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Encyclopedia > Hashomer Hatzair
The Semel Tnua, the official logo of Hashomer Hatzair. The inscription, in Hebrew, reads "Chazak Ve'ematz", best translated as "Be Strong and Brave".
The Semel Tnua, the official logo of Hashomer Hatzair. The inscription, in Hebrew, reads "Chazak Ve'ematz", best translated as "Be Strong and Brave".
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Hashomer Hatzair (Hebrew: השומר הצעיר, also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Youth Guard) is a Socialist-Zionist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia (now part of Poland) and was also the name of the group's political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British Mandate of Palestine. Image File history File links Semeltnua. ... Image File history File links Semeltnua. ... Image File history File links Scout_logo2. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... A Youth organization is a formal organization aimed at children and adolescents for education and socialization. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...

Contents

Early formation

Hashomer Hatzair came into being as a result of the merger of two groups, Hashomer ("The Guard") a Zionist scouting group, and Ze'irei Zion ("The Youth of Zion") which was an ideological circle that studied Zionism, left wing socialism and Jewish history. Hashomer Hatzair is the oldest Zionist youth movement still in existence. Initially Marxist-Zionist, the movement was influenced by the ideas of Ber Borochov and Gustav Wyneken as well as Baden-Powell and the German Wandervogel movement. Hashomer Hatzair believed that the liberation of Jewish youth could be accomplished by aliya ("emigration") to Palestine and living in kibbutzim. After the war the movement spread to Jewish communities throughout the world as a scouting movement. Hashomer - (Hebrew) (The Guard) - Jewish defense organization in Palestine organized 1909, ceased to operate after founding of the Haganah in 1920. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Ber Borochov, c. ... Gustav Wyneken (March 19, 1875–December 8, 1964). ... For the musician, see Baden Powell de Aquino. ... Wandervogel emblem Wandervogel is the name adopted by a popular movement of German youth groups from 1896 onward. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Aliyah is a Hebrew term, literally meaning ascent, widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Russia in 1882, are known as aliyot (the plural of aliyah). ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ‎; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...


Members of the movement first settled in the British Mandate of Palestine in 1919. In 1927 the four kibbutzim founded by Hashomer Hatzair banded together to form the Kibbutz Artzi federation. The movement also formed a political party under the name Hashomer Hartzair which advocated a Binational solution in Palestine with equality between Arabs and Jews. Accordingly, Hashomer Hatzair voted against the Biltmore Program in 1942. Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Binational solution is a term most often used in reference to a proposed resolution of the long-running Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The Biltmore Conference was held in the New York Biltmore Hotel May 6 to May 11, 1942. ...


In 1936, Hashomer Hatzair launched a political party, the Socialist League of Palestine, to represent members and supporters of Hashomer Hatzair kibbutzim and the youth movement in the political organizations of the Yishuv (as the Jewish community in the British Mandate of Palestine was known). The Socialist League soon became known simply as Hashomer Hatzair and was the only Zionist political party to accept Arab members as equals, support Arab rights and call for a binational state in Palestine. In the 1930s, Hashomer Hatzair (along with Mapai) was affiliated to the left-wing socialist international, the International Revolutionary Marxist Centre (rather than the more mainstream Labour and Socialist International). Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Binational solution is a term most often used in reference to a proposed resolution of the long-running Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ... The International Revolutionary Marxist Centre was an international association of left-socialist parties. ... The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic parties. ...


Growth and the Holocaust

By 1939 Hashomer Hatzair had 70,000 members worldwide. The movement's base was in Eastern Europe. With the advent of World War II and the Holocaust members of Hashomer Hatzair changed their focus from settlement in Palestine to resistance against the Nazis. Mordechaj Anielewicz, the leader of Hashomer Hatzair's Warsaw branch, became head of the Jewish Fighting Organization and one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Other members of the movement were involved in Jewish resistance and rescue in Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia. The leaders of Hashomer Hatzair in Romania were arrested and executed for anti-fascist activities. Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations[1] (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is becoming very long. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Mordechai Anielewicz Mordechai Anielewicz (1919 – May 8, 1943) was the commander of the Å»ydowska Organizacja Bojowa (English: Jewish Fighting Organization), also known as Å»OB, during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Powiat (County) Gmina (Commune) Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz Area  - City 516. ... The Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB, Polish for the Jewish Fighting Organization) - a World War II resistance movement, which supposedly was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (ZZW fighters from second Jewish resistance organisation claim otherwise). ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Order Police, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechai Anielewicz†, Dawid Apfelbaum†, PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel†, Icchak Cukierman, Marek Edelman, Zivia Lubetkin, Henryk IwaÅ„ski Strength Official... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


After the war, the movement was involved in organising illegal immigration of Jewish refugees to Palestine. Members were also involved in the Haganah military movement as well as in the leadership of the Palmach. Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ההגנה) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Palmach (Hebrew: פלמח, an acronym for Plugot Mahatz (Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ), Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Hashomer Hatzair Today

the shirt of Hashomer Hatzair
the shirt of Hashomer Hatzair

Today, Hashomer Hatzair remains as a youth movement operating internationally. In Europe, Latin America and Australia, Hashomer Hatzair organizes regular activities and camps (machanot) for the youth. Activities are still relatively ideological, but have over time been adapted to the needs of modern communities, vastly different from those context in which Hashomer Hatzair was created. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1915x1209, 474 KB) the shirt of the Hashomer Hatzair File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hashomer Hatzair Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1915x1209, 474 KB) the shirt of the Hashomer Hatzair File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hashomer Hatzair Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the...


The movement has 7000 members worldwide (excluding Israel) running weekly youth activities and camps in Germany, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina. Uruguay, Chile, France, Belgium. Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands, Hungary, Bulgaria, Belarus, Ukraine and Australia.


Famous alumni include Arik Einstein, Tony Cliff, Ernest Mandel, Mordecai Anielewicz, Abraham Leon, Benny Morris, Eliane Karp, Leopold Trepper, Amnon Linn, Abba Hushi, Sam Spiegel, Irv Weinstein, Manès Sperber, José Gurvich and even Isser Harel and Menachem Begin who were briefly members before joining Mapai and the right wing Betar respectively, as well as Kerem B'Yavneh's Rabbi Avraham Rivlin. Noam Chomsky sympathized with and worked with the group, although he was never a member, and his views are generally considered beyond the pale of acceptance by the movement. Arik Einstein (January 3, 1939-) is an Israeli singer. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Mordechaj Anielewicz Mordechaj Anielewicz (1919,1920?-1943) was the commander of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (English: Jewish Fighting Organization, also known as ŻOB) during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Abraham Leon (1918- 1944) (born Abraham Wejnstok), was a Jewish Trotskyist activist and theorist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eliane Karp and her husband Alejandro Toledo, May 10, 2003 Eliane Karp, born in Paris, France, in 1955, to Jewish parents. ... Leopold Trepper (February 23, 1904-1982) was an organizer of the Soviet spy ring Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) prior to and during World War II. Leopold Trepper was born to a Jewish family on February 23, 1904, in Nowy Targ, Poland (part of Austria-Hungary in that time). ... Amnon Linn was born in 30th March 1924 in Haifa. ... Abba Hushi was born in 1898 in Turkah (today in the Ukraine) as Abba Shneler to a Jewish family. ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... Irv Weinstein is a retired local television news anchor. ... Manès Sperber (* December 12, 1905 in ZabÅ‚otów near Kolomea, Austrian Galicia (today Zabolotiv, Ukraine); † February 05, 1984 in Paris) was an austrian-french novelist, essayist and psychologist. ... Isser Harel (1912 — 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952 - 1963). ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ... The Betar Movement (ביתר, also spelled Beitar) is a youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky. ... Kerem BeYavneh Yeshiva is a major Yeshiva in Israel near the city of Yavne and adjacent to the Kibbutz Kvutzat Yavne. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ...


With the merger of the United Kibbutz Movement and Kibbutz Artzi, the likelihood of a merger between Hashomer Hatzair and UKM's youth movement, Habonim Dror has increased and the two youth movements, once rivals, have increasingly co-operated in various countries where they co-exist. Both movements even share an office in New York. However, the views of each movement on religion may be an obstacle to merger as Habonim Dror has a stronger identification with cultural Judaism as opposed to Hashomer Hatzair, which has been at times stridently secular and anti-religious - seeing itself as a leader of a legitimate expression of a secular steam of Judaism. The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל). Habonim Dror (Hebrew: הבונים דרור; Translation: The Freedom Builders (more popularly The Builders of Freedom) is a Socialist-Zionist youth movement formed by the merger in 1982 of the Habonim and Dror youth movements. ... NY redirects here. ... The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל). Habonim Dror (Hebrew: הבונים דרור; Translation: The Freedom Builders (more popularly The Builders of Freedom) is a Socialist-Zionist youth movement formed by the merger in 1982 of the Habonim and Dror youth movements. ... Cultural Judaism, although often confused with Secular Judaism, is a stream of Judaism that encourages individual thought and understanding in Judaism. ...


Australia

The movement in Australia is located in Melbourne and was established in 1954 as a break away from Habonim Dror. There was briefly a ken (branch) in Sydney during the 1960's, but it closed down due to lack of members. Many of the original bogrim (leaders) of Australian Hashomer Hatzair settled in Kibbutz Nirim. Its building in Melbourne is known as Beit Anielewicz and is currently being upgraded. It runs weekly meetings as well as biannual camps which take place in the Australian outback. Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל). Habonim Dror (Hebrew: הבונים דרור; Translation: The Freedom Builders (more popularly The Builders of Freedom) is a Socialist-Zionist youth movement formed by the merger in 1982 of the Habonim and Dror youth movements. ...


Currently there are close to one hundred members of 'Hashy' Australia. Meetings are held every Sunday from 3 - 5pm for Juniors and 6 - 8pm for Senior. During Year 10 (age: 15-16) chanichim undergo a 'hadrachah' (leadership) course. This course is run by current bogrim in the movement and teachers the the chanichim leadership skills which are used when they lead members of the Junior movement in Year 11. The current group going through hadrachah is Ga'ash while the current Year 11 madrichim (leaders) are from Nir-Oz.


Hashomer Hatzair Australia has a strong belief that chanichim should be active in the community, helping whenever they can. Members often go to rallies and run programs for less advantaged children.


In Hashomer Australia, every year level has its own kvutzah (group). These groups are named after Hashomer kibutzim in Israel. Current kvutzot include: Ga'ash, Sasa, Samar, Gazit, Nir-Oz, and Mishma HaEmeq.


As with most of kenim around the world, every year Hashy sends the chanichim who have just completed school on a 10-month Shnat program in Israel. The current group in Israel is Yassur. After returning from Shnat, bogrim have a two year commitment to the movement in which they lead the chanichim of the movement or take up various administrative roles including Merakez (head of the movement) Rosh Chinuch (head of education) and Gizbar (treasurer). The current bogrim are from the groups of Gazit, Baram and Yassur. Aaron Bloch and Ophelia Ehrlich are the Merak'zim of 2007.


USA and Canada

In the United States and Canada camps are organized which last through the school summer break. The two summer camps near Liberty, New York and Perth, Canada are both called Camp Shomria. Furthermore the movement runs activities in local cities on a regular basis throughout the year. Hashomer Hatzair runs educational activities promoting the peace process and withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza. Summer camp is a common destination for children and teenagers during the summer months in some countries. ... Liberty is a town located in Sullivan County, New York. ... NY redirects here. ... Perth is a town in eastern Ontario, Canada (pop. ... Camp Shomria is the name used by several Jewish summer camps associated with the Hashomer Hatzair Progressive Zionist youth movement in North America. ... The peace process describes efforts by interested parties to effect a lasting solution to long-running conflicts, such as in Northern Ireland (see Belfast Agreement) or the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ...


Through seminars, camps (winter/summer), worldwide programs and weekly activities in which youth lead youth, Hashomer Hatzair aims to create a just world through socialism, equality of people, and the betterment of Israel and the world.


As well Hashomer Hatzair has a program which sends shomrim to Israel for a 10 month program.


Hashomer Hatzair has collaborated with Habonim Dror and other left-wing Zionist groups to form the Union of Progressive Zionists campus network. The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל). Habonim Dror (Hebrew: הבונים דרור; Translation: The Freedom Builders (more popularly The Builders of Freedom) is a Socialist-Zionist youth movement formed by the merger in 1982 of the Habonim and Dror youth movements. ... The Union of Progressive Zionists (UPZ) is a North American network of Jewish student activists who have organized around principles of social justice and peace in Israel and Palestine. ...


Israel

After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Hashomer Hatzair political party merged with other left wing parties to form Mapam which became the political party of both the youth movement and the Kibbutz Artzi federation. In Israel it is was traditionally aligned with Mapam and later Meretz. It is not officially aligned with Meretz's successor party, Meretz-Yachad, due to a recent merger of its parent organization, the Meretz-aligned Kibbutz Artzi Federation with the Labour Party's United Kibbutz Movement, Hashomer Hatzair is officially not aligned with either party though, by tradition, it is close in outlook to Meretz-Yachad. Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... Mapam - United Workers Party (in Hebrew: מפם - מפלגת פועלים מאוחדת Mifleget Poalim Meuhedet) was initially a Marxist-Zionist party. ... Mapam - United Workers Party (in Hebrew: מפם - מפלגת פועלים מאוחדת Mifleget Poalim Meuhedet) was initially a Marxist-Zionist party. ... Meretz (מרצ, Hebrew: vitality, energy) was an Israeli leftist secular political party. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Meretz. ... Labour or Labor, (Hebrew: העבודה, ha-`Avōdāh) is a political party in Israel. ...


South Africa

Hashomer Hatzair operated in South Africa until sometime in the 1980s when the South Africa government banned the movement and arrested its members because of their anti-apartheid teachings and activism.


Austria

The Austrian Hashomer Hatzair is 90 years old. It was the first Hashomer Hatzair in the world.


Italy

Hashomer Hatzair operates four kens (branches) : Rome, Milan , Florence, and Turin.


Belgium

In Belgium, Hashomer Hatsaïr was established in 1920. Today, 200 hanihim are coming each Saturday. Four camps are organized by year, often in Holland or in France. The shaliah is Tal Harel and the shirfa madrihim is composed of Maanit and Ein-Shemer. There was a ken in Liege but i was too small so it closed.


See also

A Zionist youth movement is an organization formed for Jewish children and adolescents for educational, social and ideological development, including a belief in Jewish nationalism as represented in the State of Israel. ... Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning Workers of Zion) was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish workers circles founded in various Russian cities about the turn of the century after the Bund rejected Zionism in 1901. ...

References

  • The History of Hashomer Hatzair and the Kibbutz Artzi Federation
  • Hashomer Hatzair World Movement

External links

  • Hashomer Haztair Argentina
  • Hashomer Hatzair Australia
  • Hashomer Hatzair Austria
  • Hashomer Hatzair Belgium
  • Hashomer Hatzair Brazil
  • Hashomer Hatzair Canada
  • Hashomer Hatzair France
  • Hashomer Hatzair Hungary
  • Hashomer Hatzair Mexico
  • Hashomer Hatzair Switzerland
  • Hashomer Hatzair USA

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Hashomer Hatzair reaffirms Socialism as one of it's ideological pillars and believes that each of its members must build and maintain an active socialist lifestyle based on the concepts of sharing, equality and the forwarding of the greater good for all.
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