The resolution was adopted unanimously. How May Day Became a Workers' Holiday. The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything.. BBC (4th October 2001).
  4. ^ National or local officials of the three main labour organisations present in the United States at the time, the FOTLU,1 the Knights of Labor 2 and the International Working People's Association (IWPA) 3 began preparing for a general strike to be held on that date. The national office of the Knights of Labor, the most conservative of these three organisations, opposed the strike. Local offices ignored Grand Master Workman Terence Powderly's letter of 13 March, 1886, forbidding members of the Knights to strike. The FOTLU and the IWPA organised aggressively. In particular, Albert Parsons and August Spies spoke to gatherings of working people in Chicago at every opportunity.
    1. This organisation evolved into the AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations), currently the largest labour organisation in the United States.
    2. This was the oldest and most conservative labour organisation in the United States at the time. The official position of its national leadership was that strikes were wrong. Education would lead to the gradual introduction of workers' co-operatives as the means of production.
    3. A radical, anarchist organisation.
    How May Day Became a Workers' Holiday. The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything.. BBC (4th October 2001).
  5. ^ 163 North Desplaines Street
  6. ^ Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc.
  7. ^ the bomb. Haymarket Affair Digital Collection. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved on March 30, 2007.
  8. ^ The explosion was caused by a dynamite bomb which was thrown into our ranks from the east sidewalk, and fell in the second division and near the dividing line between the companies of Lieuts. Stanton and Bowler. For an instant the entire command of the above named officers, with many of the first and third divisions was thrown to the ground. Alas many never to rise again. The men recovered, instantly, and returned the fire of the mob. Lieuts. Steele and Quinn charged the mob on the street, while the company of Lieut. Hubbard with the few uninjured members of the second division swept both sidewalks with a hot and telling fire, and in a few minutes the Anarchists were flying in every direction. I then gave the order to cease firing, fearing that some of our men, in the darkness might fire into each other. (1886 May 30) "Inspector John Bonfield report to Frederick Ebersold, General Superintendent of Police". Haymarket Affair Digital Collection Additional Manuscripts (Chicago Police Department Reports): 2. Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 
  9. ^ I saw a man, whom I afterwards identified as Fielding, standing on a truck wagon at the corner of what is known as Crane's Alley. I raised by baton and in a loud voice, ordered them to disperse as peaceable citizens. I also called upon three persons in the crowd to assist in dispersing the mob. Fielding got down from the wagon, saying at the time, "We are peaceable," as he uttered the last word, I heard a terrible explosion behind where I was standing, followed almost instantly by an irregular volley of pistol shots in our front and from the sidewalk on the east side of the street, which was immediately followed by regular and well directed volleys from the police and which was kept up for several minutes. I then ordered the injured men brought to the stations and sent for surgeons to attend to their injuries. After receiving the necessary attention most of the injured officers were removed to the County Hospital and I highly appreciate the manner in which they were received by Warden McGarrigle who did all in his power to make them comfortable as possible. (1886 May 30) "William Ward Capt. 3rd Prect report to Frederick Ebersold, General Superintendent of Police". Haymarket Affair Digital Collection Additional Manuscripts (Chicago Police Department Reports): 7. Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 
  10. ^ George Frederic Parsons, "The Labor Question," Atlantic Monthly, v.58, pp. 97-113 (July 1886).
  11. ^ 122 Ill. 1
  12. ^ 123 U.S. 131.
  13. ^ Dave Roediger, Haymarket Incident

May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ...

References

  • The Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs, Pathfinder Press, New York, ISBN 0-87348-879-2.[1]
  • Avrich, Paul, The Haymarket Affair.
  • Bach, Ira and Mary Lackritz Gray, Chicago's Public Sculpture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1983.
  • Fireside, Bryna J, Haymarket Square Riot Trial: A Headline Court Case, Enslow Publishers, Inc., Berkeley Heights, NJ, 2002.
  • Green, James, Death in the Haymarket, Pantheon, 2006.
  • Harris, Frank, The Bomb, Feral House Printing, Portland, OR, 1963.
  • Hucke, Matt and Ursula Bielski, Graveyards of Chicago, Lake Claremont Press, Chicago, IL, 1999.
  • Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Haymarket - A Century Later, unpublished manuscript.
  • Riedy, James L, Chicago Sculpture, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1981.
  • Rodeiger, Dave and Rosemont, Franklin, ed. Haymarket Scrapbook, Charles H. Kerr Publishing Co., Chicago, 1986.
  • Michael J. Schaack (1889). Anarchy and anarchists: a history of the red terror and the social revolution in America and Europe : communism, socialism, and nihilism in doctrine and in deed : the Chicago Haymarket conspiracy, and the detection and trial of the conspirators. Chicago: F.J. Schulte & Co. .

NY redirects here. ... Paul Avrich is a professor and historian. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works. Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Mayor Tom Potter County Multnomah County Population (2003) 538,544 Time zone Pacific (UTC−8) Portland is the largest city in Oregon, and county seat of Multnomah County. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works. Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The University of Illinois is the set of three public universities in Illinois. ... A snowy day in Carle Park west of the Urbana High School Urbana (pronounced [ɝbænə]) is a city located in Champaign County, Illinois. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Haymarket Riot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1794 words)
In 1893 the Haymarket Martyrs Monument by sculptor Albert Weinert was raised at Waldheim.
Activist Michael K at the statueless pedestal of the controversial police monument in the remains of Chicago's Haymarket Square on the tragedy's 100th anniversary in early May, 1986.
The statue's empty, graffiti marked pedestal stood in the desolate remains of Haymarket Square for another three decades and was known as an anarchist landmark.
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He claims that the appeal of using the drama metaphor is in the fact that the events themselves were very dramatic and staged and that this method helps to interpret the occurrence as a whole.
Because Smith carefully chose key dramatic events for his summary of Haymarket, the reader is enveloped in an almost novel-like exposition that tells the main facts of the affair yet also keeps their interest throughout the piece.
The participants in Haymarket Affair of 1886 made the event synonymous with disorder, lawlessness, and injustice.
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