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Encyclopedia > Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
Born 15 Ramadhan 3AH
Madina
Died 28 Safar 50AH
Medina
Parents Ali ibn Abi Talib
Fatimah bint Muhammad

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Islam
This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



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Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب)‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). He is an important figure in Islam as a member of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad . He is also regarded as the second Shi'a Imam among Zaidi, Twelver, and Mustaali Shi'a. This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... Safar (صفر) is the second month in the Islamic calendar. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ...

Contents

His birth and family life

Hasan ibn Ali (as) was born three years after the Hijra (624 CE) [1], the migration of the early Muslim community from Mecca to Medina. His parents were Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra bint Muhammad. This article is about Islamic Calendar and how it was formed, for the event of hijra see Migration to Medina. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


Hasan ibn Ali was Muhammad’s first grandchild. According to Shi'a tradition, he was named by his grandfather, who acted on divine inspiration. Hasan means "pleasant" or "handsome" in Arabic. Hasan never seriously entertained taking the Imamate, and instead chose to retire from public life. Hasan ibn Ali and his younger brother, Husayn ibn Ali, are said to have been greatly beloved by their grandfather. There are numerous Hadiths (oral traditions) that affirm this claim. There are also Hadiths which states that Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali will be the leaders of the youth in paradise. Muhammad also said that Hasan and Hussain are Imams, whether they sit (agree to a peace treaty) or stand (go to war). Shi'ahs and Sunnis believe that Hasan ibn Ali is one of the five persons included in the Hadith of The Cloak. Arabic redirects here. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Hadith of The Cloak (Arabic: حديث الكساء Hadith-e-Kisa) refers to the Event of the Cloak or the Companions of the Cloak (ahl al-kisa). ...


Life of Hasan ibn Ali during the times of his father

As a growing youth, Hasan saw the active role of his father, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in the battlefield defending Islam, as a preacher to a vast congregation of believers on the occasion of Hajj, and as a missionary of Islam to Yemen. After the death of his grandfather, Muhammad, he saw his father having retreated to a passive role in the matters of the state during the period of the first three caliphs. However, whenever he saw it necessary, Ali ibn Abi Talib [as] never refrained from giving his opinion to the caliph of the time on matters of the practice of faith. He had also seen that the caliphs, in turn, respected Ali ibn Abi Talib for his overall knowledge, and consulted him on many occasions as the need arose. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


When the third caliph was murdered by a mob of agitated demonstrators in his palace in Mad'mah, and Ali ibn Abi Talib was elected to lead the Muslim nation, Hasan ibn Ali took active part in assisting his father in many ways. He went to Kufa and successfully raised the first army of believers against the dissenting Muslims. He participated actively in the battlefields of Basra, Siffin, and Nahrawan alongside his father, and demonstrated his skills as a soldier and as a leader. Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... Combatants Muawiyah I Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna, or First Muslim civil war, with the main... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ...


Before he died, Ali ibn Abi Talib appointed Hasan to lead the nation of believers and to be their Imam after him. The people also chose him to be their Caliph.


The Caliphate

Upon the death of Ali ibn Abi Talib in Kufa a new caliph should be chosen. As Ali declared in many occasions that just Ahl Al-Bayt of prophet were entitled to rule the Muslim community the choices restricted to Hasan and his brother Husayn. Thus Kufi Muslims pledge allegiance(bay'ah) to his eldest son Hasan without dispute.[2] Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


This threatened Muawiyah I, who had been fighting Ali for the caliphate. Muawiyah summoned all the commanders of his forces in Syria, Palestine, and Transjordan to join him in preparation for war. He also attempted to negotiate with Hasan, sending the young heir letters asking him to give up his claim. If he could persuade Hasan to renounce his claim to the caliphate, then Muawiyah would certainly avoid the undesirable consequence of killing fellow Muslims, and would further support his claim to the caliphate. If Muawiyah was forced to defeat Hasan in battle, Muawiyah would gain absolute power, but questions regarding his legitimacy would linger. Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ...


Negotiations stalled, and Muawiyah marched against Hasan ibn Ali with an army claimed to number sixty thousand fighters [3]. Hasan ibn Ali also marched his army towards Muawiyah. The two armies faced opposed near Sabat.


During this period of suspense, Hasan is reported to have given a sermon in which he proclaimed his hatred of schism and appealed to his men to follow his orders even if they did not agree to them. Some of the troops took this as a sign that Hasan was preparing to surrender; they rebelled on him and attacked him. Hasan was wounded, but his loyal soldiers surrounded him in protection and managed to kill the mutineers. Another one of Hasan’s commanders, Ubayd Allah Ibn Abbas, deserted him and joined Muawiyah’s forces.


The two armies fought a few inconclusive skirmishes. Muawiyah, distressed that the result of a battle would mean a loss of many men and a lack of people to go back and partake in caring for the people, and because of that he sent two men from Banu Quraish to Hasan ibn Ali in order to negotiate a settlement with Hasan ibn Ali and his followers.[4] Hasan ibn Ali, wounded and facing disaffection in his own army, and desiring to end the long-fought civil wars, finally negotiated a settlement with Muawiyah. With regards to the negotiation, the prophet had prophesied earlier, saying, "It is this grandson of mine, on whose hands the two great armies from amongst the Muslims will stop fighting." Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ...

  • According to Sunni scholars, Hasan ibn Ali stipulated that Muawiyah should follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah, allowing a shura for the caliphate to be held after his death, and refrain from any acts of revenge against Hasan ibn Ali’s followers.
  • According to Shi’ah scholars, Hasan ibn Ali further stipulated that the caliphate should be returned to him after Muawiyah's death, if Hasan ibn Ali was still alive, and in case if he dies before that then the caliphate should be given to his younger brother, Hussain ibn Ali. [5]

Muawiyah proceeded to Kufa and demanded that the Muslims there swear allegiance. He also asked Hasan ibn Ali to join him and support him in the fight against the rebellious Kharijites. Hasan ibn Ali is claimed to have written him in response: "I have abandoned the fight against you, even though it was my legal right, for the sake of peace and reconciliation of the nation. Do you think that I shall then fight together with you?" [6] Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ...


Was he a Sunni Caliph?

Most caliph chronologies do not include Hasan ibn Ali. Hasan ibn Ali claimed the caliphate only briefly and was recognized by a half of the Islamic empire. Muawiyah forced him to resign. However, a handful of the older Sunni historians, such as Suyuti, Ibn al-Arabi, and Ibn Kathir accept Hasan ibn Ali as a caliph before Muawiyah [7]. Twelver Shi'a Muslims also regard Hasan ibn Ali as one of the twelve infallible imams. Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ...


Retirement to Medina

Marwan I, who was the personal secretary to the third caliph, and had fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib during the Battle of Bassorah, was now the governor of Medina under Muawiyah. He took personal pleasure in discharging Muawiyah's wishes to slur the reputation of Hasan ibn Ali and his father. Needless to say that the life of Hasan ibn Ali in Medina after the peace treaty was not peaceful at all. In addition to the relentless taunts and abuse slung at him by Muawiyah, Hasan ibn Ali had to endure the anger of his supporters for having relinquished the Caliphate to the lifelong enemy of himself and that of his father before him. They had failed to appreciate that Hasan ibn Ali had given up his right in the larger interests of Islam, and to avoid further bloodshed of the Muslims. Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ...


Death

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Shī‘a Islam
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Image File history File links Basmala. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ...

People of the House

Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatima Zahra
HasanHusayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
SahabaThe Four Companions
View of the Qur'an
Ghadir KhummKarbala
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

See Also

History of Shia Islam
...

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Historians believe that Hasan ibn Ali died in Medina on Safar 28, 50 AH. He is buried at the famous Jannat al-Baqi cemetery across from the Masjid al-Nabawi, the Mosque of the Prophet. Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ... Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ...


Was Hasan poisoned?

Some early Arab historians, mostly of Shi'ah tendency, give another account. They say that Muawiyah wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid ibn Muawiyah, and saw Hasan ibn Ali as an obstacle to his plans. And thus Muawiyah plotted to kill Hasan ibn Ali. He secretly contacted Hasan ibn Ali's wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, and instigated her to poison her husband. Ja'da did as Muawiyah suggested, giving her husband poison mixed with honey. Madelung (pp. 331-333) notes other traditions suggesting that Hasan ibn Ali had been poisoned by another wife, the daughter of Suhayl ibn Amr, or perhaps by a servant. Madelung also cites the early historians (Baladhuri, Waqidi, etc.) who recounted these traditions. Madelung, who is more accepting of Shi'a traditions than most Western academic historians, believes that Hasan ibn Ali was poisoned and that the famous early Islamic historian al-Tabari suppressed the tale out of concern for the faith of the common people. (Madelung pp. 331-332) Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the sixth Muslim Caliph and the second of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ... al-Waqidi الواقدي Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al Sahmi alAslamiأبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد السهمي (d. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...


Shi'ahs believe that Ja'da was promised gold and marriage to Yazid. Seduced by the promise of money and power, she poisoned her husband, and then hastened to the court of Muawiyah in Damascus to receive her reward. Muawiyah reneged on his promises and married her to another man. [8] For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Burial of Hasan

Hasan ibn Ali, before his death, asked to be buried next to his grandfather, Muhammad. However, Aisha, one of Muhammad's widows, refused to let Hasan ibn Ali to be buried next to Muhammad's tomb. Some believe that it was Marwan who prevented Hasan ibn Ali's his right. Marwan requested to Aisha to allow his relative Uthman ibn Affan to be buried beside the Prophet if she allows Hasan ibn Ali to be buried there. On the contrary, Aisha was aware of Marwan's treachery from the past so she refused to accept his plan, and further did not allow anyone else to be buried beside the Prophet. Then Marwan who had been appointed by Muawiya I as the governor of Madina, sent soldiers to prevent Hasan ibn Ali's burial next to Muhammad. However, this is not true because Uthman ibn Affan was killed in 656 and Hasan died in 669. [7] Hasan ibn Ali's family was thus forced to bury him elsewhere, and so they buried him in Jannat al-Baqi. Image File history File links Hasan_ibn_Ali. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ...


Sunni view

Sunni Muslims honor Hasan ibn Ali because he is from Ahl al-Bayt. Certain Sunni scholars of the past also are of the opinion of him being the fifth caliph, before Muawiyah, because of his appointment by Ali.[7] Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...


Shi'a view

Muawiyah was successful in deceitfully gaining the absolute power he had aspired for. He was not interested in the functions of preaching piety or theology. He was interested in expanding his sphere of influence in the territories already conquered by the Muslims, and was actively engaged in further conquests to the north and north west of Syria. In utter violation of the terms of the Treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, Muawiyah decided to name his son Yazid to succeed him after his death. He knew that Yazid lacked all qualifications to be a caliph for the Muslims and to represent Muhammad. He also knew that Hasan ibn Ali, being a true representative of Muhammad, would oppose the nomination of his son. Consequently, he decided to eliminate the opposition. Hassan ibn Ali is considered by Shias as their second Imam. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... There were several notable persons named Yazid: Yazid I (born c. ...


Muawiyah solicited the services of Marwan ibn al-Hakam, a son-in-law of Uthman ibn Affan, who was the governor of Medina at that time. With a promise for a reward, Marwan approached one of the wives of the Imam, Ju'da binte al-Ash'ath ibn Qays to poison Hasan ibn Ali. He was successful, and Hasan ibn Ali died as a result of this plot. Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was the eight Sunni Caliph, an Umayyad, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ...


Before Hasan ibn Ali died, in accordance with the Will of Allah, named his brother, Hussain ibn Ali to be the next Imam. He expressed his wish to his brother to bury his body near to the grave of his grandfather, Muhammad. This caused an armed opposition by the governor of Medina. Under a shower of arrows, the funeral procession of Hasan ibn Ali had to withdraw and be diverted to Jannat al-Baqi, the general graveyard of Medina, where he was buried. Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ...


Shi'ahs hold Hasan ibn Ali in a very high positive view, like the Sunnis, except that Shi'ahs regard Hasan ibn Ali as their second Imam. Both Sunnis and Shi'ahs regard him as a martyr. According to Shi’ahs Hasan ibn Ali married four women: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  1. Umm Ishaq bint Talha ibn `Ubayd Allah.
  2. Hafsa bint 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr.
  3. Hind bint Suhayl bin `Amru.
  4. Ju'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, whom Muawiyah I tempted to kill Hasan ibn Ali. So she killed him with poison.
Preceded by
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Shia Imam
661–669
Succeeded by
Husayn ibn Ali

Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

See also

For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Husayn, Zainul Abideen, (658 - 713) (alternative spellings include bin, ben for the middle word and Hussain, Husain, Hussein, etc. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Imām ˤAlī ibn-Mūsā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Imam Muhammad al-Taqi (Arabic: امام محمد التقي)(April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam in the Ithna Ashari (Twelver) tradition. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Hasan al-Askari (Arabic: الإمام الحسن بن علي العسكري) (December 6, 846 – January 1, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... An interior view of the Zarih of Ali Akbar ibn Husayn Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn (Arabic: علي الاكبر بن حسين) (Fifth of Shaaban, 44 AH - Tenth of Muharram, 61 AH) was the son of the third Shiah Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, and Umm Layla. ... Mehndi of Qasim ibn Hassan Qasim ibn Hasan (Arabic: ) (Seventh of Shaaban, 47th Hijra - Tenth of Muharram, 61st Hijra) was the son of the second Shia Imam, Hasan ibn Ali, and grandson of the first Shia Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Zari of Syeda Sakina Sukayna or Sakina bint Husayn (Arabic: سكينة) (Twentieth of Rajab, 56 AH – 117 AH) was the youngest daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Umm Rubab (Rubab bint Imra al-Qays). ... Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn (Tenth of Rajab, 60 AH - Tenth of Muharram, 61 AH) was the youngest child of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third Shia Imam) and Rubab (the daughter of the chief of the Kinda Imra al-Qays tribe). ... Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the son of the first Shi’a Imam (Ali ibn Abu Talib) but he was called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother. ... Al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas or known in Persian Fazal ibn Abbas was the son of al-Abbas ibn Ali and Lubaba bint Ubaydillah. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... // Harrak in Arabic الحراق refers to the last name carried by the Northern Moroccan families that descend from the sons of Al-Harrak. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kitab al-Irshad, Sheikh Mufid
  2. ^ Madlong, (1997) p. 313 - 314
  3. ^ Ibn A'zham IV, p. 153. Other numbers: [1]
  4. ^ Sahih Bukhari 3:49:867
  5. ^ Imam Hasan bin 'Ali
  6. ^ Madelung, 1997 pp. 324-325
  7. ^ a b
    Suyuti in The Khalifas who took the right way page 9 and History of the Caliphs Vol 12
    Ibn al-Arabi in his Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi 9:68-69 ref
    Ibn Kathir in The Beginning and the End Vol 6 page 249-250
    Examples of other brief and partially recognized caliphs include Muawiya II and Abd-Allah ibn Zubayr.
  8. ^ [2], [3], [4], [5]

Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Azham al-Kufi (Arabic: ) (d. ... Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung was born on 26 December 1930 in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard Ludwig Gymnasium. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... The Khalifas who took the right way or Al-Khulafah Ar-Rashidun:The Rightly Guided Caliphs is a classical work that presents authentic hadith about the first five Caliphs of Islam, writen by famous sunni scholar Suyuti. ... History of the Caliphs (Arabic: Tarikh al-khulafa) is a famous book writen by the classic Sunni scholar Suyuti External links http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... The Beginning and the End (Arabic: Al-Bidayah wa Nihayah) is a classic work by the Sunni scholar Ibn Kathir. ... Muawiyah II or Muāwiyya ibn YazÄ«d (‎) (661 - 684) was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father YazÄ«d. ... ...

References

Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960.  Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ...


External links


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