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Encyclopedia > Hassler Whitney

Hassler Whitney (23 March 190710 May 1989) was an American mathematician who was one of the founders of singularity theory, PhB, Yale University, 1928; MusB, 1929; ScD (Honorary), 1947; PhD, Harvard University, under G.D. Birkhoff, 1932. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A mathematician is a person whose area of study and research is mathematics. ... For non-mathematical singularity theories, see singularity. ... This article is about the institution of higher learning in the United States. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... George David Birkhoff (21 March 1884 - 12 November 1944) was an American mathematician, and one of the most important leaders in mathematics in the USA in his generation. ...


Instructor, Mathamatics, Harvard University, 1930-31, 1933-35; NRC Fellow, Mathematics, 1931-33; Assistant Professor, 1935-40; Associate Professor, 1940-46, Professor, 1946-52; Professor Instructor, Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton University, 1952-77; Professor Emeritus, 1977-89; Chairman of the Mathematics Panel, National Science Foundation, 1953-56; Exchange Professor, College de France, 1957; Memorial Committee, Support of Research in Mathematical Scienes, National Research Council, 1966-67; President, International Commission of Mathematical Instruction, 1979-82; Research Mathematicians, National Defense Research Committee, 1943-45; Construction of the School of Mathematics. Recipient, National Medal of Science, 1976, Wolf Prize, Wolf Foundation, 1983; and a Steele Prize in 1985. The Wolf Prize has been awarded annually since 1978 to living scientists and artists for achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among peoples, irrespective of nationality, race, colour, religion, sex or political views. The prize is awarded in Israel by the Wolf Foundation, founded by Dr. Ricardo... The Leroy P. Steele Prizes are awarded every year by the American Mathematical Society, for distinguished research work and writing in the field of mathematics. ...


Member, National Academy of Science; Colloquium Lecturer, American Mathematical Society, 1946; Vice President, 1948-50 and Editor, American Journal of Mathematics, 1944-49; Editor, Mathematical Revs., 1949-54; Chairman of the Committee vis. lectureship, 1946-51; Committee Summer Instructor, 1953-54; Steele Prize 1985), Mathematical Association; American National Council Teachers of Mathematics, Swiss Mathematics Society (Honorary), Académie des Sciences, (Foreign Associate); New York Academy of Sciences. The Leroy P. Steele Prizes are awarded every year by the American Mathematical Society, for distinguished research work and writing in the field of mathematics. ...


Club: American Alpine (New York City).


In 1935 Whitney proved that any differential manifold of dimension n may be embedded in R2n, and immersed in R2n-1. This basic result shows that manifolds may be treated intrinsically or extrinsically, as we wish. The intrinsic definition had only been published a few years earlier in the work of Oswald Veblen and J.H.C. Whitehead. These theorems opened the way for much more refined studies: of embedding, immersion and also of smoothing, that is, the possibility of having various smooth structures on a given topological manifold. The argument of Whitney is necessarily of general position type. In mathematics, a manifold M is a type of space, characterised in one of two equivalent ways: near every point of the space, we have a coordinate system; or near every point, the environment is like that in Euclidean space of a given dimension. ... In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical object contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. ... In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical object contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. ... Oswald Veblen (24 June 1880 - 10 August 1960) was an American mathematician. ... John Henry Constantine Whitehead (11 November 1904- 8 May 1960), known as Henry, was a British mathematician who was one of the founders of homotopy theory. ... In geometry, general position for a set of points, or other configuration, means the general case situation, as opposed to some more special or coincidental cases that are possible. ...


A few years later, Whitney wrote the foundational paper on matroids. This is apparently a chapter of combinatorics; it has in recent years been seen increasingly as related to the fine structure of Grassmannians. In fact the idea of stratification, used for that application and many others, was also introduced by Whitney, in a precise form (his conditions A and B). In combinatorial mathematics, a matroid is a structure that captures the essence of a notion of independence that generalizes linear independence in vector spaces. ... Combinatorics is a branch of mathematics that studies finite collections of objects that satisfy specified criteria. ... In mathematics, a Grassmannian is the space of all k-dimensional subspaces of an n-dimensional vector space V, often denoted Gk(V) or simply Gk,n. ... In mathematical logic, stratification is any consistent assignment of numbers to predicate symbols guaranteeing that a unique formal interpretation of a logical theory exists. ...


The singularities in low dimension of smooth mappings, later to come to prominence in the work of Thom, were also first studied by Whitney. René Thom (September 2, 1923 - October 25, 2002) was a French mathematician and founder of the catastrophe theory. ...


His book Geometric Integration Theory gives a theoretical basis for Stokes' theorem applied with singularities on the boundary. The Stokes theorem in differential geometry is a statement about the integration of differential forms which generalizes several theorems from vector calculus. ...


These aspects of Whitney’s work have looked more unified, in retrospect and with the general development of singularity theory in its aspect of the failure of smoothness. Whitney’s purely topological work (Stiefel-Whitney class, basic results on vector bundles) entered the mainstream more quickly. Stiefel-Whitney classes arise in mathematics as a type of characteristic class associated to real vector bundles . ... In mathematics, a vector bundle is a geometrical construct where to every point of a topological space (or manifold, or algebraic variety) we attach a vector space in a compatible way, so that all those vector spaces, glued together, form another topological space (or manifold or variety). ...


WHITNEY-NEWCOMB-BALDWIN


Hassler Whitney was the son of New York Supreme Court Justice Edward Baldwin Whitney and Josepha (Newcomb) Whitney, and the grandson of Yale University Professor of Ancient Languages William Dwight Whitney and Connecticut Governor and US Senator Roger Sherman Baldwin, and the great-great-grandson of American founding father Roger Sherman. William Dwight Whitney (1827-1894) was an American linguist, philologist, and lexicographer who edited The Century Dictionary. ... Roger Sherman Baldwin (January 4, 1793–February 19, 1863) was an American lawyer involved in the Amistad case, who later became governor of Connecticut. ... Roger Sherman (April 19 (O.S.) = April 30 (N.S.), 1721 - July 23, 1793), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a member of the committee which drafted it, a member of the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation, and signed the United States Constitution...


Hassler Whitney's maternal grandparents were professor & astronomer Simon Newcomb and Mary Hassler Newcomb (the granddaughter of the first superintendent of the Coast Survey - Ferdinand Hassler). Simon Newcomb. ...


Married Margaret R. Howell, May 30, 1930; children: James Newcomb, Carol, Marian; married Mary Barnett Garfield, January 16, 1955; children: Sarah Newcomb, Emily Baldwin; and married Barbara Floyd Osterman, February 8, 1986.


See also

Hassler Whitney Page - Whitney Research Group - http://www.whitneygen.org/archives/biography/hassler.html


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Whitney - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (339 words)
Whitney Willard Straight a Grand Prix motor racing driver, aviator, businessman, and a member of the prominent Whitney family of the United States.
Josiah Whitney a professor of geology at Harvard University (from 1865), and was chief of the California Geological Survey (1860-1874).
Whitney Research Group - an informal group of individuals interested in the scholarly research of Whitney families throughout history.
Hassler Whitney - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (497 words)
Hassler Whitney (23 March 1907 10 May 1989) was an American mathematician who was one of the founders of singularity theory, PhB, Yale University, 1928; MusB, 1929; ScD (Honorary), 1947; PhD, Harvard University, under G.D. Birkhoff, 1932.
The argument of Whitney is necessarily of general position type.
Hassler Whitney's maternal grandparents were professor and astronomer Simon Newcomb and Mary Hassler Newcomb (the granddaughter of the first superintendent of the Coast Survey - Ferdinand Hassler).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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