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Encyclopedia > Hassan Pakravan

Hassan Pakravan was an Iranian General and the second director of SAVAK, serving from 1961 to 1965. Pakravan was known for being more compassionate than any of SAVAK's other directors. However, Muhammad Reza Shah replaced Pakravan with his childhood friend Nematollah Nassiri in 1965, furious that Pakravan had failed to curb the power of the Islamic fundamentalists. Nassiri rapidly made SAVAK one of the most hated aspects of the Shah's rule, as over 4,000 Iranians were murdered during the period of his appointment. Pakravan was named Minister of Information, then Ambassador, first to Pakistan and then France. He returned to Iran in 1976 he was brought out of retirement in 1978 by the Shah in a last-ditch effort to curb corruption at the Royal Court. SAVAK (Persian: ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات Ùˆ امنیت کشور Sazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvar, Organization for Intelligence and National Security) was the domestic security and intelligence service of Iran from 1957–1979. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... General Nematollah Nassiri was the director of SAVAK, the Iranian intelligence agency during the rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ...


After the Iranian Revolution, Pakravan, Nassiri, and the fourth and last SAVAK chief, Nasser Moghadam, were among the first of the Shah's officials to be executed. It is worthy to note that all of SAVAK's chiefs were murdered; Teymur Bakhtiar was assassinated by SAVAK itself on the Shah's orders. It is well-documented fact (confirmed by many Iranian officials, including the late Shah, in his memoirs) that Pakravan was a key in convincing the Shah to commute a death sentence passed on Khomeini in 1963 for his role in the 1963 riots into exile. Khomeini was first sent to Turkey, and then to Iraq, where he stayed until his expulsion to France in 1978. General Nasser Moghadam was the fourth and last director of SAVAK. He succeeded General Nematollah Nassiri, who was arrested as a scapegoat by the Shah in 1978 in an attempt to stave off the impending revolution. ... Teymur Bakhtiar (تیمور بختیار in Persian) (1914–1970) was an Iranian general and the founder and head of SAVAK from 1958 to 1961, when he was dismissed by the Shah. ...


Pakravan was a close friend of Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda. Both were fluent in French and enjoyed reading French literature. Amir Abbas Hoveida (in Persian: امیر عباس هویدا; February 18, 1919–April 7, 1979), also spelled Hoveyda, was a significant Iranian politician. ...


External links

  • Harvard Iranian Oral History Project]: transcript of interview with Fatemeh Pakravan conducted by Dr. Habib Ladjevardi 3 March 1983]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hassan Pakravan (951 words)
Hassan Pakravan (August 4, 1911 - April 11, 1979) was a well known diplomat and minister in the Pahlavi pre-revolutionary government of Iran.
Hassan Pakravan, son of Fathollah and Emineh, was born in Tehran on August 4th, 1911 (13 Mordad 1290).
Pakravan's supporters noted his aristocratic and impeccable character as well as his intelligence and moral courage to be a source of consolation at the difficult times of 1978-79 when the Iranian Revolution took control of the opposition and eventually seized power.
Holy Crime, crime of clergy, clergical crime, Ecclesiastical crime, spiritual,purity, innocent, Iran, Iranian, Persia, ... (930 words)
Hassan Pakravan, a man of dignity, compatriot, author, philosopher, Army officer, ambassador to Pakistan and France.
Late General Hassan Pakravan, Hassan Pakravan, son of Fathollah and Emineh, was born in Tehran on 4 August 1911 (13 Mordad 1290).
Pakravan was known for being a compassionate director of SAVAK.
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