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Encyclopedia > Hawaii (U.S. state)
State of Hawaii
Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi
Flag of Hawaii Seal of Hawaii
Nickname(s): The Aloha State
Motto(s): Ua Mau ke Ea o ka Aina i ka Pono
Before Statehood Known as
The Territory of Hawaii
Official language(s) English, Hawaiian
Capital Honolulu
Largest city Honolulu
Area  Ranked 43rd
 - Total 10,931 sq mi
(29,311 km²)
 - Width n/a miles (n/a km)
 - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)
 - % water 41.2
 - Latitude 18°55'N to 29°N
 - Longitude 154°40'W to 162°W
Population  Ranked 42nd
 - Total (2000) 1,211,537
 - Density {{{2000DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
42.75/km² ({{{DensityRank}}})
 - Median income  $53,123 (8th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mauna Kea[1]
13,796 ft  (4,205 m)
 - Mean 3,035 ft  (925 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  August 21, 1959 (50th)
Governor Linda Lingle (R)
U.S. Senators Daniel Inouye (D)
Daniel Akaka (D)
Time zone Hawaii: UTC-10
(no daylight saving time)
Abbreviations HI US-HI
Web site www.hawaii.gov
The Aloha State
State animal Humpback Whale
State bird Nene (Nēnē) (Branta sandvicensis)
State fish Reef triggerfish (Humu­humu­nuku­nuku­āpuaʻa)
State flower Yellow Hibiscus
State gem Black Coral
State motto Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono ("The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness")
State song Hawaii Ponoi (Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī) ("Hawaii's own [people]")
State tree Kukui (Aleurites Moluccana)

Hawaii (Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi) became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959. It is situated in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,300 miles (3,700 km) from the mainland, at 21°18′41″N, 157°47′47″W. In the 19th Century, Hawaii was also known as the Sandwich Islands. The word Hawaii can refer to: Hawaii (island), the Island of Hawai‘i, one of eight main Hawaiian islands that makes up the state of Hawai‘i. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hawaii. ... Hawaii state seal Source http://usa. ... Ka Hae HawaiÊ»i, or the Flag of HawaiÊ»i Ka Hae HawaiÊ»i, or the Flag of HawaiÊ»i, is the official standard symbolizing HawaiÊ»i as a kingdom (under a short British annexation), protectorate, republic, territory and state. ... The current design of the Seal of Hawaii was commissioned by the Republic of Hawaii, derived from several features of the heraldry of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames: both official and traditional (official state nicknames in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... Ua Mau ke Ea o ka Aina i ka Pono is a Hawaiian phrase meaning The life (sovereignty) of the land is (by) perpetuated in righteousness , and is the state motto of HawaiÊ»i. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Image File history File links Hawaii_Islands2. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... “Honolulu” redirects here. ... “Honolulu” redirects here. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... This is a list of states of the United States by population (including non-state territories) as of 2006, according to the 2005 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... For information on the income of individuals please see Personal income in the United States This graphic shows the distribution of gross annual household income. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Linda Lingle (born Linda Cutter on June 4, 1953) has been Governor of HawaiÊ»i since being sworn in on December 2, 2002. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Daniel Ken Inouye (born September 7, 1924) is a recipient of the Medal of Honor and currently serves as the senior United States Senator from HawaiÊ»i. ... Daniel Kahikina Dan Akaka (Chinese: 阿卡卡 李碩, Hanyu pinyin: akaka lishuo) (born September 11, 1924) is a U.S. Senator from HawaiÊ»i and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ... The Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone includes the state of Hawaii, and the Aleutian Islands west of 169º 30 W. It is the time zone located just west of the Alaska Standard Time Zone. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Daylight saving time around the world  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), also summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... A state animal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... Binomial name Megaptera novaeangliae Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, is a baleen whale. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Branta sandvicensis (Vigors, 1833) The Hawaiian Goose or NÄ“nÄ“, Branta sandvicensis, is a species of goose endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Binomial name Rhinecanthus rectangulus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 The reef, rectangular, or wedge-tail triggerfish, also known by its Hawaiian name, (IPA: , also spelled humuhumu-nukunuku-a-pua‘a or just humuhumu for short; meaning triggerfish with a snout like a pig [1]), is one of several species of triggerfish. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External links Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs List of state flowers See also List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: ‪Lists of flowers‬ | ‪United States state insignia‬ ... Species See text The genus Hibiscus includes some 200 species, seven of which are regarded as native Hawaiian hibiscus. ... Trivia California was the first state to designate an official State Rock. ... Genera Antipathes Aphanipathes Bathypathes Cirripathes Leiopathes Parantipathes Stichopathes Taxipathes Black coral is a term given to a group of deep water, tree-like tropical coral related to sea anemone. ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... Ua Mau ke Ea o ka Aina i ka Pono is a Hawaiian phrase meaning The life (sovereignty) of the land is (by) perpetuated in righteousness , and is the state motto of HawaiÊ»i. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Omg vandalised! So, Im doing it again so it can be reverted. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Depending on usage, the term continental United States can refer to either: the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia; or the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia and Alaska. ...

Contents

Headline text

In dialects of American English, "Hawaii" is pronounced at least three different ways: (IPA pronunciation: [hə.ˈwaɪ.ji], [hə.ˈwaɪ.i], [hə.ˈwaɪ.ʔi]). In the Hawaiian language, there is also some variation possible, but the most general pronunciation is [hə.ˈvəi.ʔi] or [hə.ˈwəi.ʔi]. This last Hawaiian pronunciation is often used by native-English-speaking Hawaii residents, as well. Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...


Archaeologic evidence points to earliest habitation in the 11th Century AD, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, Raiatea and Bora Bora. The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook. However, substantial evidence (Stokes 1932 for example) exists of earlier Spanish visits to Hawaii. Hawaii was an independent kingdom from 1810 until 1893, when the monarchy was overthrown. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898. It was annexed by the U.S. in 1898, but became a territory in 1900 and has been a state since 1959. National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Image:Sp03 raiatea small. ... Mount Otemanu, Bora Bora Bora Bora Pearl Beach Resort, Bora Bora Frigate Flor al, stationned in Bora-Bora lagoon Bora Bora is an atoll in French Polynesia, about 260 km northwest of the capital, Papeete. ... Image:Captainjamescookgpportrait. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

Main article: Hawaiian Islands

Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ...

Location, topography, and geology

An archipelago in the mid-Pacific and, thus, commonly included in Oceania, it is sometimes confused as part of North America however this is incorrect. Hawaii is the southernmost state of the United States; it would be the westernmost, if not for Alaska. It is one of only two states (Alaska is the other) that are outside the contiguous United States, and do not share a border with another U.S. state. Hawaii is the only state that (1) is without territory on the mainland of any continent; (2) is completely surrounded by water; and (3) continues to grow in area because of active extrusive lava flows, most notably from Kilauea (Kīlauea). The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Depending on usage, the term continental United States can refer to either: the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia; or the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia and Alaska. ... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ...


Except for Easter Island, Hawaii is farther away from land than any other landmass on Earth. Hawaii's tallest mountain, Mauna Kea stands over 13,000 feet (4,000 meters) and is taller than Mount Everest if followed to its base at the floor of the Pacific Ocean. motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3,791 Inhabitants 23,17 /km² Time zone Central Time zone, UTC- 6 Telephone Prefix 32 Postal code... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... “Everest” redirects here. ...


The Hawaiian Archipelago comprises eight islands and atolls extending across a distance of 1,500 miles (2,400 km). Of these, eight high islands are considered the "main islands" and are located at the southeastern end of the archipelago. These islands are, in order from the northwest to southeast, Niihau (Niʻihau), Kauai (Kauaʻi), Oahu (Oʻahu), Molokai (Molokaʻi), Lanai (Lānaʻi), Kahoolawe (Kahoʻolawe), Maui (Māui), and Hawaii (Hawaiʻi). The latter is by far the largest, and is very often called the "Big Island" or "Big Isle". The use of that alternative name is often motivated by a desire to avoid ambiguity with "Hawaii" meaning the entire state (all of the islands), as opposed to only that one island. Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ...

Map of Hawaii - PDF

All of the Hawaiian Islands were formed by volcanoes arising from the sea floor from a magma source described in geological theory as a hotspot. The theory maintains that as the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves in a northwesterly direction, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. This explains why only volcanoes on the southern half of the Big Island are presently active. File links The following pages link to this file: Hawaii Categories: National Atlas images | Hawaii maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Hawaii Categories: National Atlas images | Hawaii maps ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks are formed when rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island happened at Haleakala (Haleakalā) on Maui in the late 18th century (though recent research suggests that Haleakalā's most recent eruptive activity could be hundreds of years older[2]. The newest volcano to form is Loihi Seamount (ʻihi), deep below the waters off the southern coast of the Big Island. Haleakalā or East Maui Volcano is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. ... Lōʻihi is a seamount and undersea volcano in the Hawaiian archipelago, located at 18. ...


The volcanic activity and subsequent erosion created impressive geological features. The Big Island is notable as the world's fifth highest island. If the height of the island is measured from its base, deep in the ocean, to its snow-clad peak on Mauna Kea, it can be considered one of the tallest mountains on the Earth. This is a list of islands in the world ordered by their highest point. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Because of the islands' volcanic formation, native life before human activity is said to have arrived by the "3 'W's": wind, waves, and wings. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and the wide range of environments to be found on high islands located in and near the tropic, has resulted in a vast array of endemic flora and fauna. Hawaii has more endangered species per square mile than anywhere else. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... The word wing or wings has more than one use: In aeronautics a wing is an apparatus used to create lift. ... A tropic is either of two circles of latitude: Tropic of Cancer, at 23½°N Tropic of Capricorn, at 23½°S Tropic is also the name of a town in Utah, United States. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ...

A NASA photograph of the Hawaiian Islands taken from space.

Areas under the control and protection of the National Park Service include: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3320x1572, 165 KB)This file was cropped from the original NASA tif[1] then saved losslessly without any other modification. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3320x1572, 165 KB)This file was cropped from the original NASA tif[1] then saved losslessly without any other modification. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...

Haleakalā National Park is a United States national park located on the island of Maui in the state of Hawaii. ... Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, established in 1916, displays the results of hundreds of thousands of years of volcanism, migration, and evolution—processes that thrust a bare land from the sea and clothed it with complex and unique ecosystems and a distinct human culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pu‘uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located on the west coast of the island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaii. ... Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located on the northwestern coast of the island of Hawaii. ... The Arizona is both a tomb and a memorial. ...

Climate

A sunset in Hawaii

The climate of Hawaii is typical for a tropical area, and is regarded as more subtropical than the latitude would suggest, because of the moderating effect of the surrounding ocean. Temperatures and humidity tend to be less extreme, with summer high temperatures seldom reaching above the upper 80s °F, (27 °C) and winter temperatures (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid-60s (16 °C). Snow, although not usually associated with tropics, falls at high elevations on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow only rarely falls on Maui's Haleakala. Mount Waialeale (Waiʻaleʻale), on the island of Kauai, is notable for rainfall, as it has the second highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (38 ft. 4 in., or 11.7 m). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 580 KB) Summary A sunset from a beach in Honolulu, taken December 2003 by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 580 KB) Summary A sunset from a beach in Honolulu, taken December 2003 by myself. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Mount Wai‘ale‘ale (Hawaiian for rippling waters), elevation 5,208 ft (1,578 m), is the second highest point on the island of Kaua‘i in the Hawaiian Islands. ...


Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face the Northeast Trades and receive much more rainfall; leeward sides are drier, with less rain and less cloud cover. This fact is utilized by the tourist industry, which concentrates resorts on sunny leeward coasts. Windward is the side of a boat into which the wind is blowing. ... Leeward is the side of a boat away from the direction where the wind is coming (i. ...


Hurricanes are a rare occurrence in Hawaii, although it is probable that all the islands of Hawaii have been hit by a hurricane in the past. Until the 1950s' advent of satellites, many of the tropical cyclones which hit Hawaii were thought to be Konas, as the Kona and hurricanes seasons overlap. The worst hurricane to hit Hawaii was Hurricane Iniki in 1992, which showed that Hawaii was indeed vulnerable to a direct hit from a hurricane. This does not cite its references or sources. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... There is also a town of Kailua on the Island of O‘ahu. ... Lowest pressure 938 mbar (hPa; 27. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Important cities and towns

The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the island of Hawaii to Maui, and subsequently to Oahu, explains why certain population centers exist where they do today. The largest city, Honolulu, was the one chosen by King Kamehameha III as the capital of his kingdom because of the natural harbor there, the present-day Honolulu Harbor. Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Kamehameha III, King of Hawaii (born Kauikeaouli) (August 11, 1813?–December 15, 1854) was the king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1824 to 1854. ... Aloha Tower has been greeting vessels to port at Honolulu Harbor since September 11, 1926. ...


The largest city is the capital, Honolulu, located along the southeast coast of the island of Oahu. Other populous cities include Hilo, Kāneʻohe, Kailua, Pearl City, Waipahu, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Kīhei, and Līhuʻe. Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Hilo (pronounced IPA: ) is a coastal city in the State of HawaiÊ»i, and is the largest community on the island of HawaiÊ»i. ... Kāne‘ohe is a town and census-designated place (CDP) included in the City & County of Honolulu and located in state District of Ko‘olaupoko on the Island of O‘ahu. ... View across Kailua Beach to the offshore islet known as Moku nui, one of Nā Mokulua off Lanikai Kailua is a town, located in the City & County of Honolulu, in the KoÊ»olaupoko District of OÊ»ahu on the windward coast at Kailua Bay. ... Pearl City is town and a census-designated place (CDP) located in the ‘Ewa District and City & County of Honolulu on the Island of Oahu. ... Waipahu is a former sugar mill town and now census-designated place (CDP) located in the Ewa District on the Island of Oahu in the City & County of Honolulu, Hawaii. ... Kahului is the largest town on the Hawaiian island of Maui and is located along the north shore of central Maui. ... Along the sea wall at Kailua-Kona Kailua-Kona is a census-designated place located in Hawai‘i County, Hawai‘i, in the North Kona District of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Kihei is a census-designated place located in Maui County, Hawaii. ... Cruise ship docked in Port of Nāwiliwili LÄ«hu‘e is the largest town on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua‘i in Hawai‘i. ...


Notable features

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006, under the 1906 Antiquities Act. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km²) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea (out to 50 miles offshore) in the Pacific Ocean — larger than all of America's National Parks combined.[3] The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world and is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the U.S. National Park Service. ...


History

Main article: History of Hawaii

The history of Hawaiʻi includes phases of early Polynesian settlement, Euro-American and Asian immigration, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, and admission to the United States as a territory and then a state. ...

Hawaiian antiquity

Main articles: Ancient Hawaii, Hawaiian mythology, and Polynesian mythology

Anthropologists believe that Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands first populated the Hawaiian Islands at some time between 300 and 1000 AD. There is a great deal of dispute regarding these dates. Early Polynesians settled in Hawaiʻi circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient Hawaiʻi refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Hawaiian mythology is a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology. ... Polynesia (meaning many islands in Greek) is a triangular grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos settled by seafaring voyagers from the original heartland in Tonga and Samoa. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... The Society Islands (French: Îles de la Société or offically Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the south Pacific, administratively part of French Polynesia. ...


Archaeologists and historians also differ as to whether there were one or two waves of colonization. It is believed by some authors that there had been an early settlement from the Marquesas, and a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti, circa 1300, who were said to have introduced a new line of high chiefs and the practice of human sacrifice. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Paao (ʻao). However, other authors have argued that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence whatsoever for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth. Since there are still many supporters of the Paʻao narrative, this topic is still hotly disputed. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Paao is either a figure from a Hawaiian legend or a historical character. ...

[edit]
History of Hawaii
Ancient times
Monarchy
Provisional Government
Republic
Territory
  State  

Leaving aside the question of Paʻao, historians agree that the history of the islands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called alii (aliʻi), ruled their settlements and fought to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. This was conducted in a system of alii of various ranks somewhat similar to Feudalism. Warfare was endemic. Image File history File links Flag_of_Hawaii. ... The history of HawaiÊ»i includes phases of early Polynesian settlement, Euro-American and Asian immigration, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, and admission to the United States as a territory and then a state. ... Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Motto: Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono Anthem: HawaiÊ»i PonoÊ»i Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 LiliuÊ»okalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Early Polynesians settled in Hawai‘i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes made of koa, a wood related to mahogany Ancient Hawai‘i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawai... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


European contact

The 1778 arrival of British explorer Captain James Cook is usually taken to be the "discovery" of the Hawaiian islands by European explorers. Cook plotted and published the geographical coordinates of the Hawaiian Islands, so that they could be found again. Cook named his discovery the Sandwich Islands in honor of one of his sponsors, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, and reported the native name as Owyhee. This is also the reason for the existence of the British Overseas Territory of the South Sandwich Islands near Argentina, as opposed to the Hawaiian ones. Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough For other persons of the same name, see John Montagu. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ...


Some writers have claimed that there were European visitors before Cook, citing Hawaiian legends and references in some Spanish chronicles in support of their argument. While it is possible that there were earlier visitors, this is not accepted as fact by most historians.[citation needed]


Cook visited the Hawaiian islands twice. The second visit ended badly for him, when he was killed on the sands of Kealakekua Bay in 1779. He had attempted to abduct a Hawaiian chief and hold him as ransom for return of a ship's boat that was stolen by a different mischievous minor chief; the chief's supporters fought back. Kealakekua is a census-designated place located in Hawaii County, Hawaii. ...


After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of fresh food. Early British influence can still be seen from the design of the local Flag of Hawaii which has the British Union Jack in the corner. Visitors introduced disease to the formerly isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously. American missionaries arrived in 1820 and eventually converted the chiefs and the remaining population to Protestant Christianity. Ka Hae Hawaiʻi, or the Flag of Hawaiʻi Ka Hae Hawaiʻi, or the Flag of Hawaiʻi, is the official standard symbolizing Hawaiʻi as a kingdom (under a short British annexation), protectorate, republic, territory and state. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Hawaiian kingdom

Main article: Kingdom of Hawaii

After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and peaceful cession of the island of Kauai in 1810, the Hawaiian Islands were united for the first time under a single ruler who would become known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled over the kingdom until 1872. Motto: Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono Anthem: HawaiÊ»i PonoÊ»i Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 LiliuÊ»okalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kamehameha the Great established his dynasty in 1810 upon unifying the islands of Hawaii to become the Kingdom of Hawaii. ...


The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of King Lunalilo over Kalakaua. After Lunalilo's death, in a hotly contested and allegedly fraudulent election by the legislature in 1874 between Kalakaua and Emma (which led to riots and the landing of U.S. and British troops to keep the peace), governance was passed on to the House of Kalakaua. Kamehameha V was the last monarch of the House of Kamehameha. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... William Charles Lunalilo, a minor member of the House of Kamehameha, was elected King of Hawaii upon the death of his cousin, Kamehameha V. William C. Lunalilo (January 31, 1835 - February 3, 1874) was king of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i from January 8, 1873 until February 3... LiliÊ»uokalani inherited the throne from her brother Kalākaua on January 17, 1891. ...


In 1887, citing maladministration under the influence of Walter Murray Gibson, a group of primarily American and European businessmen, including kingdom subjects and members of the Hawaiian government forced King Kalakaua to sign the derisively nicknamed "Bayonet Constitution" which stripped the king of administrative authority, eliminated voting rights for Asians and set minimum income and property requirements for American, European and native Hawaiian voters, essentially limiting the electorate to wealthy elite Americans, Europeans and native Hawaiians. King Kalakaua reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Liliuokalani, succeeded him to the throne and ruled until her overthrow in 1893. Walter Murray Gibson was born on March 6, 1822 in England. ... David Kalākaua was elected by the legislature to assume the throne of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i upon the death of William Charles Lunalilo. ... King David Kalākaua signed the 1887 Constitution under threat of force The 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi stripped the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, and disenfranchised all Asians and poor citizens while generally empowering rich citizens, including American, European and native Hawaiian elites. ... David Kalākaua was elected by the legislature to assume the throne of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i upon the death of William Charles Lunalilo. ... Liliʻuokalani, Queen of Hawaiʻi (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia Kamakaʻeha, also known as Lydia Kamakaʻeha Paki, with the chosen royal name of Liliʻuokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. ...

Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy

In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani threatened to abrogate the "Bayonet Constitution" and draft a new constitution that would restore power to the monarchy. Supporters of the Reform Party (primarily of American and European ancestry, but including some native Hawaiians) organized in response to this and took over the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii. American troops aboard the USS Boston were landed in Honolulu under strict orders of neutrality, to protect the "lives and property of American citizens, and to assist in preserving public order",[4] while a 13 member council of businessmen, attorneys and politicians organized the Honolulu Rifles to depose Queen Liliuokalani. // Main article: Provisional Government of Hawaii Although the coup détat that overthrew Queen Liliuokalani was supported primarily by local European and American business interests, most of the leaders of the movement were Kingdom subjects and included legislators, government officers, and even a Supreme Court Justice of the Hawaiian... King David Kalākaua signed the 1887 Constitution under threat of force The 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i stripped the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, and disenfranchised all Asians and poor citizens while generally empowering rich citizens, including American, European and native Hawaiian elites. ... The Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom was organized following the enactment of the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... Motto: Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono Anthem: HawaiÊ»i PonoÊ»i Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 LiliuÊ»okalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History... The fifth USS Boston, a protected cruiser, was launched 4 December 1884 by John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pennsylvania, and commissioned 2 May 1887, Captain F. M. Ramsey in command. ... Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii through the Committee of Safety in 1893. ...

Fine screen halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893. Lieutenant Lucien Young, USN, commanded the detachment, and is presumably the officer at right.[5]

The monarchy ended in January 1893, and there was much controversy in the following years as the queen tried to regain her throne. After an unsuccessful attempt at armed rebellion in 1895, a weapons cache was found on the palace grounds and Queen Liliuokalani was placed under arrest, tried by a military tribunal of the Republic of Hawaii, convicted of misprision of treason and then imprisoned in her own home. The Queen officially abdicated in 1896. [6] In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton.[7] From the State of Hawaii archives, unlicensed, released into the public domain for historical educational purposes. ... From the State of Hawaii archives, unlicensed, released into the public domain for historical educational purposes. ... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... Misprision of treason is an offence found in many common law jurisdictions, committed by someone who knows a treason is being or is about to be committed but does not report it to a proper authority. ... President Bill Clinton signed United States Public Law 103-150, apologizing on behalf of the American people for its alleged role in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. ...


Republic of Hawaii

Main article: Republic of Hawaii
ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.

The Republic of Hawaii was the formal name of Hawaii from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaii which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands Resolution in Congress in which the Republic was annexed to the United States and became the Territory of Hawaii on July 7, 1898. Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (967x743, 119 KB) Summary Taken by User:Jiang on December 23, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (967x743, 119 KB) Summary Taken by User:Jiang on December 23, 2005. ... Iolani Palace was the official residence of King David Kalakaua and Queen Julia Kapiolani and then Queen Liliuokalani and Prince Consort John Owen Dominis. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Hawaiian territory

Main article: Territory of Hawaii

When William McKinley won the presidential election in November of 1896, the question of Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again opened. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliuokalani. He had remained opposed to annexation until the end of his term, but McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He agreed to meet with a committee of annexationists from Hawaii, Lorrin Thurston, Francis Hatch and William Kinney. After negotiations, in June of 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[8] The president then submitted the treaty to the U.S. Senate for approval. On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... For the mountain, see Mount McKinley. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1893. ...


Despite some opposition in the islands, the Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21, formally annexing Hawaii as a U.S. territory. Although its legality was questioned by some at the time because it was a resolution, not a treaty, both houses of Congress carried the measure with two-thirds majorities, whereas a treaty would have only required two-thirds of the Senate vote (Article II, Sec. 2, U.S. Constitution). On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The power of the plantation owners was finally broken by activist descendants of original immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were legal U.S. citizens. Expecting to gain full voting rights, they actively campaigned for statehood for the Hawaiian Islands.


In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained Iolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Though several attempts were made to achieve statehood, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners, such as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various states of the U.S. Iolani Palace was the official residence of King David Kalakaua and Queen Julia Kapiolani and then Queen Liliuokalani and Prince Consort John Owen Dominis. ... Territorial Hawai‘i was ruled by a corporate oligarchy of the Big Five sugar corporations. ...


Hawaiian statehood

All representative districts voted at least 93% in favor of Admission acts. Ballot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959.

In March 1959, both houses of Congress passed the Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower signed it into law. (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum was held asking residents of Hawaii to vote on accepting the statehood bill. Hawaii voted at a ratio of 17 to 1 to accept. On August 21, church bells throughout Honolulu were rung upon the proclamation that Hawaii was the 50th state of the Union. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x696, 111 KB) Summary Hawaii and all island groups voted at least 93% in favor of statehood (proposition 1), relinquishing all land claims and disputes to the United States (proposition 2), and full consent to terms of the Admission Act (proposition... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x696, 111 KB) Summary Hawaii and all island groups voted at least 93% in favor of statehood (proposition 1), relinquishing all land claims and disputes to the United States (proposition 2), and full consent to terms of the Admission Act (proposition... In April 1959, Hawaii Delegate John A. Burns prepared to slice the Hawaii Statehood Cake at Capitol Hill with Democrat Congressmen D. S. Saund of California, James Haley of Florida and Al Ullman of Oregon. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


After statehood, Hawaii quickly became a modern state with a construction boom and rapidly growing economy. The Hawaii Republican Party, which was strongly supported by the plantation owners, was voted out of office. In its place, the Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated state politics for forty years. In 1998, Linda Lingle was appointed party chairwoman. ... Governor John A. Burns is often called the Father of the State of Hawaii, having overseen its modern development and setting precedents still honored today. ...


In recent decades, the state government has implemented programs to promote Hawaiian culture. The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated as state constitutional law specific programs such as the creation of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote the indigenous Hawaiian language and culture. The 1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention launched the careers of over a dozen politicians who would become legends in modern Hawaiian history. ... The Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also popularly known by its acronym OHA, is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1. ...


Controversy has erupted within the last decade over the extent of the Hawaiian cultural programs creating a new political dialogue within the state. Pitting the strong emotions of both integrationists and separatists, high rhetoric has been employed by both groups including the use of propaganda materials of dubious provenance. A much criticized example includes the Hui Aloha Aina (Hui Aloha ʻĀina) and Hui Kalaiaina (Hui Kālaiʻāina) petitions allegedly rediscovered in 1998. According to their proponents, the petitions are contemporaneous to the annexation of Hawaii with one petition purportedly containing 22,000 signatures in opposition to the annexation while a second petition purportedly contains 17,000 signatures in favor of reinstating the monarchy. The validity of the petitions has been criticized by Lorrin Thurston in an analysis which indicates significant fraud.


Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1900 154,001
1910 191,874 24.6%
1920 255,881 33.4%
1930 368,300 43.9%
1940 422,770 14.8%
1950 499,794 18.2%
1960 632,772 26.6%
1970 769,913 21.7%
1980 964,691 25.3%
1990 1,108,229 14.9%
2000 1,211,537 9.3%

As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, which is an increase of 13,070, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located directly between the two islands of Oahu and Molokai [1]. 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twetieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,542,199, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ...


Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to military presence and tourists. Oahu, which is aptly nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and the one with the highest population density), with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles, about 1,650 people per square mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 square miles is the most-densely populated state with 1,134 people per square mile.[9]) Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (including many unpopulated islands) results in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile,[10] which makes Hawaii less densely populated than states like Ohio and Illinois.[11] Oʻahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of Hawaiʻi. ...


Hawaii may be an especially healthy place to live. The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in the year 2000 is 79.8 years (77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than the residents of any other state.[12]


Ethnicities

Ethnically, Hawaii is one of only four states in which non-Hispanic whites do not form a majority, and has the largest percentage of Asian Americans. Hawaii was the first majority-minority state in the United States, having been one since the early 20th century. Hawaii also has the largest percentage of persons of mixed race, who constitute some 20% of the total population. The Hispanic world. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... US states and districts in which non-Hispanic whites are a plurality/minority. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ...

Demographics of Hawaii (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native   -   NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 40.32% 2.83% 2.07% 58.19% 23.39%
2000 (Hispanic only) 4.69% 0.33% 0.56% 3.32% 2.48%
2005 (total population) 41.26% 3.33% 2.03% 57.53% 22.10%
2005 (Hispanic only) 5.51% 0.39% 0.51% 3.32% 2.36%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 7.70% 23.70% 3.25% 4.07% -0.56%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only) 5.59% 23.93% 6.38% 4.01% -0.64%
Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only) 23.78% 21.96% -5.09% 5.07% 0.04%
Hawaii Population Density Map

The third group of foreigners to arrive upon Hawaii's shores, after the Polynesians and Europeans, were the Chinese. Chinese employees serving on Western trading ships disembarked and settled starting in 1789. In 1820 the first American missionaries arrived in Hawaii to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians what the missionaries considered "civilized" ways. A large proportion of Hawaii's population has become a people of Asian ancestry (especially Chinese, Japanese and Filipino) many of whom are descendants from those waves of early foreign immigrants brought to the islands in the nineteenth century, beginning in the 1850's, to work on the sugar plantations. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government established after the Meiji Restoration because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate, by then terminated. The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrived in Hawaii on February 9, 1885 after Kalakaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalakaua visited Japan in 1881. It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Hawaii_population_map. ... Image File history File links Hawaii_population_map. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


Religion

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Heathen redirects here. ...

Languages

Main article: Hawaiian language

The State of Hawaii has two official languages recognized in its constitution adopted at the 1978 constitutional convention: English and Hawaiian. Article XV, Section 4, specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law" [italic added]. Hawaiian Creole English (locally referred to as 'Pidgin') is the first language of many born-and-raised residents, and is a second language for many other residents. After English, the second- and third-most spoken individual languages are Tagalog and Japanese, respectively. Significant European immigrants and descendants also speak their native languages; the most popular are Spanish, German, and French. The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... The 1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention launched the careers of over a dozen politicians who would become legends in modern Hawaiian history. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Hawaiian Pidgin English, also known as Hawaiian Creole English or simply Pidgin, is a creole language based on English that is widely used by residents of Hawai‘i. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... This article is about the continent. ...


As of the 2000 U.S. Census, 73.44% of Hawaii residents age 5 and older speak only English at home. Tagalog speakers make up 5.37%, followed by Japanese at 4.96%, Ilokano at 4.05%, Chinese at 1.92%, Hawaiian at 1.68%, Spanish at 1.66%, Korean at 1.61%, and Samoan at 1.01% [2]. The 22nd United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


Origin of Hawaiian

Hawaiian is a member of the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family. It began to develop around 1000 A.D., when foreign Marquesans or Tahitians of that era colonized Hawaii. Those originally foreign Polynesians remained in the islands, thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Consequently, their originally foreign language developed into the Hawaiian language. The Polynesian languages are a group of related languages spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...


Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language was never written. The present written form of Hawaiian was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820–1826. They assigned letters from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds. Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In writing, vowel length can be indicated with a macron (kahakō). Hawaiian also uses the glottal stop as a consonant. In writing, it can be indicated with the apostrophe, or with the opening single quote (ʻokina). A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...


Revival of Hawaiian

As a result of the constitutional provision, interest in the Hawaiian language was revived in the late 20th century. Public and independent schools throughout the state began teaching Hawaiian language standards as part of the regular curricula, beginning with preschool. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also created by the 1978 constitutional convention, specially designated Hawaiian language immersion schools were established where students would be taught in all subjects using Hawaiian. Also, the University of Hawaii System developed the only Hawaiian language graduate studies program in the world. Municipal codes were altered in favor of Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. The Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also popularly known by its acronym OHA, is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1. ... Jean Charlots mural called Commencement is featured at Bachman Hall, the administrative center of the University of Hawai`i System. ...


Note on Hawaiian language and ʻokina usage

In Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834–1948, the spelling "Hawaii" was used. However, in texts written mainly for Hawaiian-language pedagogy, especially since 1950, the modern Hawaiian-language spelling used is Hawaiʻi, with an apostrophe or other similar character, such as an opening single quote, written between the final two vowels. The character represents a consonant, the glottal stop, in the Hawaiian language. Although not used and not needed by native speakers of Hawaiian for over 100 years, its use is appropriate in modern written Hawaiian. Therefore, when actual Hawaiian-language forms are cited in this article, they will appear in italic, and will mark the glottal stop, and/or vowel length, if they are a part of the particular word. These citations will be given within parentheses, immediately following the English-language spellings of the particular words, but only at the initial use of the words in the article. English-language spellings of Hawaiian words do not use the modern Hawaiian marks for the glottal stop or vowel length. In that respect, English spellings of Hawaiian words are in harmony with the spellings familiar to Hawaiians before the 1957 Pukui and Elbert dictionary introduced the written kahakō and ʻokina. The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...


"Pidgin"

Many residents speak Hawaiian Creole English (HCE), often called "pidgin". During the 19th century, there was a great increase in immigration from foreign countries (mainly China, Japan, Portugal, the Portuguese Azores, and Spain), and a pidgin English developed (HCE is mostly made up of Chinese, Japanese, Filipino and Portuguese) which by the early 20th century became a creole English as pidgin speakers had children who acquired the pidgin as their own native language. Hawaiʻi Pidgin English, Hawaiʻi Creole English, HCE, or simply Pidgin, is a creole language based in part on English used by some residents of Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian Pidgin English is considered an inaccurate label). ...


One trait of HCE is that it contains some vocabulary and syntax from Hawaiian. HCE speakers can use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic. Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants or animals. For example, tuna fish are often called "ahi" (ʻahi). Also, some Hawaiian words are loanwords in the mainstream American English lexicon. HCE speakers have modified the meanings of certain English words. For example, the terms "auntie" and "uncle" can be used to refer to any adult who is a friend, or a friend to the family. It is also used as a sign of respect for elders. Throughout the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE has influenced surfing slang. Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine, have found their way to other places. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


HCE syntax often follows that of Hawaiian. Certain words can be dropped if their meaning is understood. For example, instead of saying "It is hot today, isn't it?", an HCE speaker is likely to say simply "stay hot yeah?" Grammatically, pidgin follows an English translation of the Hawaiian language.


Debates

A somewhat divisive political issue that has arisen since The Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language is the exact spelling of the state's name. As prescribed in the Admission of Hawaii Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognizes "Hawaii" to be the official state name. In April 1959, Hawaii Delegate John A. Burns prepared to slice the Hawaii Statehood Cake at Capitol Hill with Democrat Congressmen D. S. Saund of California, James Haley of Florida and Al Ullman of Oregon. ...


Official government publications, as well as department and office titles, use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, that is, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, some private entities, including a local newspaper, are using such symbols.


The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii". In Article XV therein, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Note that English spellings, not Hawaiian spellings, are used in all of those cases. No okinas nor kahakos are used.


The nuances in the Hawaiian language debate are often not obvious or well-appreciated outside Hawaii. The issue has often been a source of friction in situations where correct naming conventions are mandated, as people frequently disagree over which spelling is correct or incorrect, and where it is correctly or incorrectly applied.

See also: Hawaiian language#Orthography (writing system)

The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...

Education

Main article: Hawaii State Department of Education

Hawaii is currently the only state in the union with a unified school system statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education, with thirteen members elected for four-year terms and one non-voting student member. The Board of Education sets statewide educational policy and hires the state superintendent of schools, who oversees the operations of the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is also divided into seven districts, four on Oahu and one for each of the other counties. The Hawaii State Department of Education is the most centralized and only statewide public education system in the United States. ...


The structure of the state Department of Education has been a subject of discussion and controversy in recent years. The main rationale for the current centralized model is equity in school funding and distribution of resources: leveling out inequalities that would exist between highly populated Oahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas of the state. This system of school funding differs from many localities in the United States where schools are funded from local property taxes.


Policy initiatives have been made in recent years toward decentralization. Current Governor Linda Lingle is a proponent of replacing the current statewide board with seven elected district boards. The Democrat-controlled state legislature opposed her proposal, instead favoring expansion of decision-making power to the schools and giving schools more discretion over budgeting. Political debate of structural reform is likely to continue for the foreseeable future.


Schools and academies

As stated above, the Hawaii State Department of Education operates all of the public schools in the State of Hawaii.


Hawaii has the distinction of educating more students in independent institutions of secondary education than any other state in the United States. It also has four of the largest independent schools: Mid-Pacific Institute, Iolani School, Kamehameha Schools, and Punahou School. The second Buddhist high school in the United States, and first Buddhist high school in Hawaii, Pacific Buddhist Academy, was founded in 2003. (The first Buddhist high school in the United States was Developing Virtue Secondary School founded in 1981 in Ukiah, California.) An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... Name Mid-Pacific Institute Address 2445 Kaala Street Town Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Established 1908 Community Urban Religion Christian (non-denominational) Students Coeducational Grades Pre-K to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges Nickname Mid-Pac or MPI Mascot Pueo (Hawaiian Short-eared Owl) Colors Green and White Motto... Name ʻIolani School Address 563 Kamoku Street Town Honolulu, Hawaiʻi 96826 Established 1863 Community Urban Type Independent Religion Episcopal Church Students Coeducational Grades K to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges Nickname Raiders Mascot ʻIo (Hawaiian Hawk) Colors Black, Red and White Motto One Team, humble in... Name Kamehameha Schools Address 567 South King Street, Suite 200 Town Honolulu, Hawaii Established 1887 Community Urban Type Independent Primary and Secondary Religion Protestant Students Coeducational Grades Preschool to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges District Kalihi Subdistrict Alewa Hts. ... Established 1841 School Type Private Preparatory Day (Primary and Secondary) Students 3,700 approx. ... Classrooms of Developing Virtue Boys School Classrooms of Developing Virtue Girls School Developing Virtue Secondary School (DVS, Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Peide Zhongxue) is a private Buddhist school located in the town of Talmage, California, and also the first Buddhist high school founded in the United States. ...


Both independent and charter schools can select their students, while the regular public schools must take all students in their district. For a comprehensive list of independent schools, see the list of independent schools in Hawaii. For a comprehensive list of public schools, see the list of public schools in Hawaii.


Colleges and universities

Graduates of institutions of secondary learning in Hawaii often either enter directly into the work force or attend colleges and universities. While many choose to attend colleges and universities on the mainland or elsewhere, most choose to attend one of many institutions of higher learning in Hawaii.


The largest of these institutions is the University of Hawaii System. It consists of: (1) the flagship research university at Manoa (Mānoa); (2) two comprehensive campuses Hilo and West Oahu; and (7) seven Community Colleges. Students choosing private education attend Brigham Young University Hawaii, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, or University of the Nations. This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... The University of HawaiÊ»i at Mānoa is a public, co-educational university and is the main campus of the greater University of HawaiÊ»i system. ... The University of Hawaii at Hilo is one of ten branches of the University of Hawaii System anchored by the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The University of Hawaii-West Oahu, formerly West Oahu College, is one of ten branches of the University of Hawaii System anchored by the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... Brigham Young University Hawai‘i is located at the historically Latter-day Saint town of Lā‘ie on the island of O‘ahu. ... Chaminade University of Honolulu is a private coeducational university in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... HawaiÊ»i Pacific University (also known as HPU) is a private coeducational university in Honolulu, Hawaii, founded in 1965 as Hawaii Pacific College by Paul C.T. Loo, Eureka Forbes, Elizabeth W. Kellerman, and Reverend Edmond Walker. ... The University of the Nations (U of N) is a Christian university providing coursework in over 50 languages at over 300 locations throughout the world. ...


The Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. For a comprehensive list of colleges and universities, see the list of colleges and universities in Hawaii. Saint Stephen Seminary was a diocesan minor seminary staffed by the Sulpician Fathers in the diocese of Honolulu closed in 1970. ... A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... Episcopal crest of Bishop Clarence Silva The Catholic Diocese of Honolulu is an ecclesiastical territory or particular church of the Catholic Church in the United States. ...


Problems

Public schools in Hawaii have to deal with large populations of children of non-native English speaking immigrants and a culture that is different in many ways from the mainland U.S., whence most of the course materials come, and where most of the standards for schools are set.


The public elementary, middle, and high school scores in Hawaii tend to be below average on national tests as mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Some of this can be attributed to the Hawaii State Board of Education requiring all eligible students to take these tests and reporting all student test scores unlike, for example, Texas and Michigan. Results reported in August 2005 indicate that two-thirds of Hawaii's schools failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in math and reading (of 282 schools across the state, 185 failed [3]). President Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


On the other hand, results of the ACT college placement tests show that Hawaii class of 2005 seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9) (Honolulu Advertiser, Aug. 17, 2005, p. B1). It should be noted that fewer students take the ACT examination than take the more widely accepted SAT examination. On the SAT, Hawaii's college bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except math. The ACT, formerly the ACT Assessment, is a college-entrance achievement test produced by ACT, Inc. ... The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. ...


Economy

The history of Hawaii can be traced through a succession of dominating industries: sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane, pineapple, military, tourism, and education. Since statehood was achieved in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry in Hawaii, contributing 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997. New efforts are underway to diversify the economy. The total gross output for the state in 2003 was US$47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents was US$30,441. The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Binomial name Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. ... Tourists on Oʻahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ...


Industrial exports from Hawaii include food processing and apparel. These industries play a small role in the Hawaii economy, however, due to the considerable shipping distance to the ports and population of the West Coast of the United States. Food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, and sugar cane. Agricultural sales for 2002, according to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, were US$370.9 million from diversified agriculture, US$100.6 million from pineapple, and US$64.3 million from sugarcane. A cup of coffee Workers sorting and pulping coffee beans in Guatemala Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds—commonly referred to as beans—of the coffee plant. ... Species Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia tetraphylla The macadamia nut is the fruit of a tree native to the east coast of Australia. ... Binomial name Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


Hawaii is known for its relatively high per capita state tax burden. In the years 2002 and 2003, Hawaii residents had the highest state tax per capita at US$2,757 and US$2,838, respectively. This rate can be explained partly by the fact that services such as education, health care and social services are all rendered at the state level — as opposed to the municipal level as all other states.


Millions of tourists contribute to the collection figure by paying the general excise tax and hotel room tax; thus not all the taxes collected come directly from residents. Business leaders, however, have often considered the state's tax burden as being too high, contributing to both higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate [4]. See the list of businesses in Hawaii for more information on commerce in the state. An excise is an indirect tax or duty levied on items within a country. ...


Until recently, Hawaii was the only state in the U.S. that attempted to control gasoline prices through a Gas Cap Law. The law was enacted during a period when oil profits in Hawaii in relation to the Mainland U.S. were under scrutiny, and sought to tie local gasoline prices to those of the Mainland. The law took effect in September 2005 amid price fluctuations caused by Hurricane Katrina. The Hawaii state legislature suspended the law in April 2006. The Hawaii Gas Cap Law is a legal limit on wholesale gasoline prices, or the maximum amount that may be charged for producing gasoline and delivering it to a service station. ...

See also: Richest Places in Hawaii

Hawaii has the eighteenth highest per capita income in the United States of America, at $21,525 (2000). ...

Law and government

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2004 45.26% 194,191 54.01% 231,708
2000 37.46% 137,845 55.79% 205,286
1996 31.64% 113,943 56.93% 205,012
1992 36.70% 136,822 48.09% 179,310
1988 44.75% 158,625 54.27% 192,364
1984 55.10% 185,050 43.82% 147,154
1980 42.90% 130,112 44.80% 135,879
1976 48.06% 140,003 50.59% 147,375
1972 62.48% 168,865 37.52% 101,409
1968 38.70% 91,425 59.83% 141,324
1964 21.24% 44,022 78.76% 163,249
1960 49.97% 92,295 50.03% 92,410

The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      For other uses, see Republican Party (disambiguation) or GOP (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Constitution of Hawaii refers to various legal documents throughout the history of the Hawaiian Islands that defined the fundamental principles of authority and governance within its sphere of jurisdiction. ...


The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii and assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both elected on the same ticket. The governor, in residence at the grounds of Washington Place, is the only public official elected for the state government in a statewide race; all other administrators and judges are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor is concurrently the Secretary of State of Hawaii. Both the governor and lieutenant governor administer their duties from the Hawaii State Capitol. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee the major agencies and departments of the executive of which there are twenty. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Lieutenant Governors of Hawaii have been administering their duties from the Hawaii State Capitol since 1969. ... Washington Place is a Greek Revival home in the Capital District in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi and was formerly the official residence of the Governor of Hawaiʻi. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... The Hawai‘i State Capitol is the official statehouse or capitol building of Hawai‘i. ...


The legislative branch consists of the Hawaii State Legislature — the twenty-five members of the Hawaii State Senate led by the President of the Senate and the fifty-one members of the Hawaii State House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House. They also govern from the Hawaii State Capitol. The judicial branch is led by the highest state court, the Hawaii State Supreme Court, which uses Aliiolani Hale (Aliʻiōlani Hale) as its chambers. Lower courts are organized as the Hawaii State Judiciary. Hawaii Governor Benjamin J. Cayetano speaks before a special session of the legislature on January 24, 2000. ... The Hawaii State Senate is the upper chamber of the Hawaii State Legislature which governs from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. There twenty-five members from various electoral districts. ... The President of the Senate is the title often given to the presiding officer, or chairman, of a senate. ... The Hawaii State House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Hawaii State Legislature which governs from Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... Aliiolani Hale in downtown Honolulu is the home of the Hawaii State Supreme Court. ... AliÊ»iōlani Hale is today the home of the HawaiÊ»i State Supreme Court and the statue of Kamehameha the Great. ... Aliiolani Hale in downtown Honolulu is the home of the Hawaii State Supreme Court whose Chief Justice is concurrently the administrator-in-chief of the Hawaii State Judiciary. ...


The state is represented in the Congress of the United States by a delegation of four members. They are the senior and junior United States Senators, the representative of the First Congressional District of Hawaii and the representative of the Second Congressional District of Hawaii. Many Hawaii residents have been appointed to administer other agencies and departments of the federal government by the President of the United States. All federal officers of Hawaii administer their duties locally from the Prince Kuhio Federal Building (Kūhiō) near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor. Congress in Joint Session. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Hawaii to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... The First Congressional District of Hawaii was officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... The Second Congressional District of Hawaii is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii, officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... The Prince KÅ«hiō Federal Building, formally the Prince Jonah KÅ«hiō Kalaniana‘ole Federal Building and United States Courthouse, is the official seat of the United States federal government and its local branches of various agencies and departments in the state of Hawai‘i. ... The Aloha Tower has been greeting vessels to port at Honolulu Harbor since September 11, 1926. ... Aloha Tower has been greeting vessels to port at Honolulu Harbor since September 11, 1926. ...


Hawaii is primarily dominated by the Democratic Party and has supported Democrats in 10 of the 12 presidential elections in which it has participated. In 2004, John Kerry won the state's 4 electoral votes by a margin of 9 percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county in the state supported the Democratic candidate.


The Prince Kuhio Federal Building also houses agencies of the federal government such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the United States Secret Service. The building is the site of the federal courts and the offices of the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii, principal law enforcement officer of the United States Department of Justice in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the United States federal government agency that collects taxes and enforces the internal revenue laws. ... Secret Service redirects here. ... The United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii — also known as the United States Attorney and U.S. Attorney — is the chief law enforcement officer representing the Federal Government of the United States and principal authority of the United States Department of Justice in the state of... For the band, see The Police. ... DOJ headquarters in Washington, D.C. Justice Department redirects here. ... The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii is the principal trial court of the United States Federal Court System in the state of Hawaii. ...

Unique to Hawaii is the way it has organized its municipal governments. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaii except the City & County of Honolulu. All other municipal governments are administered at the county level. The county executives are the Mayor of Hawaii, Mayor of Honolulu, Mayor of Kauai and Mayor of Maui. All mayors in the state are elected in nonpartisan races. Nickname: Sheltered Bay Official website: http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Mayor of Hawaii is the chief executive officer of the County of Hawaii in the state of Hawaii. ... Mayor of Honolulu Jeremy Harris gives the annual State of the City address from Honolulu Hale on January 25, 2001. ... The Mayor of Kauai is the chief executive officer of the County of Kauai in the state of Hawaii. ... The Mayor of Maui is the chief executive officer of the County of Maui in the state of Hawaii. ... In U.S. politics, nonpartisan denotes an election in which the candidates do not declare or do not formally have a political party affiliation. ...


The officers of the federal and state governments have been historically elected from the Democratic Party of Hawaii and the Hawaii Republican Party. Municipal charters in the state have declared all mayors to be elected in nonpartisan races. Governor John A. Burns is often called the Father of the State of Hawaii, having overseen its modern development and setting precedents still honored today. ... In 1998, Linda Lingle was appointed party chairwoman. ... In U.S. politics, nonpartisan denotes an election in which the candidates do not declare or do not formally have a political party affiliation. ...

See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Hawaii

Hawaii used to be a Democratic stronghold in U.S. Presidential elections (Al Gore won it by 18. ...

Transportation

By road

Hawaii has 4 federal highways: H-1, H-2, H-3, and H-201, all located on Oahu and all part of the Interstate Highway System. With the exception of H-201, which begins and ends on H-1, all the highways have at least one end point at or near a current or former military installation. A system of state highways encircles the other main islands as well as Oahu. Travel can be slow due to narrow winding roads. Interstate H-1 is an intrastate interstate highway in Hawaii, United States, on the island of Oahu. ... Interstate H-2 (also known as the Veterans Memorial Freeway) is an intrastate interstate highway located on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. ... Interstate H-3 in Halawa Valley looking towards the Koolau crest Interstate H-3 (also known as the John A. Burns Freeway) is an intrastate interstate highway located on the island of O‘ahu in the state of Hawai‘i, United States. ... Interstate H-201 (abbreviated H-201) is a tertiary Interstate highway located in the U.S. state of Hawaii, on the island of O‘ahu. ... The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System, is a network of highways (also called expressways) in the United States. ... Below is a partial list of highways in Hawai‘i. ...


By air

Aviation is an important part of Hawaii's transportation network, as most interisland travel takes place using commercial airlines. Hawaiian Airlines, Aloha Airlines, and go! use jets to travel between the larger commercial airports in Honolulu, Lihue, Kahului, Kona, and Hilo, while Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight service between the islands. An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... Hawaiian Airlines is the 11th largest commercial airline in the United States. ... Aloha Airlines (IATA: AQ, ICAO: AAH, and Callsign: Aloha) is an airline headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii USA. It operates extensive scheduled services within the Hawaiian Islands, and between Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States. ... go! is an airline division within the Mesa Airlines subsidiary of Mesa Air Group. ... Island Air (officially Hawaii Island Air, Inc. ... Pacific Wings (Pacific Wings Airlines) is a commuter airline based in Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. It operates scheduled and charter interisland services in Hawaii. ...


By ship or ferry

Norwegian Cruise Lines provides American-flagged passenger cruise service between the islands. A company called Hawaii Superferry plans to connect the islands with a ferry system capable of transporting vehicles. Service is scheduled to begin in the second half of 2007 with routes from Oahu to Kauai and Maui. A route from Oahu to the Big Island is planned for 2009. Young Brothers provides barge service to transport goods between islands. Norwegian Dawn passes Lower Manhattan on the way to Bermuda and the Bahamas. ... The Hawaii Superferry is Hawaiis first ferry transport with daily service from Honolulu to Kahului, Maui and Nawiliwili, Kauai begining July 2007. ...


Miscellaneous topics

Etymology

The Hawaiian language word Hawai'i derives from Nuclear Polynesian *sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland";[13] cognate words are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori (Hawaiki), Rarotongan ('Avaiki), and Samoan (Savai'i). (See also Hawaiki). The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Nuclear Polynesian refers to those languages comprising the Samoic the Eastern Polynesian branches of the Polynesian group of Austronesian languages. ... Internal reconstruction is a method of using the internal characteristics of a single language to recover information about how the language appeared at an early point in time. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... The Cook Islands Māori also called Maori Kuki Airani became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003 (1). ... Polynesians give the name Hawaiki to the mythical island to which they trace their origins. ...


According to Pukui and Elbert (1986:62) "Elsewhere in Polynesia, Hawai`i or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawai`i the name has no meaning; see Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini, 1974." (emphasis added)


Media

Newspapers

Two major competing Honolulu-based newspapers serve all of Hawaii. The Honolulu Advertiser is owned by Gannett Pacific Corporation while the Honolulu Star-Bulletin is owned by Black Press of British Columbia in Canada. Both are among the largest newspapers in the United States in terms of circulation. Other locally published newspapers are available to residents of the various islands. The Honolulu Advertiser is the largest newspaper in the U.S. state of Hawai‘i and has a morning circulation of 143,983 and a Sunday edition of 165,481 copies. ... Gannett Company, Inc. ... The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, based in Honolulu, Hawaii, is the second largest daily newspaper in the state of Hawaii (the largest being the Honolulu Advertiser. ... Black Press is a publication newspapers in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in Canada and the states of Washington and Hawaii in the United States. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...


The Hawaii business community is served by the Pacific Business News and Hawaii Business Magazine. The largest religious community in Hawaii is served by the Hawaii Catholic Herald. Honolulu Magazine is a popular magazine that offers local interest news and feature articles. Pacific Business News is the primary business newspaper in Hawaii. ... Categories: Hawaii media | Stub ... Categories: Stub | Newspapers of Hawaii ... Categories: Hawaii media | Local interest magazines | Magazines stubs ...


Apart from the mainstream press, the state also enjoys a vibrant ethnic publication presence with newspapers for the Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Native Hawaiian communities. In addition, there is an alternative weekly, the Honolulu Weekly. Honolulu Weekly is an alternative weekly newspaper published in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. ...


Television

All but one of the major American television networks are represented in Hawaii through KFVE (My Network TV), KGMB (CBS), KHET (PBS member station), KHNL (NBC), KHON-TV (Fox, The CW on DT2), and KITV (ABC), among others. Two other stations, KIKU-TV and KBFD, specialize in multi-cultural programs serving Asian audiences. From Honolulu, programming at these stations is rebroadcast to the various other islands via networks of satellite transmitters. Until the advent of satellite, most network programming was broadcast a week behind mainland scheduling. KFVE, also known by the brand K5 The Home Team, is the licensed broadcast affiliate of Warner Brothers Television Network in Hawaii. ... My Network TV (sometimes written MyNetworkTV, and unofficially abbreviated MNT or MNTV) is an upcoming television network in the United States, owned by News Corporation, which is scheduled to launch on September 5, 2006. ... For the former co-owned radio stations, see KSSK-FM. KGMB is the licensed broadcast affiliate of CBS in Hawaii. ... CBS is one of the largest radio and television networks in the United States. ... KHET, also called PBS Hawaii, is the only PBS member station in Hawaii. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... KHNL is the licensed broadcast affiliate of the National Broadcasting Company in Hawaii. ... NBC (an acronym for National Broadcasting Company) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... KHON-TV is the Fox and The CW affiliate in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... For the animal, see Fox. ... The Crimson White, known colloquially as The CW, is the student-run newspaper of the University of Alabama. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... KITV is the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) television affiliate licensed to Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... KIKU-TV is an independent television station based in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... KBFD is a independent station that airs asian programming. ...


The various production companies that work with the major networks have produced television series and other projects in Hawaii. Most notable were police dramas like Magnum P.I. and Hawaii Five-O. Currently, hit TV shows Lost and Dog the Bounty Hunter are filmed in the Hawaiian Islands. A comprehensive list of such projects can be seen at the list of Hawaii television series. Magnum, P.I. was an American television show that followed the adventures of Thomas Magnum (played by Tom Selleck), a private investigator living in Hawaii. ... Hawaii Five-O was an American television series that starred Jack Lord and James MacArthur as detectives for a fictional Hawaii state police department. ... Lost is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning serial drama television series that follows the lives of a group of plane crash survivors on a mysterious tropical island, somewhere in the South Pacific. ... Dog the Bounty Hunter is a reality television show, chronicling Duane Dog Chapmans operations in his bounty hunting firm, Da Kine Bail Bonds in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The Hawaii Film Office is an agency of the state of Hawaii through the Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. ...


Film

Hawaii has a growing film industry administered by the state through the Hawaii Film Office. Several television shows, movies, and various other media projects were produced in the Hawaiian Islands, taking advantage of the natural scenic landscapes as backdrops. Notable films produced in Hawaii or inspired by Hawaii include Hawaii, Blue Hawaii, Donovan's Reef, From Here to Eternity, South Pacific, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Jurassic Park, Outbreak, Waterworld, Six Days Seven Nights, George of the Jungle, 50 First Dates, Pearl Harbor, Blue Crush, and Lilo and Stitch. The recently released film Snakes on a Plane takes place on a flight departing Hawaii for the U.S. mainland. Hawaii is home to a prominent film festival known as the Hawaii International Film Festival. The Hawaii Film Office is an agency of the state of Hawaii through the Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. ... Hawaii is a 1966 American motion picture based on the novel of the same name by James A. Michener. ... Blue Hawaii is a 1961 musical film set in the state of Hawaii and starring Elvis Presley. ... Donovans Reef is a 1963 American action/comedy motion picture from director John Ford, about a snooty young woman from Boston who comes to a South Pacific isle in search of her missing father and encounters a pair of old sailors. ... From Here to Eternity is a 1953 movie based on a James Jones novel in which characters work through ordinary bouts of intimidation and infidelity on a military base in the days preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... South Pacific is a musical play, with music by Richard Rodgers and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. When it first opened on Broadway on April 7, 1949, it was produced by Leland Hayward and directed by Joshua Logan. ... Raiders of the Lost Ark, also known as Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark, is a 1981, Academy Award-winning adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based upon the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ... This article is about the 1995 sci-fi film. ... Six Days Seven Nights (1998) is a romantic comedy interspersed with elements of the adventure film. ... George of the Jungle is a Saturday-morning animated television program originally broadcast on the American TV network ABC from 1967 to 1970. ... 50 First Dates is a 2004 romantic comedy starring Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore and directed by Peter Segal. ... Pearl Harbor is a war film released in the summer of 2001 by Touchstone Pictures. ... Blue Crush is a 2002 surfer film directed by John Stockwell and based on the Outside magazine article Surfer Girls of Maui by Susan Orlean. ... Lilo & Stitch is an animated film, set in Hawaii. ... Snakes on a Plane (also known as SoaP and released in Japan as Snake Flight (スネーク・フライト)) is a high concept,[1] horror-thriller-Comedy feature film[2] starring Samuel L. Jackson. ... A film festival is the presentation or showcasing of films in one or more movie theaters or screening venues. ... The Hawaii International Film Festival (HIFF) is a film festival held in the US State of Hawaii. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Hawaii

The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges influencing modern Hawaiian society, there are reenactments of the cultural ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to have affected the culture of the United States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of luaus and hula. The culture of Hawaii has its origins in the traditional culture of the Native Hawaiians. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Dancers and musicians at a commercial luau A luau (in Hawaiian, lū‘au) is a Hawaiian feast. ... Hula kahiko performance in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Hula is often performed as a form of prayer at official state functions in Hawaii. ...

Once an isolated archipelago inhabited only by native Hawaiians, Hawaii is now extremely cosmopolitan. ... Folklore in Hawaii in modern times is a mixture of various aspects of Hawaiian mythology and various urban legends that have been passed on regarding various places in the Hawaiian islands. ... Hawaiian mythology is a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology. ... . This is a list of Hawaii-related topics: List of Governors of Hawaii List of movies set in Hawaii List of people from Hawaii List of counties in Hawaii List of rivers in Hawaii List of Hawaiian State Highways List of Hawaiian state parks Contents: Top - 0-9 A B... List of authors with roots in Hawaii: Kiana Davenport George Parsons Lathrop, journalist, poet Tara Bray Smith Lois-Ann Yamanaka Categories: Culture in Hawaii | Stub ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... Polynesia (meaning many islands in Greek) is a triangular grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos settled by seafaring voyagers from the original heartland in Tonga and Samoa. ... Also see the destination guide on Wikitravel:Hawaii. ... The East Hawaii Cultural Center is a Hilo, Hawaii-based cultural center that has regular art exhibits and holds workshops and classes. ... The Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) is a living museum located in Lāie, on the northern part of Oahu, Hawaii. ...

Sister states

Hawaii has an active sister state program, which includes ties to:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Azores. ... Motto Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos Rather die free than in peace subjugated Anthem A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Cebu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Jeju is the largest island and smallest province in South Korea, and the name of islands largest city and provincial capital (see Jeju City). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Ehime Prefecture (愛媛県; Ehime-ken) is a prefecture in northwestern Shikoku, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Fukuoka Prefecture ) is located on KyÅ«shÅ« Island, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Ilocos Norte Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Laoag City Founded: — Population: 2000 census—514,241 (48th largest) Density—151 per km² (27th lowest) Area: 3,399. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Ilocos Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Pangasinan, officially Province of Pangasinan (Pangasinan: Luyag na Pangasinan), is one of the provinces of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Famous people from Hawaii

The list of famous people from Hawaii is a comprehensive, alphabetized list of persons who have achieved fame that presently or at one time claimed Hawaii as their home. Separate registers of members of the Hawaiian royal family and Hawaii politicians are also available. Hawaii has been home to many notable people that have become well-known beyond the shores of the islands. ... Below is a List of Hawaii politicians from the monarchical, republican, territorial, and statehood eras of Hawaii history who have articles devoted to them on Wikipedia. ...

Photo Gallery

See also

The Aloha Festivals is an annual series of free cultural celebrations observed in the state of Hawaii in the United States. ... The Prefecture Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands or the Sandwich Isles Mission, was an ecclesiastical territory of the Roman Catholic Church created by Pope Leo XII on November 27, 1825 encompassing the Sandwich Islands (now the State of Hawai‘i) and entrusted to the care of the Congregation of the... Scouting in Hawaii has a long history, from the 1900s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the unique environment in which they live. ... The Hawaii Department of Public Safety is the governing body of the State of Hawaii Sheriffs Office, which acts as the state-wide law enforcement agency for Hawaii, and has jurisdiction anywhere in the state. ...

References

  • The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV.
  • Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-19-508116-1. 
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena; Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0. 
  • Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999): 402-408.

publisher = University of Hawaiʻi Press | year = 1986 | id = ISBN 0-8248-0703-0}}

  • Stokes, John F.G. 1932. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in Hawaii and Hawaiian-American Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, v, 34, n, 4, pp. 594-600.
  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 3, 2006.
  2. ^ Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (1999-09-09). Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than A.D. 1790. Retrieved on 1999-10-04.
  3. ^ Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV. Treasure Islands. Retrieved on June 15, 2006.
  4. ^ Morgan Report p.894
  5. ^ U.S. Navy History site
  6. ^ Hawaiian Sovereignty:Do the facts matter? by Thurston Twigg-Smith
  7. ^ Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand by Bruce Fein
  8. ^ 1897 Hawaii Annexation Treaty
  9. ^ New Jersey Quickfacts
  10. ^ Hawaii Quickfacts
  11. ^ Top 12 states in population density
  12. ^ Average life expectancy at birth by state
  13. ^ Pollex - a reconstruction of the Proto-Polynesian lexicon, Biggs and Clark, 1994. The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form.

April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodore Roosevelt IV (born November 27, 1942), the great-grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, is a prominent conservationist and environmentalist, who frequently speaks out for the need to protect wild areas from development, frequently lobbying the White House and testifying before Congress on behalf of environmental causes. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

Find more information on Hawaii by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
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Quotations from Wikiquote
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Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Preceded by
Alaska
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on August 21, 1959 (50th)
Succeeded by
none

Coordinates: 21° N 157° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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