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Encyclopedia > Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Hatchepsut
Preceded by:
Thutmose II
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Thutmose III
Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Reign 1479 BC to 1458 BC
Praenomen

Maatkare[1]
Truth is the Ka of Re
Nomen





Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1]
Joined with Amun,
Foremost of Noble Ladies
Horus
name


Image:srxtail2.GIF
Wesretkau [1]
Mighty of Kas
Nebty
name
Wadjrenput[1]
Flourishing of years
Golden
Horus

Netjeretkhau[1]
Divine of appearance
Consort(s) Thutmose II
Issue Neferure
Father Thutmose I
Mother Queen Ahmose
Born c.1508 BC[2]
Died 1458 BC
Burial KV20 (re-interred in KV60[2])
Major
Monuments
Temple of Karnak, Deir el-Bahri,
Speos Artemidos

Hatshepsut (or Hatchepsut, IPA: /hætˈʃɛpsʊt/),[3] meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies,[4] was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful female pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x833, 299 KB)I took this pic from the image on the dustjacket of Hatshepsut by Eveyln Wells. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x833, 299 KB)I took this pic from the image on the dustjacket of Hatshepsut by Eveyln Wells. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... (Redirected from 1458 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC Events and Trends According to some, 1456 BC was the year that Moses... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Akh redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... Akh redirects here. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... Neferure was the daughter of Thutmose II and his officially recognized wife Hatshepsut, the only child the two ever had together. ... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tomb KV20 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was possibly the first tomb to be constructed in the valley. ... Tomb KV60 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of 18th dynasty Pharaoh... Karnak is a village in Egypt that was once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... The Speos Artemidos (Modern: Istabl Antar), in Egypt, is located about 2 km south of the Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan, and about 28 km south of Al Minya. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


Although records of her reign are documented in diverse ancient sources, Hatshepsut was once described by early modern scholars as only having served as a co-regent from about 1479 to 1458 BC, during years seven to twenty-one of the reign previously identified as that of Thutmose III.[5] Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...


It is now known that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh and her reign as king is usually given as twenty-two years since Manetho assigns her a reign of 21 years and 9 months. He was a historian who lived during the Ptolemaic era, during the third century B.C., and he had access to many records that have been lost. The date of her death is known to have occurred in 1458, which implies that she became pharaoh circa 1479 BC. Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... (Redirected from 1458 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC Events and Trends According to some, 1456 BC was the year that Moses... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s...


Although it was uncommon for Egypt to be ruled by a woman, this situation was not unprecedented. Hatshepsut was the second known to have formally assumed power as "King of Upper and Lower Egypt" after Queen Sobekneferu of the Twelfth Dynasty. As a queen regnant she is preceded by Merneith of the First Dynasty; and Nimaethap of the Third Dynasty, who may have been the dowager of Khasekhemwy, but who certainly acted as regent for her son, Djoser, during the Third Dynasty, and—she may have reigned as pharaoh in her own right.[6] Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... Merneith was a queen during the 1st Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and was possibly the wife of Djet or Djer. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ... Nimaethap was probably the wife of Khasekhemwy and the first Dowager Queen of Egypt that is known with certainty to have acted as regent for her son, Djoser, during the Third dynasty of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... A dowager is a widow who holds a title or property, or Dower, derived from her deceased husband. ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Other women whose possible reigns as pharaohs are under study include Nefertiti, Meritaten, Neferneferuaten, and Twosret. Another pharaoh, Smenkhkare, generally has been believed to have been male, but there is some evidence that this was a woman also. Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[1] Nomen Neferneferuaten Perfect One of the Atens Perfection Consort(s) Smenkhkare? Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may...


Among the later, non-indigenous Egyptian dynasties, the most notable example of another woman who became pharaoh was Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC–November 30, 30 BC) was a Hellenistic co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) and later with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She later became the supreme ruler of Egypt, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar, that solidified...


In comparison with other female pharaohs, her reign was long and prosperous. She was successful in warfare early in her reign, but is generally considered to be a pharaoh who inaugurated a long peaceful era. She re-established trading relationships lost during a foreign occupation and brought great wealth to Egypt. That wealth enabled Hatshepsut to initiate building projects that raised the calibre of Ancient Egyptian architecture to a standard, comparable to classical architecture, that would not be rivaled by any other culture for a thousand years. From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ...

Contents

Identification of mummy

Hatshepsut's remains were long considered lost, but in June 2007 a mummy from Tomb KV60, was publicly identified as her remains by Zahi Hawass, the Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.[7] Evidence supporting this identification includes the results of a DNA comparison with the mummy of Ahmose Nefertari, Hatshepsut's great-grandmother and the matriarch of the 18th dynasty.[8] Further conclusive evidence includes the possession of a molar with one root that fit the mummy's jaw as it had a gap that had one root as well. This molar was found inside a small wooden box inscribed with Hatshepsut's name and cartouche: Zahi Hawass's team's CAT scan revealed that this tooth exactly matches this mummy's jaw.[9] Modern CT scans of that mummy believed to be Hatshepsut suggest she was about fifty years old when she died from a ruptured abscess after removal of a tooth. Although this was the cause, it is quite possible she would not have lived much longer; there are signs in her mummy of metastatic bone cancer, as well as possible liver cancer and diabetes.[2] Egyptologists not involved in the project, however, have reserved acceptance of the findings until further testing is undertaken.[2] This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... Tomb KV60 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of 18th dynasty Pharaoh... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... A mans visible teeth. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... An arm bone tumor Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... Hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver (medical terms pertaining to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hepar). ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...


Family and early life

Hatshepsut was the elder daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, the first king and queen of the Thutmoside clan of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Thutmose I and Ahmose are known to have had only one other child, a daughter, Akhbetneferu (Neferubity), who died as an infant. Thutmose I also married Mutnofret, possibly a daughter of Ahmose I, and produced several half-brothers to Hatshepsut: Wadjmose, Amenose, Thutmose II, and possibly Ramose, through that secondary union. Both Wadjmose and Amenose were prepared to succeed their father, but neither lived beyond adolescence. nomen or birth name Aakheperkare Thutmose I ( ? – 1492 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the 3rd Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Mutnofret (“Mut is Beautiful”) was a queen during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose...


In her childhood, Hatshepsut is believed to have been favored by the Temple of Karnak over her two half-brothers by her father. Hatshepsut apparently had a close relationship with both of her parents. Among the official records of her reign are assertions that her father, Thutmose I, named her as his direct heir and later, official depictions of Hatshepsut show her dressed in the full regalia of a pharaoh, including the traditional false beard of pharaohs to indicate that she ruled Egypt in her own right. Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ...


Upon the death of her father in 1493 BC, Hatshepsut married her half-brother, Thutmose II, and assumed the title of Great Royal Wife. Thutmose II ruled Egypt for either 3 or 13 years, during which time it has traditionally been believed that Queen Hatshepsut exerted a strong influence over her husband. Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ...


Royal lineage was traced through the women in ancient Egypt. Marriage to a queen of the royal lineage was necessary, even if the king came from outside of the lineage as happened occasionally. Secondary unions to other women in the royal family assured that there would be heirs from the lineage and women who could become the royal wives. [1] This is the reason for all of the intermarriages. The royal women also played a pivotal role in the religion of ancient Egypt. The queen officiated at the rites in the temples, as priestess, in a culture where religion was inexorably interwoven with the roles of the rulers.


Hatshepsut had one daughter with Thutmose II: Neferure. Some scholars hold that Hatshepsut and Thutmose II groomed Neferure as the heir apparent, commissioning official portraits of their daughter wearing the false beard of royalty and the sidelock of youth. Others speculate that she was being prepared to assume her mother's own roles as queen, but to have Neferure prepared to be a pharaoh, if necessary. Neferure was the daughter of Thutmose II and his officially recognized wife Hatshepsut, the only child the two ever had together. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...


When Thutmose II died, he left behind only one son, a young Thutmose III to succeed him. The latter was born as the son of a lesser wife of Thutmose II rather than of the Great Royal Wife, Hatshepsut, as Neferure was. Due to the relative youth of Thutmose III, he was not eligible to assume the expected tasks of a pharaoh. Instead, Hatshepsut became the regent of Egypt at this time, assumed the responsibilities of state, and was recognized by the leadership in the temple. At this time, her daughter, Neferure, took over the roles Hatshepsut had played as queen in official and religious ceremonies. This political arrangement is detailed in the tomb autobiography of Ineni, a high official at court: Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ...

He (Thutmose II) went forth to heaven in triumph, having mingled with the gods; His son stood in his place as king of the Two Lands, having become ruler upon the throne of the one who begat him. His (ie. Thutmose II's) sister the Divine Consort, Hatshepsut settled the affairs of the Two Lands by reason of her plans. Egypt was made to labour with bowed head for her, the excellent seed of the god, which came forth from him.[10]

Thus, while Thutmose III was designated as a co-regent of Egypt, the royal court recognised Hatshepsut as the pharoah on the throne until she died. It is believed that Neferure became the royal wife of Thutmose III and the mother of his eldest son, Amenemhat, who did not outlive his father. Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... Amenemhat was a prince of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt; the son of Pharaoh Thutmose III.[1] He was the eldest son and appointed heir of the pharaoh[1]. It is possible that his mother was Queen Satiah[2], but it also is proposed that Hatshepsut and Thutmose IIs...


Thutmose III ruled as pharaoh for more than thirty years after the death of Hatshepsut. The relationship between Neferure and Amenemhat is debated among scholars, but since Neferure is depicted in her mother's funeral temple, there are some who believe that Neferure was still alive in the first few years of the rule by Thutmose III as pharaoh, that his eldest son. However, most Egyptologists believe that Neferure did not outlive her mother and died before the sole reign of Thutmose III. This is strongly suggested by the evidence from Senenmut's second tomb which has been dated to Year 16 of Hatshepsut's reign. While Senenmut is known to have been officially appointed as Neferure's tutor, Neferure is completely absent from the former's tomb which implies that Neferure had died prior to Year 16 of her mother's reign; had she been alive Senemut would surely her.[11] Moreover, Neferure's last dated appearance occurs in a Year 11 stela from Serabit el-Khadim.[12]


Rule

Dates and length of reign

Hatshepsut is given a reign as pharaoh of about twenty-two years by ancient authors. Josephus writes that she reigned for twenty-one years and nine months while Africanus states her reign lasted twenty-two years, both of whom were quoting Manetho. At this point in the histories, records of the reign of Hatshepsut end, since the first major foreign campaign of Thutmose III was dated to his twenty-second year, which also would have been Hatshepsut's twenty-second year as pharaoh.[13] Dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however. Her father's reign began in either 1506 or 1526 BC according to the low and high chronologies, respectively.[14] However, the length of the reigns of Thutmose I and Thutmose II cannot be determined with absolute certainty. With short reigns, Hatshepsut would have ascended the throne fourteen years after the coronation of Thutmose I.[15] Longer reigns would put her ascension twenty-five years after Thutmose I's coronation.[16] Thus, Hatshepsut could have assumed power as early as 1512 BC or as late as 1479. Modern chronologists, however, tend to agree that Hatshepsut reigned as pharaoh from 1479 to 1458 BC, but there is no definitive proof of the beginning date. These dates are derived from the closeness of length of her reign, related in the ancient records of Manetho, Africanus, and Josephus and counting backward from the date of her death, which is quite certain. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...


Major accomplishments

As Hatshepsut reestablished the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building a wealth of the Eighteenth Dynasty that has become so famous since the discovery of the burial of one of her descendants, Tutankhamun, began to be analysed. It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Look up network, networking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[2] Wer-Ah-Amun...


She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. The expedition set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet (21 m) long bearing several sails and accommodating 210 men that included sailors and 30 rowers. Many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably myrrh, which is said to have been Hatshepsut's favorite fragrance. Most notably, however, the Egyptians returned from the voyage bearing 31 live frankincense trees, the roots of which were carefully kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahari mortuary temple complex. She had the expedition commemorated in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which also is famous for its depiction of the Queen of the Land of Punt, who appears to have had a genetic trait called steatopygia. The Land of Punt, which the Ancient Egyptians called Ta Netjeru, meaning Land of the Gods, was a fabled and exotic site in eastern Africa, which carried on extensive trade with Ancient Egypt, China and Arabia. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... A botanical transplant is a gardening procedure in which the gardener removes the plants to be transplanted and replants them in a new location. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... The Land of Punt, which the Ancient Egyptians called Ta Netjeru, meaning Land of the Gods, was a fabled and exotic site in eastern Africa, which carried on extensive trade with Ancient Egypt, China and Arabia. ... Steatopygia is a high degree of fat accumulation in and around the buttocks. ...


Although many Egyptologists have claimed that her foreign policy was mainly peaceful,[17] there is evidence that Hatshepsut led successful military campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and Syria early in her career. An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Building projects

Djeser-Djeseru is the main building of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. Designed by Senemut, the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon, and it was the first complex built on the site she chose, which would become the Valley of the Kings

Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper and Lower Egypt, that were grander and more numerous than those of any of her Middle Kingdom predecessors. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1170 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1170 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


She employed two great architects: Ineni, who also had worked for her husband and father and for the royal steward Senemut. During her reign, so much statuary was produced that almost every major museum in the world has Hatshepsut statuary among their collections; for instance, the Hatshepsut Room in New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art is dedicated solely to these pieces. Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ...


Following the tradition of most pharaohs, Hatshepsut had monuments constructed at the Temple of Karnak. She also restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt, at Karnak that had been ravaged by the foreign rulers during the Hyksos occupation. She had twin obelisks, at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple. One still stands, as the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth; the other has since broken in two and toppled. Another project, Karnak's Red Chapel, or Chapelle Rouge, was intended as a barque shrine and may have stood between her two obelisks originally. She later ordered the construction of two more obelisks to celebrate her sixteenth year as pharaoh; one of the obelisks broke during construction, and thus a third was constructed to replace it. The broken obelisk was left at its quarrying site in Aswan, where it still remains, known as The Unfinished Obelisk, serving as a demonstration of just how obelisks were quarried.[18] Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Main entrance to Precinct of Mut. ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... The Chapelle Rouge or Red Chapel of Hatshepsut was originally constructed as a barque shrine during the reign of the female Pharaoh Hatshepsut, during the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... A barc is a type of sailing vessel. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... The unfinished obelisk is the largest known ancient obelisk, located in an ancient quarry near Aswan (Assuan), Egypt. ...


The Temple of Pakhet was built by Hatshepsut at Beni Hasan in the Minya Governorate south of Al Minya. Pakhet was a synthesis that occurred combining Bast and Sekhmet, who were similar lioness war goddesses, in an area that bordered the north and south division of their cults. The cavernous underground temple, cut into the rock cliffs on the eastern side of the Nile, was admired and called the Speos Artemidos by the Greeks during their occupation of Egypt, known as the Ptolemaic Dynasty. They saw the goddess as a parallel to their hunter goddess Artemis. The temple is thought to have been built alongside much more ancient ones that have not survived. This temple has an architrave bearing a long dedictatory text bearing Hatshepsut's famous denunciation of the Hyksos that has been translated by James P. Allen. [2] They had occupied Egypt and cast it into a cultural decline that persisted until a revival brought about by her policies and innovations. This temple was altered later and some of its inside decorations were usurped by Seti I, in the nineteenth dynasty, attempting to have his name replace that of Hatshepsut. In Egyptian mythology, Pakhet (also spelled Pachet, Pekhet, Phastet, and Pasht, Egyptian ), a solar deity with a desert cats head. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of al Minya, on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... Map of Egypt showing the Minya Governorate Minya Governorate (Arabic: محافظة المنيا ) is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt. ... Al Minya (Arabic: محافظة المنيا ) is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt. ... ukyih;;;;;;;;;;uiiiih;hhh;oiuj7p ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... The Speos Artemidos (Modern: Istabl Antar), in Egypt, is located about 2 km south of the Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan, and about 28 km south of Al Minya. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


The masterpiece of Hatshepsut's building projects was her mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. It was designed and implemented by Senemut at a site on the West Bank of the Nile River near the entrance to what is now called the Valley of the Kings because of all the pharaohs who later chose to associate their complexes with the grandeur of hers. Her buildings were the first grand ones planned for that location. The focal point was the Djeser-Djeseru or "the Sublime of Sublimes", a colonnaded structure of perfect harmony nearly one thousand years before the Parthenon was built. Djeser-Djeseru sits atop a series of terraces that once were graced with lush gardens. Djeser-Djeseru is built into a cliff face that rises sharply above it. Djeser-Djeseru and the other buildings of Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri complex are considered to be among the great buildings of the ancient world. Also another one of her great accomplishments is the Hatshepsut needle(also known as the granite obelisks<for more informatin visit:http:/mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/hatshepsut/graniteobelisks.html. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Djeser-Djeseru &#8211; the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri [Arabic &#1583;&#1610;&#1585; &#1575;&#1604;&#1576;&#1581;&#1585;&#1610; dayr al-ba&#7717;r&#299; (lit. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ...


Official propaganda

While all ancient leaders used propaganda to laud their achievements, Hatshepsut has been called the most accomplished pharaoh at promoting her accomplishments.[19] This may have resulted from the extensive building executed during her time as pharaoh in comparison to many others because it afforded her with opportunities to laud herself, but it also reflects the wealth that her policies and administration brought to Egypt, enabling her to finance such projects. Aggrandizement of their achievements was traditional when pharaohs built temples and their tombs. The term propaganda is rarely applied to similar activities by male pharaohs, and raises the question of why it is used here. Much of her decorative reliefs had religious overtones and was supported fully by the officials at the Temple of Karnak.[19] Since the passage of leadership was determined in advance by these same religious leaders, and enacted at the moment of the death of a pharaoh, the transition to the next occurred without question and immediately. Hence, there was no need to influence "public opinion" or for the subtle manipulation associated with the concept of "propaganda" that is implied in some scholarship about Hatshepsut. Selected by the religious leaders and assisted by an accomplished administration, she ruled over a kingdom that markedly prospered under her rule. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Karnak is a village in Egypt that was once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes. ...

Large granite sphinx bearing the likeness of the pharaoh Hatshepsut, depicted with the traditional false beard, a symbol of her pharaonic power, residing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Large granite sphinx bearing the likeness of the pharaoh Hatshepsut, depicted with the traditional false beard, a symbol of her pharaonic power, residing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Women had a high status in ancient Egypt and enjoyed the legal right to own, inherit or will property. As noted previously, lineage was traced through maternal relationships. A woman becoming pharaoh was rare, however; only Khentkaues, Sobeknefru, and possibly Nitocris[20] preceded her in known records as ruling solely in their own name. The latter's existence is disputed and is likely a mis-translation of a male king. Twosret, a female king and the last pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, may have been the only woman to succeed her. At that point in Egyptian history, there was no word for a Queen regnant, only one for Queen consort. Hatshepsut is not unique, however, in taking the title of King. Sobekneferu, ruling six dynasties prior to Hatshepsut, also did so when she ruled Egypt. Hatshepsut had been well trained in her duties as the daughter of the pharaoh. She had taken a strong role as queen to her husband and was well experienced in the administration of her kingdom by the time she became pharaoh. There is no indication of challenges to her leadership and until her death, her co-regent remained in a secondary role, quite amicably heading her powerful army. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (724x776, 771 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hatshepsut ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (724x776, 771 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hatshepsut ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... nomen or birth name Sobekneferu (sometimes written as Nefrusobek) was the Egyptian queen of the Twelfth dynasty who ruled without a king. ... For other uses, see Nitocris (disambiguation). ... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


Hatshepsut assumed all of the regalia and symbols of the Pharaonic office in official representations: the Khat head cloth, topped with the uraeus, the traditional false beard, and shendyt kilt.[19] Many existing statues alternatively show her in typically feminine attire as well as those that depict her in the royal ceremonial attire. Statues portraying Sobekneferu also combine elements of traditional male and female iconography and, by tradition, may have served as inspiration for these works commissioned by Hatshepsut.[21] After this period of transition ended, however, all formal depictions of Hatshepsut as pharaoh showed her in the royal attire, with all of the pharaonic regalia, and with her breasts obscured behind her crossed arms holding the regal staffs of the two kingdoms she ruled, as the symbols of the pharaoh were much more important to be displayed traditionally. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The khat was a head cloth worn by the nobility of Ancient Egypt. ... Mask of Tutankhamuns mummy featuring a uraeus from the eighteenth dynasty when the cobra image of Wadjet from the original uraeus had been joined by the white vulture image of Nekhbet because of the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses, from the Greek... For the slang term, see Beard (female companion). ... The shendyt is a garment which was made of cloth and was worn around the waist, typically extending to above the knees, in ancient Egyptian society. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... You may be looking for information on: Look up staff on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The reasons for her breasts not being emphasized in the most formal statues were debated among early Egyptologists who never drew a parallel to the fact that many women and goddesses portrayed in ancient Egyptian art lack delineation of breasts and that the gender of pharaohs was never stressed in ancient Egyptian Art. Interpretations by these early scholars were that her motivation for wearing men's clothing was a personal choice.

Osirian statues of Hatshepsut at her tomb, one stood at each pillar of the extensive structure, note the mummification shroud enclosing the lower body and legs as well as the crook and flail associated with Osiris
Osirian statues of Hatshepsut at her tomb, one stood at each pillar of the extensive structure, note the mummification shroud enclosing the lower body and legs as well as the crook and flail associated with Osiris

Modern scholars, however, have opted for an alternative theory: that by assuming the typical symbols of pharaonic power, Hatshepsut was asserting her claim to be the sovereign and not a "King's Great Wife" or Queen consort. The gender of pharaohs was never stressed in official depictions, even the men were depicted with the highly stylized false beard associated with their position in the society. Moreover, the Osirian statues of Hatshepsut—as with other pharaohs—depict the dead pharaoh as Osiris, with the body and regalia of that deity. All of the statues of Hatshepsut at her tomb follow that tradition. The promise of resurrection after death was a tenet of the cult of Osiris. Since there are so many of these, statues of Hatshepsut depicted in this fashion have been widely published and put on display in museums and, viewers without an understanding of the religious significance have been misled. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1664 × 2496 pixel, file size: 520 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ancient Egyptian architecture Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1664 × 2496 pixel, file size: 520 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ancient Egyptian architecture Metadata This... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...


Most of the official statues commissioned of Hatshepsut show her less symbolically and more naturally as a woman in typical dresses of the nobility of her day. Notably, even after assuming the formal regalia, Hatshepsut still described herself as a beautiful woman, often as the most beautiful of women, and although she assumed almost all of her father's titles, she declined to take the title "The Strong Bull", which tied the pharaoh to the goddesses Isis, the throne, and Hathor, the cow, by being her son sitting on her throne -- an unnecessary title for her since Hatshepsut became allied with the goddesses herself, which no male pharaoh could. Religious concepts were tied into all of these symbols and titles. This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... For other uses, see Hathor (disambiguation). ...


While Hatshepsut was depicted in official art wearing regalia of a pharaoh, such as the false beard that male pharaohs also wore, it is most unlikely that she ever wore such ceremonial decorations, just as it is unlikely that the male pharaohs did. Statues such as those at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, depicting her seated wearing a tight-fitting dress and the nemes crown, are thought to be a more accurate representation of how she would have presented herself at court.[3] The nemes was the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt. ...


As a notable exception, only one male pharaoh abandoned the rigid symbolic depiction that had become the style of the most official artwork representing the ruler, Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten) of the same Eighteenth Dynasty, whose wife, Nefertiti, also may have ruled in her own right following the death of her husband. Nefertiti is thought to have been a woman from the same lineage as Hatshepsut. Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...


One of the most famous examples of the legends about Hatshepsut is a myth about her birth. In this myth, Amun goes to Ahmose in the form of Thutmose I and awakens her with pleasant odors. At this point Amun places the ankh, a symbol of life, to Ahmose's nose, and Hatshepsut is conceived by Ahmose. Khnum, the god who forms the bodies of human children, is then instructed to create a body and ka, or corporal presence/life force, for Hatshepsut. Heket, the goddess of life and fertility, and Khnum then lead Ahmose along to a lioness bed where she gives birth to Hatshepsut. Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... For other uses, see Ankh (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Chnum was the god of the Nile River delta, and the creator of human children, whom he makes from clay and places in their mothers uteruses. ... In Egyptian thought, the human soul is made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. ... In Egyptian mythology, Heget (also Heqet, Heka, Heka) was a goddess of death and childbirth, depicted as a frog, a woman with a frogs head, or a frog on the end of a phallus. ...


The Oracle of Amun proclaimed that it was the will of Amun that Hatshepsut be pharaoh, further strengthening her position. She reiterated Amun's support by having these proclamations by the god Amun carved on her monuments: Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ...

Welcome my sweet daughter, my favorite, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare, Hatshepsut. Thou art the Pharaoh, taking possession of the Two Lands.[22]

Hatshepsut claimed that she was her father's intended heir and that he made her the heir apparent of Egypt. Almost all scholars today view this as historical revisionism on Hatshepsut's part since it was Thutmose II--a son of Thutmose I by Mutnofret--who was her father's heir. Moreover, Thutmose I could not have foreseen that his daughter Hatshepsut would outlive his son within his own lifetime. Thutmose II soon married Hatshepsut and the latter became both his senior royal wife and the most powerful woman at court. Evelyn Wells, however, accepts Hatshepsut's claim that she was her father's intended successor. Once she became pharaoh herself, Hatshepsut supported her assertion that she was her father's designated successor with inscriptions on the walls of her mortuary temple: Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... Mutnofret (“Mut is Beautiful”) was a queen during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... Eveyln Wells was a 20th century biographer and author most known for her biographies of the ancient Egyptian royals of the 18th dynasty, Nefertiti and Hatshepsut. ...

Then his majesty said to them: "This daughter of mine, Khnumetamun Hatshepsut—may she live!—I have appointed as my successor upon my throne... she shall direct the people in every sphere of the palace; it is she indeed who shall lead you. Obey her words, unite yourselves at her command." The royal nobles, the dignitaries, and the leaders of the people heard this proclamation of the promotion of his daughter, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare—may she live eternally.[23]

American humorist Will Cuppy wrote an essay on Hatshepsut which was published after his death in the book The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody. Regarding one of her wall inscriptions, he wrote, A humorist is an author who specializes in short, humorous articles or essays. ... Will Cuppy, born William Jacob Cuppy (August 23, 1884 - September 19, 1949) in Auburn, Indiana, was an American humorist and journalist known for his satirical books about nature and historical figures. ...

For a general notion of Hatshepsut's appearance at a certain stage of her career, we are indebted to one of those wall inscriptions. It states that "to look upon her was more beautiful than anything; her splendor and her form were divine." Some have thought it odd that the female Pharaoh should have been so bold, fiftyish as she was. Not at all. She was merely saying how things were about thirty-five years back, before she had married Thutmose II and slugged it out with Thutmose III. "She was a maiden, beautiful and blooming", the hieroglyphics run, and we have no reason to doubt it. Surely there is no harm in telling the world how one looked in 1514 B.C.[24]

Death and mummification

Hatshepsut died as she was approaching, what we would consider middle age given typical contemporary lifespans, in her twenty-second regnal year.[25] The precise date of Hatshepsut's death--and the time when Thutmose III became pharaoh of Egypt--is considered to be Year 22, II Peret day 10 of their joint rule as recorded on a single stela erected at Armant[26] or January 16, 1458 BC.[27] This information validates the basic reliability of Manetho's kinglist records since Thutmose III and Hatshepsut's known accession date was I Shemu day 4.[28] (ie: Hatshepsut died 9 months into her 22nd year as Manetho writes in his Epitome for a reign of 21 years and 9 months) No mention of the cause of her death has survived. If the recent identification of her mummy in KV60 is correct,however, CT scans would indicate that she died of blood infection while she was in her 50s.[2][29] it also would suggest that she had arthritis, bad teeth, and probably had diabetes.[30] Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... The modern town of Armant (ancient Iuny; Coptic: Armant; known in Greek as Hermonthis), is located about 12 miles south of Thebes, in Egypt. ... Tomb KV60 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of 18th dynasty Pharaoh... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


For a long time, her mummy was believed to be missing from the Deir el-Bahri Cache. An unidentified female mummy—found with Hatshepsut's wet nurse, Sitire-Re, one of whose arms was posed in the traditional burial style of pharaohs—has led to the theory that the unidentified mummy in KV60 might be Hatshepsut.[31] Don Ryan working with Pacific Lutheran University and the Evergreen State College reopened KV60 in 1989, which had been resealed after it was discovered at the turn of the century.[32] The tomb had been damaged, but the mummies remained in site. This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Tomb KV60 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of 18th dynasty Pharaoh...


In March 2006, Zahi Hawass claimed to have located the mummy of Hatshepsut, which was mislaid on the third floor of the Cairo Museum.[33] In June 2007, it was announced that Egyptologists believed they had identified Hatshepsut's mummy in the Valley of the Kings; this discovery is considered to be the "most important find in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of King Tutankhamun".[2][34] Decisive evidence was a molar found in a wooden box that was inscribed with Hatshepsut's name, found in 1881 among a cache of royal mummies hidden away for safekeeping in a near-by temple. The tooth has been conclusively proven to have been removed from the mummy's mouth, fitting exactly an empty socket in the mummy's jawbone.[29] Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... King Tut redirects here. ...


Burial complex

Hatshepsut's Temple
Hatshepsut's Temple

Hatshepsut had begun construction of a tomb when she was the Great Royal Wife of Thutmose II, but the scale of this was not suitable when she became pharaoh, so a second tomb was built. This was KV20, which possibly was the first tomb to be constructed in the Valley of the Kings. The original intention seems to have been to hew a long tunnel that would lead underneath her mortuary temple, but the quality of the limestone bedrock was poor and her architect must have realized that this goal would not be possible. As a result, a large burial chamber was created instead. At some point, it was decided to dis-inter her father, Thutmose I, from his original tomb in KV38 and place his mummy in a new chamber below hers. Her original red-quartzite sarcophagus was altered to accommodate her father instead, and a new one was made for her. It is likely that when she died (no later than the twenty-second year of her reign), she was interred in this tomb along with her father.[35] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hatshepsut’s Temple Situated beneath the cliffs at Deir el Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, and designed by the architect Senemut, the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut is largely considered to be one of the “incomparable monuments of ancient... Tomb KV20 in Egypts Valley of the Kings was possibly the first tomb to be constructed in the valley. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Tomb KV38, located in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt was used for the burial of Thutmose I of the Eighteenth dynasty, and was where his body was removed to (from KV20), by Thutmose III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ...


The tomb was opened in antiquity, the first time during the reign of Hatshepsut's successor, Thutmose III, who re-interred his grandfather, Thutmose I, in his original tomb, and may have moved Hatshepsut's mummy into the tomb of her wet nurse, Sitre-Re, in KV60. Although her tomb largely had been cleared (save for both sarcophagi still present when the tomb was fully cleared by Howard Carter in 1903) some grave furnishings have been identified as belonging to Hatshepsut, including a "throne" (bedstead is a better description), a senet game board with carved lioness-headed, red-jasper game pieces bearing her pharaonic title, a signet ring, and a partial ushabti figurine bearing her name. In the Royal Mummy Cache at DB320 an ivory canopic coffer was found that was inscribed with the name of Hatshepsut and contained a mummified liver. However, there was a royal lady of the Twenty-first dynasty of the same name, and this could belong to her instead.[36] Tomb KV60 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of 18th dynasty Pharaoh... Plate LXXA shows detail on a ceremonial walking staff found buried with Tutankhamun; it depicts the two foes, or the Northern and Southern enemies of Egypt. ... Nefertari playing Senet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with shabti. ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ...


Changing recognition

Toward the end of the reign of Thutmose III, an attempt was made to remove Hatshepsut from certain historical and pharaonic records. This elimination was carried out in the most literal way possible. Her cartouches and images were chiselled off the stone walls—leaving very obvious Hatshepsut-shaped gaps in the artwork—and she was excluded from the official history that was rewritten without acknowledgment of any form of co-regency during the period between Thutmose II to Thutmose III. At the Deir el-Bahri temple, Hatshepsut's numerous statues were torn down and in many cases, smashed or disfigured before being buried in a pit. At Karnak there was even an attempt to wall up her obelisks. While it is clear that much of this rewriting of Hatshepsut's history occurred only during the close of Thutmose III's reign, it is not clear why it happened, other than the typical pattern of self-promotion that existed among the pharaohs and their administrators, or perhaps saving money by not building new monuments for the burial of Thutmose III and instead, using the grand structures built by Hatshepsut. Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ...


For many years, Egyptologists assumed that it was a damnatio memoriae, the deliberate erasure of a person's name, image, and memory, which would cause them to die a second, terrible and permanent death in the afterlife. This appeared to make sense when thinking that Thutmose might have been an unwilling co-regent for years. This assessment of the situation is probably too simplistic, however. It is highly unlikely that the determined and focused Thutmose—not only Egypt's most successful general, but an acclaimed athlete, author, historian, botanist, and architect—would have brooded for two decades before attempting to avenge himself on his stepmother. According to renowned Egyptologist Donald Redford: Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Here and there, in the dark recesses of a shrine or tomb where no plebeian eye could see, the queen's cartouche and figure were left intact ... which never vulgar eye would again behold, still conveyed for the king the warmth and awe of a divine presence.[37]
These two statues once resembled each other, however, the symbols of her pharaonic power: the Uraeus, Double Crown, and traditional false beard have been stripped from the left image. Many images portraying Hatshepsut as pharaoh were destroyed or vandalized within decades of her death
These two statues once resembled each other, however, the symbols of her pharaonic power: the Uraeus, Double Crown, and traditional false beard have been stripped from the left image. Many images portraying Hatshepsut as pharaoh were destroyed or vandalized within decades of her death

The erasures were sporadic and haphazard, with only the more visible and accessible images of Hatshepsut being removed; had it been more complete, we would not now have so many images of Hatshepsut. Thutmose III may have died before his changes were finished, or it may be that he never intended a total obliteration of her memory. In fact, we have no evidence to support the assumption that Thutmose hated or resented Hatshepsut during her lifetime. Had that been true, as head of the army, in a position given to him by Hatshepsut (who was clearly not worried about her co-regent's loyalty), he surely could have led a successful coup, but he made no attempt to challenge her authority during her reign and her accomplishments and images remained featured on all of the public buildings she built for twenty years after her death. Image File history File links Hatshepsut,_defaced. ... Image File history File links Hatshepsut,_defaced. ... Mask of Tutankhamuns mummy featuring a uraeus from the eighteenth dynasty when the cobra image of Wadjet from the original uraeus had been joined by the white vulture image of Nekhbet because of the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses, from the Greek... The Pschent was the name of the double crown in Ancient Egypt, combining the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. ...


It is possible that Thutmose III, lacking any sinister motivation, decided toward the end of his life, to relegate Hatshepsut to her expected place as queen regent--which was the traditional role of powerful women in Egypt's court as the example of Queen Ahhotep attests--rather than king. By eliminating the more obvious traces of Hatshepsut's monuments as pharaoh and reducing her status to that of his co-regent, Thutmose III could claim that the royal succession ran directly from Thutmose I to Thutmose III without any interference his aunt. Ahhotep II was a queen of Egypt during the early 18th Dynasty. ...


The deliberate erasures or mutilations of the numerous public celebrations of her accomplishments, but not the rarely seen ones, would be all that was necessary to obscure Hatshepsut's accomplishments. Moreover, by the latter half of Thutmose III's reign, the more prominent high officials who had served Hatshepsut would have died, thereby eliminating the powerful bureaucratic resistance to a change in direction in a highly stratified culture. Hatshepsut's highest official and closest supporter, Senenmut seems either to have retired abruptly or died around Years 16 and 20 of Hatshepsut's reign and, was never interred in either of his carefully prepared tombs.[38] The enigma of Senenmut's sudden disappearance "has teased Egyptologists for decades" given the lack of solid archaeological or textual evidence" and permitted "the vivid imagination of Senenmut-scholars to run wild" resulting in a variety of strongly held solutions "some of which would do credit to any fictional murder/mystery plot."[39] Newer court officials, appointed by Thutmose III, also would have had an interest in promoting the many achievements of their master in order to assure the continued success of their own families.


A more recent hypothesis about Hatshepsut suggests that Thutmose III's erasures and defacement of Hatshepsut's monuments were a cold but rational attempt on Thutmose's part to extinguish the memory of an "unconventional female king whose reign might possibly be interpreted by future generations as a grave offence against Ma'at, and whose unorthodox coregency" could "cast serious doubt upon the legitimacy of his own right to rule. Hatshepsut's crime need not be nothing more than the fact that she was a woman."[40] Thutmose III may have considered the possibility that the example of a successful female king in Egyptian history could set a dangerous precedent since it demonstrated that a woman was as capable at governing Egypt as a traditional male king. This event could, theoretically, persuade "future generations of potentially strong female kings" to not "remain content with their traditional lot as wife, sister and eventual mother of a king" instead and assume the crown.[41] While Queen Sobekneferu of Egypt's Middle Kingdom had enjoyed a short c.4 year reign, she ruled "at the very end of a fading [12th dynasty] Dynasty, and from the very start of her reign the odds had been stacked against her. She was therefore acceptable to conservative Egyptians as a patriotic 'Warrior Queen' who had failed" to rejuvenate Egypt's fortunes--a result which underlined the traditional Egyptian view that a woman was incapable of holding the throne in her own right.[42] Hence, few Egyptians would desire to repeat the experiment of a female monarch. For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian...


In contrast, Hatshepsut's glorious reign was a completely different case: she demonstrated that women were as equally capable as men in ruling the two lands since she successfully presided over a prosperous Egypt for more than two decades.[43] If Thutmose III's intent here was to forestall the possibility of a woman assuming the throne, it failed. Two female kings are known to have assumed the throne after Thutmose's reign during the New Kingdom: Neferneferuaten and Twosret. Unlike Hatshepsut, however, both rulers enjoyed brief and short-lived reign of only 2 and 1 years respectively. Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[1] Nomen Neferneferuaten Perfect One of the Atens Perfection Consort(s) Smenkhkare? Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


The erasure of Hatshepsut's name, whatever the reason, almost caused her to disappear from Egypt's archaeological and written records. And, when nineteenth-century Egyptologists started to interpret the texts on the Deir el-Bahri temple walls (which were illustrated with two seemingly male kings) their translations made no sense. Jean-Francois Champollion, the French decoder of hieroglyphs, was not alone in feeling confused by the obvious conflict between words and pictures: Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Jean-Fran ois Champollion For the comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... Hieroglyphics redirects here. ...

Hieroglyphs showing Thutmose III on the left and Hatshepsut on the right, she having the trapings of the greater role
Hieroglyphs showing Thutmose III on the left and Hatshepsut on the right, she having the trapings of the greater role
If I felt somewhat surprised at seeing here, as elsewhere throughout the temple, the renowned Moeris [Thutmose III], adorned with all the insignia of royalty, giving place to this Amenenthe [Hatshepsut], for whose name we may search the royal lists in vain, still more astonished was I to find upon reading the inscriptions that wherever they referred to this bearded king in the usual dress of the Pharaohs, nouns and verbs were in the feminine, as though a queen were in question. I found the same peculiarity everywhere...

The 2006 discovery of a foundation deposit including nine golden cartouches bearing the names of both Hatshepsut and Thutmose III in Karnak may shed additional light on the eventual attempt by Thutmose III to erase Hatshepsut from the historical record and the correct nature of their relationship and her role as pharaoh.[44] Image File history File links Thutmose_III_and_Hatshepsut. ... Image File history File links Thutmose_III_and_Hatshepsut. ... Foundation deposits are ritual mudbrick lined pits or holes dug at specific points under Ancient Egyptian temples or tombs, which were filled with ceremonial objects, usually amulets, scarabs, food, or ritual miniature tools, and were supposed to prevent the building from falling into ruin. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ...


Records of her reign, documented in diverse ancient sources, failed to generate much research about this pharaoh by early modern Egyptologists and Hatshepsut went from being one of the most obscure leaders of Egypt at the beginning of the twentieth century—to one of its most famous, by the century's end. Archaeological discoveries of the early twentieth century provided information that had been missing from those records and, technical advances later in the century enabled better identifications to make contemporary historical records more complete.


Popular and fictional attention

As the Feminist movement matured, prominent women from antiquity were sought out and their achievements increasingly publicized. Biographies such as Hatshepsut by Evelyn Wells romanticized her as a beautiful and pacifistic woman—"the first great woman in History." This was quite a contrast to the nineteenth-century interpretations of Hatshepsut as a wicked stepmother usurping the throne from Thutmose III. The novel Mara, Daughter of the Nile by Eloise Jarvis McGraw, maintains the wicked stepmother view by casting Hatshepsut as the story's villainess. The plot revolves around the efforts of the slave girl Mara and various nobles to overthrow Hatshepsut and install the "rightful" heir, Thutmose III, as Pharaoh. They blame Hatshepsut's numerous building projects for the bankruptcy of the Egyptian state and she is depicted as keeping Thutmose III as a prisoner within the palace walls. At least four authors have written fictional novels featuring Hatshepsut as the historical heroine: Hatshepsut: Daughter of Amun by Moyra Caldecott, King and Goddess, by Judith Tarr, Child of the Morning by Pauline Gedge, and Pharaoh by Eloise Jarvis McGraw, as well as the Lieutenant Bak series of mystery novels which is set during her reign. Feminists redirects here. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Eloise Jarvis McGraw (December 9, 1915 - November 30, 2000) was an author of childrens books. ... Hatshepsut: Daughter of Amun is a novel written by Moyra Caldecott in 1989. ... Moyra Caldecott (June 1, 1927) is a British author of historical fiction, fantasy, science fiction and non-fiction. ... Judith Tarr, (1955 - ) has a B.A. in Latin and English from Mount Holyoke College, an M.A. in Classics from Cambridge University, and an M.A. and Ph. ... Pauline Gedge (born 1945) is an award-winning and best-selling Canadian novelist who lives in Edgerton, Alberta. ... Eloise Jarvis McGraw (1915 - November 30, 2000) was an author of childrens books. ...


There is a popular theory that before her father's death, Hatshepsut was the princess who found Moses floating in the Nile, which has been largely debated by Egyptologists, Muslim and Biblical scholars.[45] She is depicted in this role in Orson Scott Card's historical novel Stone Tables. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


Hatshepsut appears as the leader for Egypt in Civilization IV. Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ...


See also

The Hatshepsut problem was a major issue in late 19th century and early 20th century Egyptology, centering on confusion and disagreement on the order of succession of early 18th dynasty pharaohs. ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ... ... Hatshepsut’s Temple Situated beneath the cliffs at Deir el Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, and designed by the architect Senemut, the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut is largely considered to be one of the “incomparable monuments of ancient... Djeser-Djeseru The Luxor Massacre took place on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahri, an archaelogical site located across the River Nile from Luxor in Egypt. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Queen Hatshepsut accessed August 1, 2006
  2. ^ a b c d e f Wilford, John Noble. "Tooth May Have Solved Mummy Mystery", New York Times, 2007-06-27. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. 
  3. ^ Hatshepsut. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  4. ^ Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.104
  5. ^ Dodson, Aidan. Dyan, Hilton. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt Thames & Hudson, 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3. p.130
  6. ^ Christensen, Martin K.I. (2007-07-25). Women in Power: BCE 4500-1000. Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  7. ^ "Tooth solves Hatshepsut mummy mystery", The Guardian, 2007-06-27. Retrieved on 2007-11-09. 
  8. ^ "Tooth May Have Solved Mummy Mystery", New York Times, 2007-06-27. Retrieved on 2007-11-09. 
  9. ^ "The Search for Hatshepsut and the Discovery of Her Mummy by Dr. Zahi Hawass, June 2007". 
  10. ^ Extract from the biography of Ineni, translated by J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt; historical documents, vol. 2, Chicago: 1906, p.341
  11. ^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, Thames & Hudson. 2006, p.98
  12. ^ Tyldesley, op. cit., p.98
  13. ^ Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East p.53. University of Chicago, 1942
  14. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt pp. 204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  15. ^ Gabolde, Luc (1987).La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois SAK 14: 61–87.
  16. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p.204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  17. ^ Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, 1998 paperback, pp.137-144
  18. ^ The Unfinished Obelisk by Peter Tyson March 16, 1999 NOVA online adventure
  19. ^ Back in the limelight by Nevine El-Aref, Al-Ahram Weekly.
  20. ^ Callender/Shaw p.170.
  21. ^ Breasted, James Henry, Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, The University of Chicago Press, 1906, pp. 116-117.
  22. ^ Hatshepsut, Female Pharaoh of Egypt by Caroline Seawright.
  23. ^ Will Cuppy, The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody; Barnes & Noble Books, New York, reprint 1992.
  24. ^ Tyldesley pp. 210.
  25. ^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2006. p.106
  26. ^ James P. Allen, 'The Military Campaign of Thutmose III' in "Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh," ed: Catherine Roehrig, The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, Yale Univ. Press, 2005. p.261 Allen writes here that the Armant stela is considered by scholars to mark the occasion of Thutmose III's sole reign since he uses the epithet "Thutmose, Ruler of Maat" twice on this document for the first time in his reign. This means he was asserting his own claim to the administration of Egypt subsequent to that of Hatshepsut who had likely died
  27. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Mainz, Philipp von Zabern. 1997. p.189
  28. ^ a b Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen Reuters June 27, 2007.
  29. ^ Tooth May Have Solved Mummy Mystery New York Times June 26, 2007
  30. ^ Tyldesley pp. 213-214.
  31. ^ The Search for Hatshepsut and the Discovery of her Mummy. Zahi Hawass (June 2007).
  32. ^ Hatshepsut Mummy Found Accessed August 20, 2006
  33. ^ Egyptologists think they have Hatshepsut's mummy. Reuters June 25, 2007.
  34. ^ Dennis C. Forbes, Maatkare Hatshepset: The Female Pharaoh, KMT, Fall 2005, pp.26-42.
  35. ^ Bickerstaffe, Dylan The Discovery of Hatshepsut's 'Throne', KMT, Spring 2002, pp.71-77
  36. ^ Redford, p. 87.
  37. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, op. cit., p.206
  38. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, Hatshepsut, op. cit., p.207 Tyldesley notes on page 252 that a detailed discussion of Senenmut's disappearance and a useful list of other publications on this topic is given in A.R. Schulman's 1969-1970 paper "Some Remarks on the Alleged 'Fall' of Senmut," JARCE 8, pp.29-48
  39. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, op. cit., p.225
  40. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, op. cit., pp.225-226
  41. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, op. cit., p.226
  42. ^ Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, op. cit., p.226
  43. ^ Mensan, Romain (Spring 2007). "Tuthmosid foundation deposits at Karnak". Egyptian Archaeology 30: 21. 
  44. ^ Harbin, p.122.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the military rank of Maat. ... Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Donald B. Redford, History and Chronology of the 18th dynasty of Egypt: Seven studies, Toronto: University Press, 1967
  • Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, 2000, 512 pages, ISBN 0-19-280293-3
  • Gae Callender The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (Chapter 7)
  • Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, 1998, paperback, 270 pages, ISBN 0-14-024464-6
  • Evelyn Wells, Hatshepsut, Double Day, 1969, hardback, 211 pages, Library of Congress catalog card # 69-10980
  • Harbin, Michael, The Promise and the Blessing, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, 2005
  • Judith Tarr, King and Goddess, Tor Books, 1996, hardback, 384 pages, ISBN 0-31-286092-9
  • Fakhry, Ahmed, A new speos from the reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmosis III at Beni-Hasan, In: Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte, Issue 39 (1939), S. 709 – 723
  • Gardiner, Alan Henderson, Davies’s copy of the great Speos Artemidos inscription, In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Issue 32 (1946), S. 43 – 56
  • Fairman, H. W.; Grdseloff, B., Texts of Hatshepsut and Sethos I inside Speos Artemidos, In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Issue 33 (1947), S. 12 – 33

Joyce Ann Tyldesely is a British archaeologist, academic, and free lance writer. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Judith Tarr, (1955 - ) has a B.A. in Latin and English from Mount Holyoke College, an M.A. in Classics from Cambridge University, and an M.A. and Ph. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Narmer was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Serket, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first pharaoh of all Egypt. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the Pharaoh. ... Image File history File links Ankh. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Sneferu He of Beauty[1] Horus name Neb-maat[2] Nebty name Neb-maat-nebty[2] Golden Horus Bik-nub[2] Consort(s) Hetepheres I Issues Khufu Father Huni Mother Meresankh I Died 2589 BC Major Monuments Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek... Khufu Protected by Khnum[1] Horus name Medjedu Nebty name Nebty-r-medjed Golden Horus Bikwy-nub Consort(s) Meritates, Henutsen, plus two other queens whose names are not known[2] Issue Djedefra, Kawab, Khafre, Djedefhor, Banefre, Khufukaef, Hetepheres II, Meresankh II, Khamerernebty[2] Father Sneferu Mother Hetepheres I Died... The Pyramid of Khafra and the Great Sphinx of Giza Portrait of Khafra, originally found at Mit Rahina, now residing in the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo. ... Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... nomen or birth name Pepi II (c. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... nomen or birth name Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV was the last king of the 11th Dynasty. ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[2] Wer-Ah-Amun... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Hedjkheperre Setepenre Nomen Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered... Wahibre Nomen Psamtik Horus name Aaib Nebty name Neba Golden Horus Qenu Issues Nitocris I Died 610 BC Burial Sais Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre... nomen or birth name Ankhkaenre Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, 526 BC–525 BC. He was defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia at Pelusium, carried to Susa in chains, and executed. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tiye. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... Weni the Elder was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Senemut was an 18th dynasty Ancient Egyptian architect and government official. ... Rekhmire was an 18th dynasty official, serving as Governor of the Town (Thebes) and Vizier during the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II. He is noted for constructing a lavishly decorated tomb for himself in the Valley of the Nobles, containing lively, well preserved scenes of daily life during... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (Egyptian official). ... Yuny was an official through the reign of Ramesses II, in the 19th Dynasty, serving as chief scribe of the court, the overseer of priests, and royal steward. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hatshepsut - Crystalinks (3275 words)
Hatshepsut was the eldest daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, the first king and queen of the Thutmosid clan of the 18th Dynasty.
Hatshepsut was an excellent propagandist, and while all ancient leaders used propaganda to legitimatize their rule, she is one of the most known for it.
Hatshepsut is considered as one of the greatest female rulers in her era.
Images of Queen Hatshepsut (189 words)
Daughter of of King Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, Hatshepsut became Queen when her husband and half-brother Thutmose II succeeded his father.
Thutmose and Hatshepsut had a daughter together.  Thutmose II declared this son (Thutmose III) his successor before he died in his early thirties.
Hatshepsut was one of the first women rulers in history and one of only a handful of female egyptian kings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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