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Encyclopedia > Hawaii

Coordinates: 21°18′41″N 157°47′47″W / 21.31139°N 157.79639°W / 21.31139; -157.79639 The word Hawaii can refer to: Hawaii (island), the Island of Hawai‘i, one of eight main Hawaiian islands that makes up the state of Hawai‘i. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

For geographic details see Geography and environment or Hawaiian Islands.
State of Hawaii
Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi
Flag of Hawaii State seal of Hawaii
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Aloha State
Motto(s): Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono
(“The Life of the Land is Perpetuated in Righteousness”)

Anthem: Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī
(“Hawaii’s Own True Sons”) Ka Hae Hawaii, or the Flag of Hawaii Ka Hae Hawaii, or the Flag of Hawaii, is the official standard symbolizing Hawaii as a kingdom (under a short British annexation), protectorate, republic, territory and state. ... The current design of the Seal of Hawaii was commissioned by the Republic of Hawaii, derived from several features of the heraldry of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... For other uses, see Aloha (disambiguation). ... The current design of the Seal of Hawaii was commissioned by the Republic of Hawaii, derived from several features of the heraldry of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... Each state in the United States (except New Jersey) has a state song, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ...

before statehood, known as
the Territory of Hawaii
Map of the United States with Hawaii highlighted
Official language(s) English, Hawaiian
Demonym Hawaiian (see notes)[1]
Capital Honolulu
Largest city Honolulu
Area  Ranked 43rd in the US
 - Total 10,931 sq mi
(28,311 km2)
 - Width n/a miles (n/a km)
 - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)
 - % water 41.2
 - Latitude 18° 55′ N to 28° 27′ N
 - Longitude 154° 48′ W to 178° 22′ W
Population  Ranked 42nd in the US
 - Total 1,288,198 (2008 est.)[2]
1,211,537 (2000)
 - Density 188.6/sq mi  (72.83/km2)
Ranked 13th in the US
 - Median income  $63,746 (5th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mauna Kea[3]
13,796 ft  (4,205 m)
 - Mean 3,035 ft  (925 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[3]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  August 21, 1959 (50th)
Governor Linda Lingle (R)
Lieutenant Governor James Aiona (R)
U.S. Senators Daniel Inouye (D)
Daniel Akaka (D)
U.S. House delegation 1: Vacant
2: Mazie Hirono (D) (list)
Time zone Hawaii: UTC-10
(no daylight saving time)
Abbreviations HI US-HI
Website http://www.hawaii.gov
Hawaii State Symbols
Animate insignia
Bird(s) Hawaiian Goose
Fish Humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa
Flower(s) Hawaiian hibiscus
Mammal(s) Humpback whale
Reptile Gold dust day gecko
Tree Kukui nut tree

Inanimate insignia
Food Coconut muffin
Gemstone Black coral
Slogan(s) The Islands of Aloha
Soil Hilo
Song(s) Hawaiʻi Ponoʻi
Sport Surfing, Outrigger canoeing
Tartan Hawaii State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Hawaii Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Hawaii
Released in 2008

Lists of United States state insignia
World map with Hawaiian islands in the middle
Hawaii located in the Pacific Ocean

Hawaii (Listeni /həˈw./ or /həˈwʔiː/ in English; Hawaiian: Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi) is the newest of the 50 U.S. states (August 21, 1959), and is the only state made up entirely of islands. It occupies most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia. Hawaii's natural beauty, warm tropical climate, inviting waters and waves, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists alike. Due to its mid-Pacific location, Hawaii has many North American and Asian influences along with a vibrant native culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Territory of Hawaii Capital Honolulu Government Organized incorporated territory Governor  - 1900-1903 Sanford B. Dole  - 1957-1959 William F. Quinn Military Governor  - 1941-1944 Maj. ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language, with a majority of English speakers being monolingual. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Linda Lingle (born Linda Cutter on June 4, 1953) has been Governor of Hawaii since December 2, 2002. ... GOP redirects here. ... Lieutenant Governors of Hawaii have been administering their duties from the Hawaii State Capitol since 1969. ... An infamous drug court judge, James Aiona became the first Republican elected Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii in forty years. ... Hawaii was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. ... Daniel Ken Inouye (born September 7, 1924) is a recipient of the Medal of Honor and currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Daniel Kahikina Dan Akaka (Chinese: 阿卡卡 李碩, Hanyu pinyin: akaka lishuo) (born September 11, 1924) is a U.S. Senator from HawaiÊ»i and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The First Congressional District of Hawaii was officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... The Second Congressional District of Hawaii is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii, officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... Mazie Keiko Hirono (Japanese: 広野 慶子) , born November 3, 1947 in Fukushima, Japan, is an American politician who was the second Asian immigrant elected lieutenant governor of a state of the United States. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Hawaii to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ... HST is UTC-10 The Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone observes Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time (HST) all year round, by subtracting ten hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-10). ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Binomial name Bloch & Schneider, 1801 The reef, rectangular, wedge-tail, or Picasso triggerfish, also known by its Hawaiian name, (IPA: , also spelled HumuhumunukunukuaPuaA or just humuhumu for short; meaning triggerfish with a snout like a pig[1]), is one of several species of triggerfish. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... This is a list of official U.S. state reptiles: Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ Official Alabama Reptile. ... Trinomial name Phelsuma laticauda laticauda Boettger, 1880 Gold dust day gecko (Phelsuma laticauda laticauda (Boettger, 1880) (syn. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. ... For other uses, see Muffin (disambiguation). ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... Genera Antipathes Aphanipathes Bathypathes Cirripathes Leiopathes Parantipathes Stichopathes Taxipathes Black coral is a term given to a group of deep water, tree-like tropical coral related to sea anemone. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Aloha (disambiguation). ... This is a list of official U.S. state soils: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... This is a list of official U.S. state tartans: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Highways in the United States are split into at least four different types of systems. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program (Pub. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ...


The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight "main islands" are (from the northwest to southeast) Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is by far the largest and is often called "The Big Island" to avoid confusion with the state as a whole. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Niihau is the smallest of the inhabited Hawaiian Islands in the U.S. State of HawaiÊ»i, having an area of 179. ... Kauai (in standard Hawaiian pronounced ; in Kauai-Niihau dialect, ; usually spelled Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands and pronounced or [2]) is the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ... MolokaÊ»i as viewed from KaÊ»anapali, Maui MolokaÊ»i (also Molokai) is the fifth largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. ... LānaÊ»i (IPA: ) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. ... Kaho‘olawe is the smallest of the 8 main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. ... For other uses, see Maui (disambiguation). ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


In standard American English, Hawaii is generally /həˈw.iː/. In the Hawaiian language, it is generally pronounced [həˈwɐiʔi] or [həˈvɐiʔi]. Hawaii has produced one U.S. President, Barack Obama. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Barack and Obama redirect here. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi derives from Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland";[4] cognate words are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori (Hawaiki), Rarotongan (ʻAvaiki), and Samoan (Savaiʻi). (See also Hawaiki). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Internal reconstruction is a method of using the internal characteristics of a single language to recover information about how the language appeared at an early point in time. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... The Cook Islands Māori also called Maori Kuki Airani became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003 (1). ...


According to Pukui and Elbert,[5] "Elsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaiʻi the name has no meaning."[6]

Geography and environment

The main Hawaiian Islands are:

Island Nickname Location Area Area
Rank
Highest Point Elevation Population
(as of 2000)
Density
Hawaiʻi[7] The Big Island 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.5°W / 19.567; -155.5 1 4,028.0 sq mi (10,432.5 km2) 1st Mauna Kea 1 13,796 ft (4,205 m) 148,677 4 37/sq mi (14/km²)
Maui[8] The Valley Isle 20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.8°N 156.333°W / 20.8; -156.333 2 727.2 sq mi (1,883.4 km2) 2nd Haleakalā 2 10,023 ft (3,055 m) 117,644 2 162/sq mi (62/km²)
Kahoʻolawe[9] The Target Isle 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.55°N 156.6°W / 20.55; -156.6 8 44.6 sq mi (115.5 km2) 8th Puʻu Moaulanui 7 1,483 ft (452 m) 0 8 0
Lānaʻi[10] The Pineapple Isle 20°50′N 156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933 6 140.5 sq mi (363.9 km2) 6th Lānaʻihale 6 3,366 ft (1,026 m) 3,193 6 23/sq. mi. (9/km²)
Molokaʻi[11] The Friendly Isle 21°08′N 157°02′W / 21.133°N 157.033°W / 21.133; -157.033 5 260.0 sq mi (673.4 km2) 5th Kamakou 4 4,961 ft (1,512 m) 7,404 5 28/sq mi (11/km²)
Oʻahu[12] The Gathering Place 21°28′N 157°59′W / 21.467°N 157.983°W / 21.467; -157.983 3 596.7 sq mi (1,545.4 km2) 3rd Mount Kaʻala 5 4,003 ft (1,220 m) 876,151 1 1,468/sq mi (567/km²)
Kauaʻi[13] The Garden Isle 22°05′N 159°30′W / 22.083°N 159.5°W / 22.083; -159.5 4 552.3 sq mi (1,430.5 km2) 4th Kawaikini 3 5,243 ft (1,598 m) 58,303 3 106/sq mi (41/km²)
Niʻihau[14] The Forbidden Isle 21°54′N 160°10′W / 21.9°N 160.167°W / 21.9; -160.167 7 69.5 sq mi (180.0 km2) 7th Mount Pānīʻau 8 1,250 ft (381 m) 160 7 2/sq mi (1/km²)

Topography

Pāhoehoe and ʻAʻā lava flows side by side at the Big Island of Hawaii in September, 2007

An archipelago situated some 2,000 mi (3,200 km) southwest of the North American mainland,[15] Hawaii is the southernmost state of the United States and the second westernmost state after Alaska. Only Hawaii and Alaska do not share a border with another U.S. state. Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Maui (disambiguation). ... Haleakalā or East Maui Volcano is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. ... Kaho‘olawe is the smallest of the 8 main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. ... LānaÊ»i (IPA: ) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. ... MolokaÊ»i as viewed from KaÊ»anapali, Maui MolokaÊ»i (also Molokai) is the fifth largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ... Wai‘anae Range (sometimes referred to as the Waianae Mountains) is the eroded remains of an ancient shield volcano that comprises the western half of the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu. ... Kauai (in standard Hawaiian pronounced ; in Kauai-Niihau dialect, ; usually spelled Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands and pronounced or [2]) is the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. ... Niihau is the smallest of the inhabited Hawaiian Islands in the U.S. State of HawaiÊ»i, having an area of 179. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Hawaii is the only state of the United States that:

  • is not geographically located in North America
  • grows coffee
  • is completely surrounded by water
  • is entirely an archipelago
  • has a royal palace
  • does not have a straight line in its state boundary
Map of Hawaii
Nā Pali coast, Kauaʻi

Hawaii's tallest mountain, Mauna Kea stands at 13,796 ft (4,205 m)[16] but is taller than Mount Everest if followed to the base of the mountain—from the floor of the Pacific Ocean, rising about 33,500 ft (10,200 m).[17] The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Everest redirects here. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


The eight main islands, Hawaiʻi, Maui, Oʻahu, Kahoʻolawe, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau are accompanied by many others. Kaʻala is a small island near Niʻihau that is often overlooked. The Northwest Hawaiian Islands are a series of 9 small, older masses northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure that are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. There are also something more than 100 small rocks and islets such as Molokini that are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin, totaling 130 or so across the archipelago.[18] Devils Slide The cliffs of Tanager Peak, looking east from Miller Peak. ... Satellite image of Kure Atoll Kure Atoll or Ocean Island (Hawaiian: Kānemiloha‘i) lies some 55 miles beyond Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands at . ... Molokini is a volcanic crater south of the island of Maui, Hawaii and part of Maui County. ...

Geology

All Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanoes erupting from a sea floor magma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves northwesterly, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. This explains why only volcanoes on the southern half of the Big Island, and Hawaii's newest volcano, ʻihi Seamount deep below the waters off its southern coast, are presently active. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Lōʻihi is a seamount and undersea volcano in the Hawaiian archipelago, located at 18. ...


The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18th century, though it could have been hundreds of years earlier.[19] In 1790, Kīlauea exploded with the deadliest eruption (of the modern era) known to have occurred in what is now the United States.[20] As many as 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed that eruption.[21] Hawaiian eruptions are relatively gentle, low level volcanic eruptions, named for the volcanoes of Hawaii. ... Haleakalā or East Maui Volcano is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. ... -1...


Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. The Big Island has the second highest point among the world's islands.[citation needed] This is a list of islands in the world ordered by their highest point. ...


Slope instability of the volcanoes has generated damaging earthquakes with related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[22] This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...

Flora and Fauna

Because the islands' are so far from other land habitats, life before human activity is said to have arrived by the "3 W's": wind (carried through the air), waves (brought by ocean currents), and wings (birds, insects, and whatever they brought with them). This isolation, and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna (see Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands). Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other US state.[23] A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... Located some 2,400 miles (4,000 km) from the nearest continental shore, the Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated group of islands on the globe. ...

Protected areas

white rectangular memorial building with US flag flying above
The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[24] Hawaii has two national parks: Haleakala National Park near Kula, on Maui, includes Haleakalā, the dormant volcano that formed east Maui; and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the island of Hawaii, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its various rift zones. The USS Arizona sinking during the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... This article is about national parks. ... Haleakalā National Park is a United States national park located on the island of Maui in the state of Hawaii. ... Kula is a district of East Maui that stretches across the upcountry, western-facing slopes of Haleakala (the East Maui volcano), from Makawao to Ulupalakua. ... Haleakalā or East Maui Volcano is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. ... -1...


There are three national historical parks: Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Molokaʻi, the site of a former Hansen's disease colony; Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawaiʻi; and Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on the island of ʻand the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor on Oʻahu. National Historical Park or National Historic Park is a designation for a protected area in the United States that has national historic significance and consists of more than single properties or buildings. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... There is also a town of Kailua on the Island of O‘ahu. ... Pu‘uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located on the west coast of the island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaii. ... Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail is a 175 mile long trail located on the main island of Hawaii. ... The USS Arizona sinking during the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ...


The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km2) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea out to 50 miles (80 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean, larger than all of America's National Parks combined.[25] The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (formerly the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument) is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world and was named by the American television show Good Morning America and newspaper USA Today as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World [1... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

Climate

Photo of sunset
Sunset in Kona. The colors of the sunset are partly due to vog

Hawaii's climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be a bit less extreme due to near-constant trade winds from the east. Summer highs are usually in the upper 80s °F, (around 31°C) during the day and mid 70s, (around 24 °C) at night. Winter day temperatures are usually in the low to mid 80s, (around 28 °C) and (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid 60s (18 °C) at night. Snow, not usually associated with tropics, falls at 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakala. Mount Waiʻaleʻale, on Kauaʻi, has the second highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (11.7 m). Most of Hawaii has only two seasons: the dry season from May to October, and the wet season from October to April.[26] Kona is the name of a moku or district on the island of Hawai‘i in the State of Hawai‘i. ... Vog is volcanic smog formed when sulfur dioxide and other pollutants emitted by an erupting volcano mixes with oxygen and moisture in the presence of sunlight. ... Image:Atmospheric circulatlion. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Mauna Loa (disambiguation). ... Mount Wai‘ale‘ale (Hawaiian for rippling waters), elevation 5,208 ft (1,578 m), is the second highest point on the island of Kaua‘i in the Hawaiian Islands. ...


Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover. Hawaii therefore concentrates resorts on sunny leeward coasts. November 4, 1995 Kona Low Kona lows are deep cyclones that form during the cool season of the central Pacific ocean. ...

Monthly normal low and high temperatures for various Hawaiian cities[27]
City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Hilo 64°F 17.8°C 64°F 17.8°C 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 68°F 20.0°C 69°F 20.6°C 69°F 20.6°C 69°F 20.6°C 68°F 20.0°C 67°F 19.4°C 65°F 18.3°C
79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 82°F 27.8°C 83°F 28.3°C 83°F 28.3°C 83°F 28.3°C 81°F 27.2°C 80°F 26.7°C
Honolulu 66°F 18.9°C 65°F 18.3°C 67°F 19.4°C 68°F 20.0°C 70°F 21.1°C 72°F 22.2°C 74°F 23.3°C 75°F 23.9°C 74°F 23.3°C 73°F 22.8°C 71°F 21.7°C 68°F 20.0°C
80°F 26.7°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 83°F 28.3°C 85°F 29.4°C 87°F 30.6°C 88°F 31.1°C 89°F 31.7°C 89°F 31.7°C 87°F 30.6°C 84°F 28.9°C 82°F 27.8°C
Kahului 63°F 17.2°C 63°F 17.2°C 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 69°F 20.6°C 71°F 21.7°C 71°F 21.7°C 70°F 21.1°C 69°F 20.6°C 68°F 20.0°C 65°F 18.3°C
80°F 26.7°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 82°F 27.8°C 84°F 28.9°C 86°F 30.0°C 87°F 30.6°C 88°F 31.1°C 88°F 31.1°C 87°F 30.6°C 84°F 28.9°C 82°F 27.8°C
Lihuʻe 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 69°F 20.6°C 70°F 21.1°C 73°F 22.8°C 74°F 23.3°C 74°F 23.3°C 74°F 23.3°C 73°F 22.8°C 71°F 21.7°C 68°F 20.0°C
78°F 25.6°C 78°F 26.6°C 78°F 26.6°C 79°F 26.1°C 81°F 27.2°C 83°F 28.3°C 84°F 28.9°C 85°F 29.4°C 85°F 29.4°C 84°F 28.9°C 81°F 27.2°C 79°F 26.1°C

History

Flag of Hawaii.svg
History of Hawaii
Ancient times
Monarchy
Provisional Government
Republic
Territory
  State  

Hawaii is one of four states that were independent prior to becoming part of the United States, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846), and one of two (Texas was the other) with formal diplomatic recognition internationally.[28] The Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American (and some European) businessmen. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory, becoming a state in 1959.[29] Kahului is the largest town on the Hawaiian island of Maui and is located along the north shore of central Maui. ... Cruise ship docked in Port of Nāwiliwili LÄ«hu‘e is the largest town on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua‘i in Hawai‘i. ... Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... Territory of Hawaii Capital Honolulu Government Organized incorporated territory Governor  - 1900-1903 Sanford B. Dole  - 1957-1959 William F. Quinn Military Governor  - 1941-1944 Maj. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... The Bear Flag Capital Sonoma, California Language(s) English and Spanish (de facto) Government Republic President William B. Ide History  - Independence from Mexico June 14, 1846  - Annexation by the United States of America July 9, 1846 The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification...


Hawaii was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations on Oʻahu, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines brought the United States into World War II. This article is about the actual attack. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with military aviation. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Pre-European contact — Ancient Hawaii (800-1778)

The earliest habitation supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early as 300 BCE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook. Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Image:Sp03 raiatea small. ... Mount Otemanu, Bora Bora Bora Bora Pearl Beach Resort, Bora Bora Frigate Flor al, stationned in Bora-Bora lagoon Bora Bora is an atoll in French Polynesia, about 260 km northwest of the capital, Papeete. ... This article is about the British explorer. ...


Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands may have first populated the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 500 CE. There is a great deal of debate regarding these dates.[30]


Some archaeologists and historians believe that an early settlement from the Marquesas and a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti, circa 1000 introduced a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice and the building of heiaus. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Paʻao. Other authors argue that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers, and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth. Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Hawaiian word kapu is usually translated as forbidden. In ancient Hawaii, kapu refers to the ancient system of laws and regulations. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... A Hawaiian temple comprised of a stone platform with various structures built upon it. ... Paao is either a figure from a Hawaiian legend or a historical character. ...

Drawing of single-masted sailboat with one spinnaker-shaped sail, carrying dozens of men
Kalaniʻōpuʻu, King of Hawaii bringing presents to Captain Cook. Illustrated by John Webber, artist aboard Cook's ship.

Regardless of the question of Paʻao, historians agree that the history of the islands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called aliʻi, ruled their settlements and launched wars to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. This article is about the British explorer. ... AliÊ»i refers to the chiefly or noble rank in Hawaiian society. ...

James Cook — European arrival and the Kingdom of Hawaii (1778-1893)

The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was Hawaii's first documented contact with European explorers. Cook named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. He published the islands' location and reported the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho, after three Hawaiian members of a trapping party killed in that area. This article is about the British explorer. ... This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough For other persons of the same name, see John Montagu. ... Owyhee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. ...


Cook visited the islands twice. During his second visit in 1779, he attempted to abduct the King of the Big Island of Hawaii, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, and hold him as ransom for the return of a ship's boat that was taken by a minor chief and his men, a tactic that had worked for Cook in Tahiti and other islands.[31] Kalaniʻōpuʻu and his supporters fought back and Cook and four Marines were killed as Cook's party retreated to the beach and launched their boats.


After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the Flag of Hawaii which has the British Union Flag in the corner. Ka Hae Hawaii, or the Flag of Hawaii Ka Hae Hawaii, or the Flag of Hawaii, is the official standard symbolizing Hawaii as a kingdom (under a short British annexation), protectorate, republic, territory and state. ... Union Jack redirects here. ...


These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously[32] because native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, and measles, among others. During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[33] Flu redirects here. ... This article is about the disease. ...

House of Kamehameha

During the 1780s and 1790s chiefs were often fighting for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and forced cession of the island of Kauaʻi in 1810, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872. “Kamehameha” redirects here. ... Kamehameha the Great established his dynasty in 1810 upon unifying the islands of Hawaii to become the Kingdom of Hawaii. ...


After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. Their influence ended many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. Missionary leaders included Protestant Hiram Bingham I and Joseph F. Smith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Father Damien, a Catholic priest, was canonized for his work in the isolated leper colony of Kalaupapa on the island of Molokaʻi. Other missionaries and their descendants such as Henry Perrine Baldwin became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to future conflicts. Kamehameha II, King of Hawaii (1797 - 1824) was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Kamehameha III, King of Hawaii (born Kauikeaouli) (August 11, 1813?–December 15, 1854) was the king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1824 to 1854. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Father Damien, also Blessed Damien of Molokai and born Joseph de Veuster (January 3, 1840 – April 15, 1889), was a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium and member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a missionary religious order. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Hansens disease, commonly known as leprosy, is an infectious disease caused by infection by Mycobacterium leprae. ... Kalaupapa, Hawai‘i is a small village on the island of Moloka‘i in the state of Hawai‘i, and part of Kalawao County. ... MolokaÊ»i as viewed from KaÊ»anapali, Maui MolokaÊ»i (also Molokai) is the fifth largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. ...


The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. Perhaps "the People's King" (Lunalilo) wanted the people to choose his successor as they had chosen him. 1874 featured a contested election by the legislature between Kalākaua and Emma. This led to riots and the landing of U.S. and British troops, and governance passed to the House of Kalākaua. Kamehameha V was the last monarch of the House of Kamehameha. ... William Charles Lunalilo, a member of a collateral branch to the main line of the House of Kamehameha, was elected King of Hawaii upon the death of his cousin, Kamehameha V, the last descendant of Kamehameha I on the throne. ... Kalākaua, King of Hawaii — born as David LaÊ»amea KamanakapuÊ»u Mahinulani Nalaiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and called The Merrie Monarch (November 12, 1836 - January 20, 1891) — was the last reigning king of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ... LiliÊ»uokalani inherited the throne from her brother Kalākaua on January 17, 1891. ...

1887 Constitution

In 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, which stripped the king of much of his authority. There was a property qualification for voting, which disenfranchised many poorer Hawaiians and favored the wealthier white community. Resident whites were allowed to vote, but resident Asians were excluded. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the "Bayonet Constitution". King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Liliʻuokalani, succeeded him on the throne. Kalākaua, King of Hawaii — born as David LaÊ»amea KamanakapuÊ»u Mahinulani Nalaiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and called The Merrie Monarch (November 12, 1836 - January 20, 1891) — was the last reigning king of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ... King David Kalākaua signed the 1887 Constitution under threat of force The 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i stripped the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, and disenfranchised all Asians and poor citizens while generally empowering rich citizens, including American, European and native Hawaiian elites. ... Asian may refer to: Asian people - The people from Asia. ... LiliÊ»uokalani, Queen of HawaiÊ»i (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia KamakaÊ»eha, also known as Lydia KamakaÊ»eha Paki, with the chosen royal name of LiliÊ»uokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ...

row of men with rifles
Ship's landing force at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893.

In 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani announced plans for a new constitution. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed a Committee of Safety to overthrow the Kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines. As one historian noted, the presence of these troops effectively made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself.[34] Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii through the Committee of Safety in 1893. ... John L. Stevens, an American diplomat, conspired to overthrow the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ...

Revolution of 1893 — the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)

In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. Government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress followed with another investigation, and submitted the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[35] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1893.[34][36][37][38] Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The Blount Report is the popular name given to the part of the 1894 House of Representatives Foreign Relations Committee Report regarding the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[38] It is the first time in American history that the United States government has apologized for overthrowing the legitimate government of a sovereign nation. President Bill Clinton signed United States Public Law 103-150, apologizing on behalf of the American people for its alleged role in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. ...

ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.

The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Republic of Hawaii. Iolani Palace was the official residence of King David Kalakaua and Queen Julia Kapiolani and then Queen Liliuokalani and Prince Consort John Owen Dominis. ... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ...

Annexation — the Territory of Hawaii (1898-1959)

After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with annexationists from Hawaii Lorrin Thurston, Francis Hatch and William Kinney. After negotiations, in June 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[39] The president then submitted the treaty to the U.S. Senate for approval. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... Lorrin A. Thurston led the overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1893. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


The Newlands Resolution in Congress annexed the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. Despite some opposition in the islands, the Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21. Its legality continues to be questioned because it was a United States Government resolution, not a treaty of cession or conquest as is required by international law.[citation needed] On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Territory of Hawaii Capital Honolulu Government Organized incorporated territory Governor  - 1900-1903 Sanford B. Dole  - 1957-1959 William F. Quinn Military Governor  - 1941-1944 Maj. ...


In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors," known as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various states. Iolani Palace was the official residence of King David Kalakaua and Queen Julia Kapiolani and then Queen Liliuokalani and Prince Consort John Owen Dominis. ... Territorial Hawai‘i was ruled by a corporate oligarchy of the Big Five sugar corporations. ...

Revolution of 1954 — the State of Hawaii (1959-present)

Photocopy of ballot and referendum results
All representative districts voted at least 93% in favor of Admission acts. Ballot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959

In the 1950s the power of the plantation owners was finally broken in a non-violent revolution by descendants of immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were legal U.S. citizens. The Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantation owners, was voted out of office. The Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated politics for 40 years. Expecting to gain full voting rights, Hawaii's residents actively campaigned for statehood. The Hawaii Republican Party was first the Missionary Party and was formed by descendants of Protestant missionaries that came to Hawaii from New England. ... Governor John A. Burns is often called the Father of the State of Hawaii, having overseen its modern development and setting precedents still honored today. ...


In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law. (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Hawaii voted 17 to 1 to accept. There has been criticism, however, of the Statehood plebiscite because the only choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territory, without the option of independence or addressing the legality of the overthrow.[40][41][42] Despite the criticism, the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. In April 1959, Hawaii Delegate John A. Burns prepared to slice the Hawaii Statehood Cake at Capitol Hill with Democrat Congressmen D. S. Saund of California, James Haley of Florida and Al Ullman of Oregon. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... UN redirects here. ... Map of the countries in the UN list:  current  former The United Nations maintains a list of territories that do not govern themselves. ...


After statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized via construction and rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated programs such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture. The 1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention launched the careers of over a dozen politicians who would become legends in modern Hawaiian history. ... The Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also popularly known by its acronym OHA, is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1. ...

Cities and towns

downtown Honolulu showing a cluster of 10-30 story buildings
Honolulu is the largest city and capital of Hawaii.
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1900 154,001
1910 191,874 24.6%
1920 255,881 33.4%
1930 368,300 43.9%
1940 422,770 14.8%
1950 499,794 18.2%
1960 632,772 26.6%
1970 769,913 21.7%
1980 964,691 25.3%
1990 1,108,229 14.9%
2000 1,211,537 9.3%
Est. 2008[2] 1,288,198 6.3%
Population density

The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the Big Island to Maui, and subsequently to Oʻahu, explains why population centers exist where they do today. Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor, the present-day Honolulu Harbor. The twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on 1 June 1900,1 determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21. ... The Fourteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15. ... The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from , 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,520,798, an increase of 14. ... The Eighteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 18. ... The Nineteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,302,031, an increase of 13. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... (Redirected from 2000 United States census) The United States 2000 census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Kamehameha III, King of Hawaii (born Kauikeaouli) (August 11, 1813?–December 15, 1854) was the king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1824 to 1854. ...


Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of Oʻahu. The previous capital was Lahaina, Maui. Some major towns are Hilo, Kāneʻohe, Kailua, Pearl City, Waipahu, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Kīhei, and Līhuʻe. Lāhainā is a very popular tourist destination on Maui, resulting in a congestion of people and vehicles, although the ambiance remains relaxed and casual Lāhainā is a town and census-designated place (CDP) located in West Maui, Maui County. ... KāneÊ»ohe is a town and census-designated place (CDP) included in the City & County of Honolulu and located in HawaiÊ»i state District of KoÊ»olaupoko on the Island of OÊ»ahu. ... View across Kailua Beach to the offshore islands known as Na Mokulua off Lanikai Kailua is a census-designated place located in the City & County of Honolulu, in the Koolaupoko District of Oahu on the windward coast at Kailua Bay. ... Pearl City is town and a census-designated place (CDP) located in the ‘Ewa District and City & County of Honolulu on the Island of Oahu. ... Waipahu is a former sugar mill town and now census-designated place (CDP) located in the ‘Ewa District on the Island of O‘ahu in the City & County of Honolulu, Hawai‘i. ... Kahului is the largest town on the Hawaiian island of Maui and is located along the north shore of central Maui. ... There is also a town of Kailua on the Island of O‘ahu. ... Kihei is a census-designated place located in Maui County, Hawaii. ... Cruise ship docked in Port of Nāwiliwili LÄ«hu‘e is the largest town on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua‘i in Hawai‘i. ...

Demographics

Population

As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, an increase of 13,070, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of Oʻahu and Molokaʻi.[43]


Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to large military and tourist populations. Oʻahu, nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and has the highest population density), with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km2), about 1,650 people per square mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 square miles (19,210 km2) is the most-densely populated state with 1,134 people per square mile.)[44] Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (16,640 km2) (including many unpopulated islands) results in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile,[45] which makes Hawaii less densely populated than states like Ohio and Illinois.[46]


The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in 2000 was 79.8 years (77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than any other state.[47]


U.S. military personnel make up approximately 1.3% of the population in the islands.

Race and ethnicity

According to the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 27.1% of Hawaii's population; 24.8% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 2.4% (2.3% non-Hispanic). American Indians made up 0.2% ( 0.1% non-Hispanic). Asian Americans made up 38.5% (37.6% non-Hispanic). Pacific Islander Americans made up 9.0% (8.6% non-Hispanic). Individuals from some other race made up 1.4% (0.1% non-Hispanic). Multiracial Americans made up 21.4% (17.8% non-Hispanic). Hispanics and Latinos made up 8.7%.[48] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Whites redirects here. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ...


Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans, mainly 175,000 Filipino Americans and 161,000 Japanese Americans. In addition, there are roughly 53,000 Chinese Americans and 40,000 Korean Americans. Indigenous Hawaiians number 70,000 (or 5.5%). Over 110,000 Hispanic and Latino Americans make Hawaii their home. Mexicans number 37,000; Puerto Ricans number 35,000. Also, Hawaii has the multiracial highest percentage, roughly 21%. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group; there are roughly 61,000 Eurasian Americans in Hawaii.[48] In 1998, Benjamin J. Cayetano became the first Filipino American (and second Asian American after Governor George R. Ariyoshi) to be elected state Governor of the United States. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... A Korean American is a person of Korean ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race, or the descendants of such mixed people. ...


The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%), and Italian (2.7%). By county. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ...


82.2% of Hawaii's residents were born in the United States. Roughly 75.0% of the foreign-born residents hail from Asia.[48]


Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Non-Hispanic whites do not form a majority. Hawaii was the second majority-minority state. Both Hawaii and New Mexico have been majority-minority since the early 20th century. US states and districts in which non-Hispanic whites are a plurality/minority. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...

Ancestry groups

Population Of Hawaii[48]
Ancestry Percentage Main article:
Filipino 13.6% See Filipino American
Japanese 12.6% See Japanese American
Polynesian 9.0% See Native Hawaiians
German 7.4% See German American
Irish 5.2% See Irish American
English 4.6% See English American
Portuguese 4.3% See Portuguese American
Chinese 4.1% See Chinese American
Korean 3.1% See Korean American
Mexican 2.9% See Mexican American
Puerto Rican 2.8% See Puerto Rican
African 2.4% See African American
Italian 2.7% See Italian American
French 1.7% See French American
Scottish 1.2% See Scottish American

The largest ancestry groups in Hawaii as of 2008 are in the table at right. The third group of foreigners to arrive upon Hawaii's shores, after those from Polynesia and Europe, was from Han China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820 the first American missionaries came to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. They were instrumental in convincing the Hawaiian Chiefs to end human sacrifice. In 1998, Benjamin J. Cayetano became the first Filipino American (and second Asian American after Governor George R. Ariyoshi) to be elected state Governor of the United States. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... Portuguese Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the southwest European nation of Portugal. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... A Korean American is a person of Korean ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Puerto Rican. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... This article is about the country. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... By county. ... Whites redirects here. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ...


A large proportion of Hawaii's population is now of Asian ancestry (especially Chinese, Japanese and Filipino.) Many are descendants of those immigrants brought to work on the sugar plantations in the 1850s and after. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate, by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885 after Kalākaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881. An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


Almost 13,000 Portuguese had come by 1899. They too worked on the sugar plantations. By October 17, 1901, 5,000 Puerto Ricans had made new homes on the four islands.

Languages

The State of Hawaii has two official languages recognized in its 1978 constitution: English and Hawaiian. Article XV, Section 4, specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law" [italic added]. Hawaii Creole English (locally referred to as 'Pidgin') is the native dialect of many born-and-raised residents and is a second dialect for many other residents. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

English

As of the 2000 Census, 73.44% of Hawaii residents age 5 and older speak only English at home.[49]


According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents over the age of five speak only English at home.[48] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Minority languages

In addition, 2.6% of the state's residents speak Spanish; 1.6% speak other Indo-European languages; 21.0% speak an Asian language; and 0.2% speak a different language at home.[48] Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


After English, other popular languages are Tagalog (most are bilingual in Filipino language), Japanese, and Ilokano. Significant European immigrants and descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are Spanish, German, Portuguese and French. Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... To view the Ilokano edition of this Wikipedia article, select from the in other languages Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


Tagalog speakers make up 5.37% (which includes non-native speakers of Filipino language, the national co-official Tagalog-based language), followed by Japanese at 4.96%, Ilokano at 4.05%, Chinese at 1.92%, Hawaiian at 1.68%, Spanish at 1.66%, Korean at 1.61%, and Samoan at 1.01%.[49] Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... To view the Ilokano edition of this Wikipedia article, select from the in other languages Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines. ...

Hawaiian

The Hawaiian language is a member of the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family. It began to develop around 1000 A.D., when Marquesans or Tahitians colonized Hawaii. Those Polynesians remained in the islands, thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Their language developed into the Hawaiian language. Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820–1826. They assigned letters from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds. The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... Austronesian redirects here. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools were established where all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian. Also, the University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. The Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also popularly known by its acronym OHA, is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1. ... Jean Charlots mural called Commencement is featured at Bachman Hall, the administrative center of the University of Hawai`i System. ...


Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Also, Hawaiian uses the glottal stop as a consonant (ʻokina). It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or opening single quote. A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The glottal stop is used in many Polynesian languages and known under various names as for instance: // Encoding and displaying the Polynesian glottal Old conventions In plain ASCII the glottal is sometimes represented by the apostrophe character (), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal, which in most fonts...


Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834–1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. The ʻokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers.

Hawaiian Pidgin

Some locals speak Hawaii Creole English (HCE), often called "pidgin". The lexicon of HCE derives mainly from English but also has words from Hawaiian, Chinese, Japanese, Ilocano and Tagalog from the Philippines and Portuguese. During the 19th century, the increase in immigration (mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—and especially from the Azores archipelago—and Spain), caused a variant of English to develop. By the early 20th century pidgin speakers had children who acquired the pidgin as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic. Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants or animals. For example, tuna fish are often called ahi. This article is about simplified languages. ... Ilocano, also Iloko and Ilokano, refers to the language and culture associated with the Ilocano people, the third largest ethnic group in the Philippines. ... Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Species Thunnus alalunga Thunnus albacares Thunnus atlanticus Thunnus maccoyii Thunnus obesus Thunnus orientalis Thunnus thynnus Thunnus tonggol Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ...


HCE speakers have modified the meanings of certain English words. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" refer to any adult who is a friend, or to show respect for an elder. Simplified grammar is used. For example, instead of "It is hot today, isn't it?", an HCE speaker would say simply "stay hot, eh?" When a word does not come to mind quickly, the term "da kine" refers to any word you can't think of. Through the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE has influenced surfer slang. Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine, have found their way to other places. Da kine is a word in Hawaiian Pidgin that usually functions grammatically as a placeholder name (compare to English whatsit), but can also take the role of a verb, adjective, or adverb. ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ...

Spelling of state name

A somewhat divisive political issue arose when the constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language: the exact spelling of the state's name. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii to be the official state name. Official government publications,[citation needed] as well as department and office titles,[citation needed] use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, some private entities, including a local newspaper, do use such symbols. In April 1959, Hawaii Delegate John A. Burns prepared to slice the Hawaii Statehood Cake at Capitol Hill with Democrat Congressmen D. S. Saund of California, James Haley of Florida and Al Ullman of Oregon. ...


The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii". In Article XV, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Since these documents predate the modern use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in Hawaiian orthography, the diacritics were not used. The glottal stop is used in many Polynesian languages and known under various names as for instance: // Encoding and displaying the Polynesian glottal Old conventions In plain ASCII the glottal is sometimes represented by the apostrophe character (), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal, which in most fonts... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ...


The nuances in the Hawaiian language debate are often not obvious or well-appreciated among English speakers outside Hawaii[citation needed]. The issue has often been a source of friction in situations where correct naming conventions are mandated[citation needed], as people[who?] frequently disagree over which spelling is correct or incorrect, and where it is correctly or incorrectly applied.

Religion

Religion in Hawaii as of 2000 was distributed as follows:[50][51][52]

"Other" includes Bahá'í Faith, Confucianism, Daoism, the Hawaiian religion, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Shintoism, Scientology, Wicca, Zoroastrianism, and other religions.
This data was provided by religious establishments, so “Unaffiliated” includes agnostics, atheists, humanists, the Irreligious, and Secularists (non-practicing). Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Secularism means: in philosophy, the belief that life can be best lived by applying ethics, and the universe best understood, by processes of reasoning, without reference to a god or gods or other supernatural concepts. ...


A 2009 Gallup poll found religion was distributed this way, excluding those of other non-Christian religions and those who had "no opinion":[53] A Gallup Poll is an opinion poll conducted by The Gallup Organization and frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...

A special case is Hoʻoponopono, an ancient Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness, combined with prayer. It is both philosophy and way of life. Traditionally hoʻoponopono is practiced by healing priests or kahuna lapaʻau among family members of a person who is physically ill. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Hooponopono is a traditional form of Hawaiian family therapy with the purpose of mending broken relationships. ... Kahuna is a Hawaiian word, defined in the Pukui & Elbert Dictionary as Priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession. ...

Economy

The history of Hawaii can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: sandalwood,[54] whaling,[55] sugarcane (see Sugar plantations in Hawaii), pineapple, military, tourism, and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997, despite efforts to diversify. The gross output for the state in 2003 was US$47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents was US$30,441. Hawaii has the eighteenth highest per capita income in the United States of America, at $21,525 (2000). ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Sugarcane was introduced to Hawai`i by its first inhabitants in approximately 600 AD and was observed by Captain Cook upon arrival to the islands in 1778. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Hawaiian exports include food and apparel. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, however, due to the considerable shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the United States. Food exports include coffee (see coffee production in Hawaii), macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, and sugarcane. Agricultural sales for 2002, according to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, were US$370.9 million from diversified agriculture, US$100.6 million from pineapple, and US$64.3 million from sugarcane. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Species Macadamia claudiensis Macadamia grandis Macadamia hildebrandii Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia jansenii Macadamia ternifolia Macadamia tetraphylla Macadamia whelanii Macadamia neurophylla Macadamia is a genus of nine species of flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, with a disjunct distribution native to eastern Australia (seven species), New Caledonia (one species ) and Indonesia Sulawesi... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical...


Hawaii has a relatively high state tax burden. In 2003, Hawaii residents had the highest state tax per capita at US$2,838. This is partly because education, health care and social services are all provided directly by the state, as opposed to local government in all other states.


Millions of tourists contribute to the tax take by paying the general excise tax and hotel room tax; thus not all taxes come directly from residents. Business leaders, however, consider the state's tax burden too high, contributing to both higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.[56] See the list of businesses in Hawaii for more on commerce. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of...


Hawaii was one of the few states to control gasoline prices through a Gas Cap Law. Since oil company profits in Hawaii compared to the mainland U.S. were under scrutiny, the law tied local gasoline prices to those of the mainland. It took effect in September 2005 amid price fluctuations caused by Hurricane Katrina, but was suspended in April 2006. The Hawaii Gas Cap Law is a legal limit on wholesale gasoline prices, or the maximum amount that may be charged for producing gasoline and delivering it to a service station. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...

Culture

Aerial harbor photo
Part of Pearl Harbor, with the Aloha Bowl, the USS Arizona, USS Bowfin (submarine), museums, Admiral Clarey Bridge, and naval yards visible

The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are reenactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to affect the United States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of luaus and hula. The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Dancers and musicians at a commercial luau A luau (in Hawaiian, lū‘au) is a Hawaiian feast. ... This article is about the Hawaiian dance. ...

Hawaii is home to numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition.[57] The state is also home to the Hawaii International Film Festival, the premier film festival for pacific rim cinema.[58] Honolulu is also home to the state's long running GLBT film festival, the Rainbow Film Festival.[59][60] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of state parks, monuments, and recreation areas managed by the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources: // Hawaii (island) Akaka Falls State Park Kolekole Beach Park Hapuna Beach State Recreation Area Kalopa State Recreation Area Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park Kona Coast (Kekaha Kai) State Park... List of authors with roots in Hawaii: Kiana Davenport George Parsons Lathrop, journalist, poet Tara Bray Smith Lois-Ann Yamanaka Categories: Culture in Hawaii | Stub ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) is a living museum located in Lāie, on the northern part of Oahu, Hawaii. ... Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia (meaning many islands in Greek) a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers. ... Also see the destination guide on Wikitravel:Hawaii. ... The Merrie Monarch Festival is a week-long hula festival that takes place annually in Hilo, Hawaii. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an acronym used as a collective term to refer to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. ...

Health

Hawaii's health care system insures 92%(2009) of residents. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps keep the cost to employers down. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses (measured as a percentage of state GDP) are substantially lower. Given these achievements, proponents of universal health care elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal and state health care plans. Critics, however, claim that Hawaii's success is due at least in part to its mild climate and to its isolated status and an economy based on tourism: businesses unhappy with paying the plan's premiums find it difficult to relocate elsewhere.[61] Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ...

Education

Public schools

Hawaii has the U.S.' only school system that is unified statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education. The Board sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts, four on Oʻahu and one for each of the three other counties. The HawaiÊ»i State Department of Education is the most centralized and only statewide public education system in the United States. ...


The main rationale for centralization is to combat inequalities between highly populated Oʻahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas. In most of the United States, schools are funded from local property taxes. Republican Governor Linda Lingle proposed replacing the statewide board with seven elected district boards. The Democratic-controlled state legislature rejected her proposal, favoring expansion of decision-making power to the schools and giving them discretion over budgeting. Linda Lingle (born Linda Cutter on June 4, 1953) has been Governor of Hawaii since December 2, 2002. ...


Educators struggle with children of non-native-English-speaking immigrants, whose cultures are different from those of the mainland (where most course materials and testing standards originate).


Public elementary, middle, and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Some of the gap has been attributed to the Hawaii Board of Education's requirement that all eligible students take these tests and report all student test scores. Other states, for example, Texas and Michigan do not. Results reported in August, 2005, indicate that of 282 schools across the state, 185 (2/3) failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in math and reading.[62] President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


On the other hand, the ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9).[63] In the widely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics. The ACT® test is a standardized achievement examination for college admissions in the United States produced by ACT, Inc. ... For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ...

Other Schools

Hawaii educates more students in independent institutions of secondary education than any other state in the United States. It has four of the largest independent schools: ʻIolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Punahou School. The second Buddhist high school in the United States, and first Buddhist high school in Hawaii, Pacific Buddhist Academy, was founded in 2003. The first native controlled public charter school was the Kanu O Ka Aina New Century Charter School. An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... Name Iolani School Address 563 Kamoku Street Town Honolulu, Hawaii 96826 Established 1863 Community Urban Type Independent Religion Episcopal Church Students Coeducational Grades K to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges Nickname Raiders Mascot Io (Hawaiian Hawk) Colors Black, Red and White Motto One Team, humble in victory... Name Kamehameha Schools Address 567 South King Street, Suite 200 Town Honolulu, Hawaii Established 1887 Community Urban Type Independent Primary and Secondary Religion Protestant Students Coeducational Grades Preschool to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges District Kalihi Subdistrict Alewa Hts. ... Name Mid-Pacific Institute Address 2445 Kaala Street Town Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Established 1908 Community Urban Religion Christian (non-denominational) Students Coeducational Grades Pre-K to 12 Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges Nickname Mid-Pac or MPI Mascot Pueo (Hawaiian Short-eared Owl) Colors Green and White Motto... The school was originally called Oahu College, and the main gate at the corner of Wilder and Punahou Street reflects this. ...


Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the regular public schools must take all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the United States that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry, and the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over nine billion US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.[64] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

Colleges and universities

Graduates of secondary schools in Hawaii often enter directly into the work force. Some attend colleges and universities on the mainland or other countries, and the rest attend an institution of higher learning in Hawaii. This is a complete list of high schools in the U.S. state of Hawaii. ...


The largest is the University of Hawaii System. It consists of: the research university at Mānoa; two comprehensive campuses Hilo and West Oʻahu; and seven Community Colleges. Private universities include Brigham Young University–Hawaii, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, or University of the Nations. The Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Entrance to UH Manoa Campus UH Campus University of Hawaii, Upper Campus The University of Hawaii at Mānoa is a public, co-educational university and is the flagship campus of the greater University of Hawaii system. ... The University of Hawaii at Hilo is one of ten branches of the University of Hawaii System anchored by the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The University of Hawaii-West Oahu, formerly West Oahu College, is one of ten branches of the University of Hawaii System anchored by the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... Chaminade University of Honolulu is a private coeducational university in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... The University of the Nations (U of N) is a Christian university providing coursework in over 50 languages at over 300 locations throughout the world. ... Saint Stephen Seminary was a diocesan minor seminary staffed by the Sulpician Fathers in the diocese of Honolulu closed in 1970. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... Episcopal crest of Bishop Clarence Silva The Catholic Diocese of Honolulu is an ecclesiastical territory or particular church of the Catholic Church in the United States. ...

Law and government

The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. This is a list of colleges and universities in Hawaii. ... // History and Current Issues This only covers the history of the politics of the State of Hawaii. ... The Constitution of Hawaii refers to various legal documents throughout the history of the Hawaiian Islands that defined the fundamental principles of authority and governance within its sphere of jurisdiction. ...


The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both elected on the same ticket. The governor, in residence at the grounds of Washington Place, is the only public official elected for the state government in a statewide race; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Lieutenant Governors of Hawaii have been administering their duties from the Hawaii State Capitol since 1969. ... Washington Place is a Greek Revival home in the Capital District in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi and was formerly the official residence of the Governor of Hawaiʻi. ... Lieutenant Governors of Hawaii have been administering their duties from the Hawaii State Capitol since 1969. ...


The legislative branch consists of the Hawaii State Legislature—twenty-five members of the Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate and fifty-one members of the Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House. They also govern from the State Capitol. The judicial branch is led by the highest state court, the Hawaii State Supreme Court, which uses Aliʻiōlani Hale as its chambers. Lower courts are organized as the Hawaii State Judiciary. The Hawaii State Senate is the upper chamber of the Hawaii State Legislature which governs from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. There are twenty-five members from various electoral districts. ... The President of the Senate is the title often given to the presiding officer, or chairman, of a senate. ... The Hawaii House of Representatives is the lower house of the Hawaii State Legislature. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... AliÊ»iōlani Hale is today the home of the HawaiÊ»i State Supreme Court and the statue of Kamehameha the Great. ...


Unique to Hawaii is the lack of municipal governments. There are no incorporated cities in the state. All local governments are administered at the county level. Honolulu County governs the entire island of Oahu. County executives are the Mayor of Hawaii, Mayor of Honolulu, Mayor of Kauaʻi and Mayor of Maui, all elected in nonpartisan races. United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ... The Mayor of Hawaii is the chief executive officer of the County of Hawaii in the state of Hawaii. ... Mayor of Honolulu Jeremy Harris gives the annual State of the City address from Honolulu Hale on January 25, 2001. ... The Mayor of Kauai is the chief executive officer of the County of Kauai in the state of Hawaii. ... The Mayor of Maui is the chief executive officer of the County of Maui in the state of Hawaii. ... In U.S. politics, nonpartisan denotes an election in which the candidates do not declare or do not formally have a political party affiliation. ...

Federal Government

The state is represented in the United States Congress by a delegation of four members. They are the senior and junior United States Senators, and the representative of the 1st and 2nd congressional districts. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from Hawaii to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The First Congressional District of Hawaii was officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... The Second Congressional District of Hawaii is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii, officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ...


All federal officers in Hawaii administer their duties from the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the United States Secret Service. The building is the site of the federal courts and the offices of the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii, principal police officer of the Department of Justice in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. The Prince KÅ«hiō Federal Building, formally the Prince Jonah KÅ«hiō Kalaniana‘ole Federal Building and United States Courthouse, is the official seat of the United States federal government and its local branches of various agencies and departments in the state of Hawai‘i. ... The Aloha Tower has been greeting vessels to port at Honolulu Harbor since September 11, 1926. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... USSS redirects here. ... The United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii — also known as the United States Attorney and U.S. Attorney — is the chief law enforcement officer representing the Federal Government of the United States and principal authority of the United States Department of Justice in the state of Hawaii. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii is the principal trial court of the United States Federal Court System in the state of Hawaii. ...


Hawaii residents have been appointed to administer other agencies and departments of the federal government by the President of the United States. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

National Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 26.58% 120,446 71.85% 325,588
2004 45.26% 194,191 54.01% 231,708
2000 37.46% 137,845 55.79% 205,286
1996 31.64% 113,943 56.93% 205,012
1992 36.70% 136,822 48.09% 179,310
1988 44.75% 158,625 54.27% 192,364
1984 55.10% 185,050 43.82% 147,154
1980 42.90% 130,112 44.80% 135,879
1976 48.06% 140,003 50.59% 147,375
1972 62.48% 168,865 37.52% 101,409
1968 38.70% 91,425 59.83% 141,324
1964 21.24% 44,022 78.76% 163,249
1960 49.97% 92,295 50.03% 92,410

Hawaii supported Democrats in 10 of the last 12 presidential elections. The exceptions were 1972 and 1984. In 2004, John Kerry won the state's 4 electoral votes by a margin of 9 percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, favorite son candidate, Senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972. GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... Presidential electoral votes. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A favorite son is a political term that can refer to two different types of politicians: A politician whose electoral appeal derives from his or her regional appeal, rather than his or her political views. ... GOP redirects here. ...


Honolulu native Barack Obama, serving as United States Senator from Illinois, was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Obama had won the Hawaiian Democratic Caucus on February 19, 2008 with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii. Barack and Obama redirect here. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

Transportation

A system of state highways encircles each main island. Only Oʻahu has federal highways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed Interstate freeways. Travel can be slow due to narrow winding roads, and congested in cities. Each major island has a public bus system. Below is a partial list of state highways in Hawai‘i. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ...


Commercial airlines provide most mainland and inter-island travel. Hawaiian Airlines, Mokulele Airlines, and go! use jets between the larger airports in Honolulu, Līhuʻe, Kahului, Kona, and Hilo, while Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight service between the islands. An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... Mokulele Airlines is an independent commuter airline based in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. ... This article is about the Hawaii-based airline. ... Island Air (officially Hawaii Island Air, Inc. ... Pacific Wings (Pacific Wings Airlines) is a commuter airline based in Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. It operates scheduled and charter interisland services in Hawaii. ...


Norwegian Cruise Lines provides passenger cruise service between the islands. The Hawaii Superferry planned to operate between Oʻahu and other major islands. Legal issues over environmental impact statements and protests temporarily delayed it. Service to Maui started in December 2007, but shut down in March 2009.[65] Norwegian Dawn passes Lower Manhattan on the way to Bermuda and the Bahamas. ... Hawaii Superferry Alakai, docking in Honolulu Harbor on June 30. ...

See also

References

  1. ^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians. Hawaii resident or islander is the preferred form to refer to state residents. The Associated Press Stylebook, 42nd ed. (2007), also prescribes this usage under its entry for Hawaii (p. 112).
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  4. ^ Pollex—a reconstruction of the Proto-Polynesian lexicon, Biggs and Clark, 1994. The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form.
  5. ^ Pukui and Elbert 1986, p. 62.
  6. ^ See also: Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini 1974.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Island of Hawaiʻi
  8. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Maui Island
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Kahoʻolawe Island
  10. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Lānaʻi Island
  11. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Molokaʻi Island
  12. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Oʻahu Island
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Kauaʻi Island
  14. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Niʻihau Island
  15. ^ "What constitutes the United States, what are the official definitions?". United States Geological Survey. http://interactive2.er.usgs.gov/faq/list_faq_by_category/get_answer.asp?id=795. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  16. ^ Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii.
  17. ^ Unke, Beata (2001). "Height of the Tallest Mountain on Earth". The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/BeataUnke.shtml. 
  18. ^ Rubin, Ken. "General Information about Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes". http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_volc.html. Retrieved December 2009. 
  19. ^ "Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than A.D. 1790". United States Geological Survey. September 9, 1999. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1999/99_09_09.html. Retrieved 1999-10-04. 
  20. ^ Living on Active Volcanoes—The Island of Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 074-97.
  21. ^ Human Footprints in Relation to the 1790 Eruption of Kīlauea, Swanson, D. A.; Rausch, J., American Geophysical Union.
  22. ^ Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (2009-11-12). "Tsunami Safety & Preparedness in Hawai`i". http://www.prh.noaa.gov/ptwc/hawaii.php. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  23. ^ Howard Youth. "Hawaii's Forest Birds Sing the Blues". http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/1995/1/hawaiisforestbirds.cfm. Retrieved October 31, 2008. 
  24. ^ "Hawaii". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/HI. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  25. ^ Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV. "Treasure Islands". http://www.pewtrusts.org/ideas/ideas_item.cfm?content_item_id=3417&content_type_id=15&page=15&issue=16&issue_name=Protecting%20ocean%20life&name=Op-eds%20(Pew). Retrieved June 15, 2006. 
  26. ^ Climate of Hawaii.
  27. ^ Hawaii Weather|Hawaii Weather Forecast|Hawaii Climate.
  28. ^ US CODE: Title 20,7512. Findings.
  29. ^ Hawaii State Government.
  30. ^ The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press. 1989. pp. 77–79. ISBN 0521273161. 
  31. ^ Kuykendall, "The Hawaiian Kingdom Volume I: Foundation and Transformation", p18 "Cook's plan was to get the king on board the Resolution and keep him there until the stolen boat was returned — a plan that had been effective under similar circumstances in the south Pacific".
  32. ^ Hawaii (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  33. ^ Migration and Disease. Digital History.
  34. ^ a b Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-94). Associated University Presses. p. 350. ISBN 0945636431. 
  35. ^ Kuykendall, R.S. (1967) The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1874-1893. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 648.
  36. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq. Times Books. ISBN 0805078614. 
  37. ^ "Limbaugh repeated false claim that U.S. was "strictly neutral" in overthrow of Hawaiian queen". Media Matters. http://mediamatters.org/items/200508220002. 
  38. ^ a b Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand by Bruce Fein.
  39. ^ 1897 Hawaii Annexation Treaty.
  40. ^ Human Rights differs from Equal Rights.
  41. ^ Support For The Hawaiian Sovereignty Elections Council.
  42. ^ Hawaii Reporter: Hawaii Reporter.
  43. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  44. ^ New Jersey Quickfacts.
  45. ^ Hawaii Quickfacts.
  46. ^ Top 12 states in population density.
  47. ^ Average life expectancy at birth by state.
  48. ^ a b c d e f http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-tree_id=308&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US15&-format=&-_lang=en
  49. ^ a b Language Map Data Center.
  50. ^ State of Hawaii Data Book 2000, Section 1 Population, Table 1.47.
  51. ^ Glenmary Research Center.
  52. ^ Honolulu Advertiser.
  53. ^ Gallup Poll Daily tracking.
  54. ^ Hawaii sandalwood trade.
  55. ^ Whaling in Hawaii.
  56. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News.
  57. ^ http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/current/il/merriemonarch05
  58. ^ http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2009902200326
  59. ^ http://www.hnlnow.com/events/index.php?com=detail&eID=10075&year=2008&month=5
  60. ^ http://archives.starbulletin.com/2001/05/29/features/index.html
  61. ^ ""Hawaii Health Care Is Called a Model for U.S."". New York Times. 1993-05-19. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7DD123BF93AA25756C0A965958260. 
  62. ^ Two-Thirds Of Hawaii Schools Do Not Meet Requirements - Education News Story - KITV Honolulu
  63. ^ Honolulu Advertiser, August 17, 2005, p. B1
  64. ^ Ishibasha, Koren (November 2005). "Official Enrollment". http://www.ksbe.edu/pase/pdf/Reports/K-12/05_06_8.pdf. Retrieved December 2009. 
  65. ^ "Aloha, Superferry Alakai leaves Hawaii to find job". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. March 29, 2009. http://www.starbulletin.com/news/20090329_Aloha_Superferry.html. 

Further reading

  • The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV.
  • Bushnell, O. A. 1993. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawaii. ISBN 0824814576. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press
  • Kinzer, Stephen 2007, Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. ISBN 0805082409. Times Books
  • Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-508116-1. 
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena; Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0. 
  • Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999): 402-408.
  • Stokes, John F.G. 1932. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in Hawaii and Hawaiian-American Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, v, 34, n, 4, pp. 594–600.

External links

Find more about Hawaii on Wikipedia's sister projects: An ethnonym (Gk. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... A slightly outdated edition of the Stylebook The The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually simply called the AP Stylebook and nicknamed the journalists bible, is the primary guide of style and usage for most newspapers and newsmagazines in the United States. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Theodore Roosevelt IV (born November 27, 1942), the great-grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, is a prominent conservationist and environmentalist, who frequently speaks out for the need to protect wild areas from development, frequently lobbying the White House and testifying before Congress on behalf of environmental causes. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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This article is about the U.S. State of California. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands Map showing the location of the islands in the Pacific Ocean (highlighted with red boxes) The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... Led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole, the Provisional Government ruled over Hawaii until the formal establishment of the republic. ... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... Territory of Hawaii Capital Honolulu Government Organized incorporated territory Governor  - 1900-1903 Sanford B. Dole  - 1957-1959 William F. Quinn Military Governor  - 1941-1944 Maj. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Polynesian Triangle is a geographical region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by Hawaii, Rapa Nui and New Zealand. ... The Austral Islands are the southernmost group of islands in French Polynesia, sometimes also called the Tubuai Islands, after one of the main islands. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Gambier Islands (French: ÃŽles Gambier or Archipel des Gambier) are a small group of islands in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Isla Sala y Gómez (Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva) is a small uninhabited island lying in the eastern Pacific at 26°27′ S 105°28′ W. It is part of Chiles Easter Island province. ... Samoa Islands may refer to: Samoa, a country in the South Pacific American Samoa, a U.S. territory, also in the South Pacific Categories: Disambiguation ... Map of Society Islands One of the islands. ... A Satellite photo of the Acteon Group, 4 atolls in the southeastern Tuamotus. ... Motto: n/a Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Mata-Utu Official languages French Uvean, Futunan Government Overseas territory of France  -  President of France Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Administrateur supérieur Richard Didier  -  President of the Territorial Assembly Pesamino Taputai  -  Kings (traditionally three) King of Uvea (none at present) Soane Patita... Polynesian outliers are a number of Polynesian islands which lie in Melanesia and Micronesia. ... Anuta is a small high island in the southeastern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... Emae (coordinates ) is an island in the Shepherds Islands, Shefa, Vanuatu. ... Futuna is an island in the Tafea province of Vanuatu. ... Kapingamarangi is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... The Loyalty Islands. ... The Nukumanu Islands, part of Papua New Guinea are located in the path of the Polynesian migration to Oceania some 5,000 years ago, the Nukumanu Islands were settled by the Polynesians and retained their Polynesian character as part of the Melanesian Archipelago of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon... Nukuoro is an atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. ... Ontong Java Atoll is the northernmost tract of land in the Solomon Islands and an outlying part of the province of Malaita. ... Ouvéa from space, November 1990 Ouvea may refer to: Ouvéa, an island in the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia. ... Pileni is a culturally important island in the Reef Islands, in the northern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. ... Rennell and Bellona Province is one of the provinces of the Solomon Islands. ... Rotuma is a Fijian Dependency, consisting of the island of Rotuma and the nearby islets of Hatana, Hofliua, Solkope, Solnohu and Uea. ... Sikaiana formerly called Stewart Islands is a small atoll 212 km NE of Malaita. ... A village scene on Takuu Takuu (also Tauu or Mortlock Islands) is a small, isolated atoll off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. ... Tikopia is the southernmost of the Santa Cruz Islands, located in the province of Temotu. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged, gives an overview of states around the world with information on the extent of their sovereignty. ... World map of dependent territories. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands Map showing the location of the islands in the Pacific Ocean (highlighted with red boxes) The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Rotuma is a Fijian Dependency, consisting of the island of Rotuma and the nearby islets of Hatana, Hofliua, Solkope, Solnohu and Uea. ... Austronesian redirects here. ... The Formosan languages are a group of Austronesian languages spoken 2% of the population of Taiwan, almost exclusively aboriginals. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem Patriots of Micronesia Capital Palikir Largest city Weno Official languages English (national), Ulithian, Woleaian, Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, and Chuukese (at state or local level) Government Constitutional government1  -  President Joseph J. Urusemal Independence from US-administered UN Trusteeship   -  Date 3 November 1986  Area  -  Total 702 km² (188th) 271 sq mi... Old photo of the people of Orchid Island, near Taiwan published in a Japanese colonial government publication, ca. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This is a timeline of United States history. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... This article is about political and social developments, including the origins and aftermath of the war. ... This article is about military actions only. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In the history of the United States, the Reconstruction era has two definitions, the first in reference to the entire nation in the period 1865-1877 following the Civil War. ... <math> </math></math> The Breakers, a gilded-age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish–American... The history of the United States (1865–1918) covers Reconstruction and the rise of industrialization in the United States. ... For the film, see The Roaring Twenties. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Military history of the United States during World War II covers the involvement of the United States during the Second World War. ... The United States home front during World War II covers the developments within the United States, 1940-1945, to support its efforts during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... The economic history of the United States has its roots in European settlements in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... United States Government redirects here. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Federalism in the United States can be divided into four major periods, each with its own distinct approach: Federalism under the Marshall Court, Dual Federalism, Cooperative Federalism, and New Federalism. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... The United States Federal Executive Departments are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States—the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all being established within a few weeks of each other in 1789. ... Independent agencies of the United States government are those that exist outside of the departments of the executive branch. ... The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... NSA redirects here. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... USAF redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a de facto two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Political Compass. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Midwest redirects here. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... USD redirects here. ... Annual U.S. spending 1934-2006 with adjustment for inflation. ... The Fed redirects here. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... US Debt from 1940 on. ... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... Elaborate marble facade of New York Stock Exchange as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets This article is about the New York street. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... Union Jack. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863, Hudson River School Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today,the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The LGBT rights movement in the United States seeks to achieve equality for all Americans, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity (heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... A common definition of terrorism is the systematic use or threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change. ...

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Hawaii's Official Tourism Site -- Travel info for your Hawaii vacation (78 words)
Hawaii's Official Tourism Site -- Travel info for your Hawaii vacation
We warmly invite you to explore our islands and discover your ideal travel experience.
Log In to use your My Hawaii Planner or create a New Account.
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park - Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (U.S. National Park Service) (401 words)
Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, displays the results of 70 million years of volcanism, migration, and evolution — processes that thrust a bare land from the sea and clothed it with unique ecosystems, and a distinct human culture.
Superb voyagers, Polynesians from the Marquesas Islands migrated to Hawai`i over 1,600 years ago.
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