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Encyclopedia > Hashish
Hashish
Hashish

Hashish (from Arabic: حشيش ḥashīsh, lit. "grass"; also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed trichomes collected from the cannabis plant. It contains the same active ingredients but in higher concentrations than other parts of the plant such as the buds or the leaves. Psychoactive effects vary between types of hashish but are usually the same as those of other cannabis preparations such as marijuana. Hash is generally prohibited to the same extent as all other forms of cannabis. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


Hashish is often a solid or paste-like substance, of varying hardness and pliability, and will soften under heat. Its color can vary from green, black, reddish brown, or most commonly light to dark brown.


It is consumed in much the same way as cannabis buds, used by itself in miniature smoking pipes, vaporized, or smoked in joints mixed with tobacco, cannabis buds or other herbs. A variety of metal pipes. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


It can also be eaten alone (pure hash is described as having a spicy or peppery flavor) as well as used as an ingredient in food (baked into cookies or cakes, or added to stews and chocolate). Sale of hashish is illegal under federal law in United States and in most parts of the world; it has been decriminalized to some extent in a few countries, such as the Netherlands.

Contents

History

It is believed that hash first originated from Central Asia, as this region was among the first to be populated by the cannabis plant, which may have originated in the Hindu Kush[citation needed]. Alternatively it may have originated in Northern India which also has a very long tradition in the production of Hashish which is locally known as Charas. Traditionally, Cannabis sativa subsp. indica has been cultivated for production of hashish.[citation needed] The earliest hashish was created without the use of sieves. The ancients would gently rub their palms and fingers on cannabis buds for hours while resin accumulated on their hands and then scrape that resin off. The earliest use of hashish was most likely from farmers scraping resin off of their hands after a day's harvest of commercial hemp and at that time hashish was normally eaten, not smoked. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ...


Hashshashin or hashish eaters, the Assassins of Persia, were a secret society, a fraternal order designed to usurp the powers of the state. In Nishapur of the region of Khorassan, while studying under the Imam Mowaffaq Nishipuri, Hassan-i-Sabbah, founder of the order, suggested an agreement to Omar Kayyam and Nizam ul Mulk that if one of them (The Three Schoolmates) should succeed, the other two would share in the good turn of the Wheel of Fortune; eventually, Hassan would violate the agreement. The chilling shadow of the Assassins spread from Persia to the Mediterranean coast, its members prospering not only in their natural habitat but also in Syria where they came across the European Crusaders exercising a great influence upon them. In 1071, Hassan had joined the Ishmaelites whose members spread far and wide from Morocco to China and Sanzibar. The Hashashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) were a religious sect of Ismaili Shiites from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Artistic Rendering of Hassan-Sabbah Hassan-i-Sabbah (in Persian: بن صباح or حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124), or The Old Man of the Mountain (Arabic شيخ الجبل), was an Iranian Ismaili missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Elburz Mountains of northern Iran. ... Omar Khayyám, Persian عمر خیام (born: May 31, 1048 in Nishapur, Iran (Persia) – died: December 4, 1131), was a Persian poet, mathematician and astronomer. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk Turks. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... According to Quranic tradition Ibrahim had two wives Sarah and Hajira. ...


Eventually, the Templars would fall prey to the king of France, Philip the Fair, and the Assassin's leader would be slain by order of the Great Khan..."Comparison of the general administration of the two orders -opponents though they were for a time in Syria- reveals much wherein they were virtually identical". [1] Production of hash later spread to the Middle East (Lebanon), and from there to North Africa (most prominently Algeria, though in post-colonial times Moroccan production has dominated) and then South Asia (mostly in India and Pakistan). For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often...


The word assassin may have been derived from the Arabic word حشّاشين (haššāšīn), or "Hashshāshīn".The Hashashin were allegedly inspired to commit murder under the influence of hashish.The legend of hashish-eating assassins began with a vague mention by Marco Polo, and was embellished by 19th century French and American writers, fascinated by orientalism and eager to present hashish as a menace. The legend gained great popularity especially by Charles Baudelaire in his Artificial Paradises of 1857. Others argue that the term could have been created due to political reasons, in order to discredit the sect. It has also been suggested that if hashish were in fact consumed, it had been adulterated with stronger materials, the effects of hashish being well-known and easily recognizable at that time and place. No reports of statistical linkage between hashish and assassins or terror have been published anywhere in the last century.


Consumption of hashish saw an increase in the 20th century, in Europe and America, associated with the hippie scene. Hashish use declined significantly in the United States starting in the 1980s for several reasons, including U. S. political pressures against Afghanistan and the ensuing Soviet invasion, a huge jump in price, and the success of marijuana cultivators in North America with new growing methods for increasing THC production, such as growing marijuana indoors. However Blendi From Albania Was one of them. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... North American redirects here. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Manufacturing processes

Stalked trichomes of the Cannabis plant.
Stalked trichomes of the Cannabis plant.

Hashish is made from tetrahydrocannabinol-rich glandular hairs known as trichomes, as well as varying amounts of cannabis flower and leaf fragments. The flowers of a mature female plant contain the most trichomes, though trichomes are found on other parts of the plant. Certain strains of cannabis are cultivated specifically for their ability to produce large amounts of trichomes. The resin reservoirs of the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called pollen, are separated from the plant through various methods. The resulting concentrate is formed into blocks of hashish, which can be easily stored and transported. Alternatively, the powder consisting of uncompressed, dry trichomes is often referred to as kief instead of hashish. picture for trichrome article File links The following pages link to this file: Trichome ... picture for trichrome article File links The following pages link to this file: Trichome ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... THC redirects here. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mechanical separation methods use physical action to remove the trichomes from the plant. Sieving over a fine screen is a vital part of most methods. The plants may be sifted by hand or in motorized tumblers. Hash made in this way is sometimes called dry sift. Finger hash is produced by rolling the ripe trichome-covered flowers of the plant between the fingers and collecting the resin that sticks to the fingers. Yet another means of harvest is effected by having workers bustle through the cannabis fields wearing specially designed leather aprons, upon which the trichomes collect and adhere. Trichomes and resins can also be collected passively through cleaning of scissors that have been used to cut the plant, or containers like a kief-box used to store it. A sieve is a device for segregating aggregate based on particle size. ...


Ice water separation is a more modern mechanical separation method which submerges the plant in ice and water and stirs the mixture. Trichomes are broken off the plant as the ice moves, while the low temperature make the trichomes more brittle so they break off easily. The waste plant matter, detached trichomes, and water are separated by filtering through a series of increasingly fine screens. Kits are commercially available which provide a series of filter screens meant to fit inside standard bucket sizes. Hash made in this way is sometimes called ice hash, or bubble hash.


Chemical separation methods generally use a solvent to dissolve the desirable resins in the plant while not dissolving undesirable components. The solid plant material is then filtered out of the solution and discarded. The solvent may then be evaporated, leaving behind the desirable resins. As THC is fat-soluble, it also dissolves in butter, which can then be used for cooking (see hash cookies and Alice B. Toklas brownies). The product of chemical separations is more commonly referred to as honey oil, hash oil, or just oil. Some believe that hash oil is best avoided, due both to the dangerous nature of its production and the fear of residual chemicals left in the oil by the solvent. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Hash cookies, Space Cookie, hash cakes or space cakes are relatively common in regions with liberal drugs policies, including much of Europe (particularly the Netherlands). ... An Alice B. Toklas brownie, also known as an Alice B. Tokin brownie or more colloquially as a bud brownie, magic brownie, or special brownie, is a type of hash cookie (a cake containing cannabis). ... This article is about cannabis resin. ...


Quality

The main factors affecting quality are potency and purity. Different cannabis plants will produce resins with unique chemical profiles that vary in potency. Some forms of hashish are described as producing a "body high" while others are more "cerebral". This depends on the genetic strain and relative amount of different cannabis plants used as well as the manufacturing process involved.


Tiny pieces of leaf matter or even purposefully added adulterants introduced when the hash is being produced will reduce the purity of the material. The THC content of hashish usually ranges from 15–20%, and that of hash oil from 30–40%.[2] Adulterants are chemical substances which should not be contained within other substances (eg. ...


Fresh hashish of good quality is soft and pliable and becomes progressively harder and less potent as it oxidizes.


Hash is generally said to be black, brown or blond. There is also hashish of greenish or reddish hue. A green tinge may indicate that the hashish is impure, has been cut with low-quality leaf or contains high quantities of chlorophyll. A yellow tint can indicate presence of cannabis pollen, which has a sandy color.


Low quality forms of hash often contain adulterants used as cutting agents added to exaggerate the value of hash through increasing the volume or including other cheaper drugs.[3]. Such forms usually possess a low potency, may have an unpleasant strangeness in taste and feel, and produce hard, dark "cinders" in the ash which should be soft and white. Adulterants in hash may range from waste material from the cannabis plant (generally not harmful) to products such as food oils and soap, hence the name soap bar. The low quality may lead one to smoke more to get the same effect, increasing exposure to carbon monoxide and adverse effects upon the lungs. A cutting agent is a chemical used to cut (adulterate) illicit drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself. ...


A general rule of thumb is that good hashish produces effects which should be rapidly, unmistakeably apparent, even with experienced users who have developed tolerance to THC; being unsure of the effects or wanting to use more within a short amount of time means the hashish is either very weak and/or, more likely, adulterated.


Some users have started boiling their hash in water for a few minutes and then drying it before smoking. This is thought to remove all water-soluble adulterants while the psychoactive cannabinols remain intact as the temperature is not sufficient to destroy them and they are not soluble in water.[4]


The smoke and ashes of burnt hash should be light gray or white in color. Dark, acrid smoke and poor ease of inhaling smoke signify that the material is contaminated. It is always best to compost any such unacceptable hashish rather than continue using it in hopes of achieving a high.[citation needed]


Hashish by region

Then still-legal hashish shop in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1973.
Then still-legal hashish shop in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1973.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1301x1925, 550 KB) Summary Still legal hashish-shop in Kathmandu (Nepal) on 27 Jun 1973. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1301x1925, 550 KB) Summary Still legal hashish-shop in Kathmandu (Nepal) on 27 Jun 1973. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...

Production

Hashish is traditionally produced in desert conditions. It is traditionally found in a belt extending from North Africa , Egypt to North India and into Central Asia[citation needed]. The primary hash-producing countries are Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Morocco, Israel, and India.[citation needed] This article is about arid terrain. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Charas is the primary product. Much of the hash available is high quality, although some adulterated product is available, easily identifiable by its relatively low price. Charas, a substance that is hand-rubbed directly from the cannabis plant, is generally produced in Nepal and India. Today, the word charas is common word for hash in a majority of India, despite the fact that other methods may be used than the hand-rubbed method. It has been suggested that Gardaa be merged into this article or section. ...


A visitor to the Rif Mountains and the town of Ketama in Morocco in December 1976 described the production of hashish. Workers rubbed the leaves of the cannabis plant over fine muslin fabric. In unheated huts, each worker had his hands and arms inside a regular one hundredweight (50 kg) plastic fertiliser bag containing twigs and leaves of the cannabis plant. In the mouth of the bag was a plastic washing-up bowl. Stretched over the bowl was a sheet of "zero-zero" grade muslin. The worker rubbed the leaves of the cannabis plant over the muslin, resulting in a fine powder ending up in the bowl. When 100 grams of the powder was collected it was then wrapped in more fine muslin, put onto a heated metal plate, and rolled down with a bottle. This process produces a slightly sticky solid brown mass in the form of a square slab, around half the size of a paperback book and about ½ cm thick. This block is wrapped in cellophane. Sellers of this Moroccan hashish pointed to the imprint of the muslin on the surface of the block, and declared it proof that the product was "zero-zero", top quality. This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Ketama is also a locality in Morocco infamous of its hash cultivation. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ...


In Afghanistan there is a method of making hash that resembles charas. First, cannabis resin is placed on a large heated mortar, then the resin is threshed with a heavy object. The result is a very gooey, sticky black hash. This method is mostly used in villages around the Hindu Kush mountain region.[citation needed] The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


Hash is also produced now in the deserts of northern Mexico; however, the demand for it and thus amount produced is insignificant compared to that for "fresh" Mexican marijuana, especially into the lucrative North American market.[citation needed]


Consumption

Image:World-cannabis-laws.png
World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data is from multiple sources detailed on the full source list. This map is a work in progress, please give corrections and additions here.

Hashish was always the variety of preference in Europe (although this preference is slowly changing towards the buds of the plant) , it is basically the exclusive form of THC in the Middle East and was widely available in North Africa and parts of Asia. It is less preferred by cannabis users in the US and other producing nations. Hashish is more compact than marijuana, it keeps better, and is easier to smuggle than marijuana. When it has been smuggled by amateurs, it often suffers from long periods of bad storage, so the quality can vary considerably. Older hashish can easily be recognized as it is hard and has no smell (heating with a lighter is a common test). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


By the 1990s, the use of marijuana in the developed world was increasing, as more potent versions were being grown. The Cannabis Cup held every year in Amsterdam attempts to evaluate the quality of the latest varieties. Promotion poster for the 18th Cannabis Cup The Cannabis Cup is a festival that was started in 1987 by High Times editor Steven Hager, who came to The Netherlands for an interview with the founder of the first Dutch cannabis-seed company. ...


In France and the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland, this is known as Maroc (Maroc meaning "Morocco" in French). In Germany it is known colloquially as "Piece". In Spain it is called Costo, Chocolate, Grifa or Hachís. In the United Kingdom, it is variously known as brown (also a name for heroin in some parts of the UK), hash, resin, solid, and block. Older names include shit and dope. In the Netherlands, this is called Maroc, Lieb (Lebanon) or, from quality zero being best to secundeira being worst: triple zero, zero zero, super primaira, primaira, secundeira. In Brazil, it is commonly called haxa. Also, there is a branch of nearly white powder hash (pollen or kief hash) that is the result of not stamping the raw material for the more common compressed hashish.


Soft hash is usually dark brown to black in color and goes under the name black in France, squidgey or soft black (named due to the color and properties of the hash) in the UK. The very potent Paki Black is so named because it originates in Pakistan. Soft, dark hash in the Netherlands is normally referred to as Afghan. Common Kashmiri brands are Citral and Fungus.


Hashish use is experiencing a resurgence in parts of North America (especially the Pacific Northwest) with the use and commercial availability of ice-water extraction kits.[citation needed] North American redirects here. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


Preparation and methods of use

Like ordinary cannabis preparations, hashish is usually smoked, though it can also be eaten or vaporised. A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ...


Hash is sometimes prepared for smoking by heating it with a flame for a couple of seconds, producing some bubbling or sizzling. It then softens and can be crumbled into tiny pieces or formed into shapes to obtain maximum surface area when burning. To avoid heating-loss of THC, a sharp razor knife can be used to divide hard unheated hash into small slender pieces. If the material is of the right consistency, it can be ground up with a marijuana grinder. The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a...


Vaporization

Used with hashish as with any cannabis, tobacco or other herb material, a vaporizer can extract cannabinol at a temperature of 365°F./185°C., protecting against loss of this ingredient which occurs in burning, and eliminating carbon monoxide and other combustion toxins. A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ...


"Knife Hits"

Hash can be placed on very hot pieces of metal and the resulting vapor inhaled. "Knife hits" is a method that involves heating up knives on a stove, crushing a little ball of the hash between them and inhaling the released vapor through a tube or straw. Hash cones is a method where a piece of hash is attached to a pin or metal wire and then heated. A: A cigarette rolling machine. ...


One-hitter (semivaporizer)

The next lowest temperature is achieved with a narrow-diameter, screened-crater utensil-- one-hitter, minitoke, kiseru or midwakh-- where the practiced user sucks the air slowly enough to assure slow, low-temperature burning, so that the cannabinol in any part of the hashish has time to vaporize from being heated by an already burning adjacent part of the hashish (semivaporizer). A butane lighter should be used instead of matches to permit frequent, very brief relightings, and a long tube (such as those found on hookahs) added giving the heated aerosol a longer distance to travel, i.e. more time to cool down before reaching the user's trachea. An old style Japanese Smoking pipe. ... Midwakh: A midwakh is a small arabian pipe, much like a hashpipe, used to smoke dohka in. ... This article is about a traditional smoking pipe. ...


Dabous

A piece of hash may be ignited by cigarette coals or other means and placed inside a container. The smoke that collects inside can then be inhaled. Dabous or Khabourbut most commonly "shi-sha" (stick in Arabic) is a North African technique. In Canada this technuque is commonly refered to as "Bots".


Mixtures

Often hash is mixed with tobacco, cannabis or another herb, and the combination rolled up into a cigarette or burned in a large pipe by users impatient to get it burning, a procedure best avoided as the high burning temperature results in major loss of THC (and the exposure to nicotine can result in tobacco addiction). Smoked by itself, hash usually creates a stronger psychoactive effect on the user.


See also

Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... The Club des Hashischins (sometimes also spelled Club des Hashishins or Club des Hachichin), was a Parisian group dedicated to the exploration of drug-induced experiences, notably with hashish. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Les paradis artificiels (Artificial Paradises) is a book by French poet Charles Baudelaire, first published in 1860, about the state of being under the influence of opium and hashish. ... Fitz Hugh Ludlow Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as “Fitzhugh Ludlow,” (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870) was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best-known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857). ... The Hasheesh Eater is an autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow, first published in 1857. ... It has been suggested that Gardaa be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. ... This is a list of the legality of cannabis by country. ...

Further history

Further reading

  • Hashish by Robert Connell Clarke, ISBN 0-929349-05-9
  • Artificial Paradises by Charles Baudelaire; first edition 1860
  • The Hasheesh Eater by Fitz Hugh Ludlow; first edition 1857
  • Indoor Marijuana Horticulture, by Jorge Cervantes, ISBN 1-878823-29-9 ; 2001, reprinted 2005

“Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Fitz Hugh Ludlow Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as “Fitzhugh Ludlow,” (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870) was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best-known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857). ...

References

  1. ^ Rowan, Richard Wilmer Secret Service -33 centuries of espionage-, pp. 39-44, Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1967
  2. ^ Inciardi, James A. (1992). The War on Drugs II. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 19. ISBN 1559340169. 
  3. ^ Soapbar - Just Say No to polluted hash
  4. ^ Soapbar - Just Say No to polluted hash
  • Marijuana Potency, Michael Starkes, 1977, And/Or Press Berkley California, ISBN 0-91504-27-6 Chapter 6 "Extraction of THC and Preparation of Hash Oil" pages 111-122.

Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

External links

Look up Hashish in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ...

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The Poem of Hashish (11680 words)
You know that hashish always invokes magnificences of light, splendours of colour, cascades of liquid gold; all light is sympathetic to it, both that which streams in sheets and that which hangs like spangles to points and roughnesses; the candelabra of salons, the wax candles that people burn in May, the rosy avalanches of sunset.
The sophisms of hashish are numerous and admirable, tending as a rule to optimism, and one of the principal and the most efficacious is that which transforms desire into realisation.
Let us admit for the moment that hashish gives, or at least increases, genius; they forget that it is in the nature of hashish to diminish the will, and that thus it gives with one hand what it withdraws with the other; that is to say, imagination without the faculty of profiting by it.
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