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Encyclopedia > Hauptschule
Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln.

A "Hauptschule" (German: general school) is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling. Any student who went to a German elementary school can go to a Hauptschule afterwards, whereas students who want to attend a Realschule or Gymnasium need to have good marks in order to do so. The students spend five-six years at the Hauptschule, from 5th to 9th (or 10th) grade. They finish at about age 15-16. Image File history File linksMetadata Ruetli2_Schule_Neukoelln. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ruetli2_Schule_Neukoelln. ... The location of Neukölln in Berlin. ... The term, secondary school, refers to an institution where the third stage of schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... Gymnasium can have following meanings: Gymnasium (ancient Greece)—an educational and sporting institution in Ancient Greece Gymnasium—a school of secondary education found in several European countries (approx. ...

Contents

Basics

The main aim of the Hauptschule is to prepare young students for life and focus on practical matters, in contrast to the Gymnasium which concentrates on the more academic topics and wants to prepare its students for going to the university afterwards. As a result, the classes in the Hauptschule concentrate on the basics in mathematics, physics/chemistry, biology, geography, history, introduction to the world of work (Arbeitslehre), religion (or a substitute subject), music, art, politics, sport and language. From the first year of Hauptschule, all children learn English. Once students have obtained their leaving certificate at the age of 15/16, they can go into practical vocational training, start work in the public service at basic or secretarial level, or attend a Berufsfachschule (full-time vocational school). The jobs for which they apply consequently do require practical skills rather than academic knowledge. They also can qualify for further education in a Realschule or Gymnasium if their marks are good enough. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ...


Problems

Many Hauptschulen nowadays have problems with drugs and violence, much more than Gymnasien or even Realschulen. This applies in particular, but is not limited to, schools in eastern Germany.


Hauptschule students have come to be increasingly stigmatized in German culture over the last years, the opinion of the general public often being that Hauptschulen only harbor the bottom end of society. The graduation certificate is the Hauptschulabschluss, which like the assignment to other types high schools is less valuable than the Realschulabschluss or university-bound Abitur. Stereotypes of dysfunctional family backgrounds, absent and/or unemployed parents and domestic violence and alcohol abuse are often cited when describing what is believed to be the typical social origin of these students. Teachers often complain about ongoing difficulties in trying to properly educate them and parents refusing to take responsibility. Moreover, and based on these problems, it has become very hard for Hauptschule graduates to find qualified work or begin an apprenticeship, even in professions which traditionally welcomed them and have now shifted their focus to better qualified applicants, e.g. mechanics, construction or sales. In some areas, an overwhelming majority of each graduating class is therefore forced to accept low-paying unskilled labor or live on welfare indefinitely; many choose to stay in school for another year to obtain their Realschule diploma, which slightly, but not fundamentally, improves their career prospects. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ...


Similarities to other countries

In the United States, most schools are comprehensive high schools which educate students of all ability ranges as the concept of tracking by test score was largely abandoned there by the 21st century. However, some school districts such as the Renton School District maintain separate schools for students who do not succeed in the comprehensive school, usually students who get the lowest test score results. Although most US students get uniform diplomas, some states are adopting high school graduation examinations with very high standards. Although Marc Tucker of the NCEE designed the Certificate of Initial Mastery around the German education model and the age of 16, most US states expect all students to meet one high passing standard, and tests are used to insure success for all rather than sorting between types of high schools. High school is mandatory to age 16, but those who leave before receiving a diploma at 18 are considered to be dropouts with a dismal future. All students must graduate with skills necessary to succeed in college even if not college bound. It is thought that the incentive of losing a diploma will provide enough incentive to make this a reality, though some critics doubt that this was ever a practical idea. Students who do not pass these tests either will receive no diploma, or alternate documents indicating that they did not meet minimal state standards for graduation. Most public high school in the United States are comprehensive public high schools. ... According to a 2006 study by the Center on Education Policy, two-thirds of the 15 million public high school students in the United States of America were required to pass a graduation examination to get a diploma of completion of studies. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The certificate of Mastery was created by report Americas Choice: High Skills or Low Wages,. It called for the nations workforce for the challenges of a new world economic order. ... Dropout may refer to: // A student who quits school before graduation. ...


History

Hauptschulen were first introduced in West Germany in 1950 and are now a part of secondary education in Germany, the other Schools being the Gymnasium for the university-bound and the Realschule for workers who need specialized technical training. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hauptschule - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (760 words)
A "Hauptschule" (German: general school) is a German secondary school, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling.
The main aim of the Hauptschule is to prepare young students for life and focus on practical matters, in contrast to the Gymnasium which concentrates on the more academic topics and wants to prepare its students for going to the university afterwards.
Hauptschule students have come to be increasingly stigmatized in German culture over the last years, the opinion of the general public often being that Hauptschulen only harbor the bottom end of society.
Archived: The Educational System in Germany: Case Study Findings; Chapter 2 - Lower Secondary Schools (5558 words)
Hauptschule teachers said that one of the frequent challenges that they face is the resolution of conflicts that arise.
Although both Hauptschule and Realschule parents expressed concern about the quality of their children's education, the former tended to have a more laissez-faire attitude toward education, while the latter were actively involved in their son's or daughter's education, including school governance through membership in parents' councils.
Hauptschule teachers must be accepting and willing to let the kids become a part of their lives emotionally.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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