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Encyclopedia > Hatra

Coordinates: 35°34′0″N, 42°42′0″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Hatra*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Ruins of Hatra
State Party Flag of Iraq Iraq
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 277
Region Arab States
Inscription history
Inscription 1985  (9th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Hatra (Arabic: الحضرal-Ḥaḍr) is an ancient ruined city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq. It is today called al-Hadr, and it stands in the ancient Persian province of Khvarvaran. The city lies 290 km (180 miles) northwest of Baghdad and 110 km (68 miles) southwest of Mosul. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Temple ruins at Hattra, Iraq circa 1988. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Arabic redirects here. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa, in Assyrian: Nineveh) is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Al-Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


Hatra was founded as an Assyrian city by the Seleucid Empire[1] some time in the 3rd century BCE. A religious and trading centre of the Parthian empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE.[2] Later on, the city became the capital of possibly the first Arab Kingdom in the chain of Arab cities running from Hatra, in the northeast, via Palmyra, Baalbek and Petra, in the southwest. The region controlled from Hatra was the Kingdom of Araba, a semi-autonomous buffer kingdom on the western limits of the Parthian Empire, governed by Arabian princes. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


Hatra became an important fortified frontier city and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire, and played an important role in the Second Parthian War. It repulsed the sieges of both Trajan (116/117) and Septimius Severus (198/199). Hatra defeated the Persians at the battle of Shahrazoor in 238, but fell to the Sassanid Empire of Shapur I in 241 and was razed to the ground. The traditional stories of the fall of Hatra tell of an-Nadira, daughter of the King of Araba, who betrayed the city into the hands of Shapur. The story tells of how Shapur killed the king and married an-Nadira, but later had her killed also.[2] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ...


The city was famed for its fusion of Greek, Mesopotamian, Syrian and Arabian pantheons, known in Aramaic as Beiṯ Ĕlāhā ("House of God"). The city had temples to Nergal (Sumerian and Akkadian), Hermes (Greek), Atargatis (Syro-Aramaean), Allat and Shamiyyah (Arabian) and Shamash (the Mesopotamian sun god).[2] Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Allāt (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ilāhat the Goddess) was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ...

The Exorcist is an Academy Award-winning 1973 American horror film, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, dealing with the demonic possession of a young girl, and her mother’s desperate attempts to win back her daughter through an exorcism conducted by two... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

See also

In 1912, W. Andrae published some inscriptions from the site of Hatra, which were studied by S. Ronzevalle and P. Jensen. ...

References

  1. ^ Rawlinson, George; The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 1[1]
  2. ^ a b c Hatra (Encyclopædia Britannica). Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  • Lucinda Dirven, "Aspects of Hatrene religion: A note on the statues of kings and nobles from Hatra," in The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. Ed. by T. Kaizer (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World, 164).

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hatra_txt (755 words)
Hatra, is an ancient city lying at three kms to the west of Wadi Al-Tharthar, and 105 kms to the south west of Mosul.
Many of Hatra´s monuments such as places, temples and enclosure walls are constructed in limestone and gypsum, and there iss no other ancient city in Iraq built to this extent in limestone.
The inscriptions in Hatra are in the same alphabet used by Arabs in Palmyra and other Arab cities: it is the Aramaic which spread in most regions of the ancient East.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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