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Encyclopedia > Harvey W. Wiley
Harvey Washington Wiley

Harvey Washington Wiley (October 30, 1844, Kent, Indiana - June 30, 1930, Washington, D.C.) was a noted chemist involved with the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Harvey W. Wiley from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Harvey W. Wiley from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining, as the last day in June. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... A chemist is a scientist who specializes in chemistry. ... Categories: Law stubs | United States law ...


Harvey Washington Wiley was born in a log farmhouse in Indiana, the son of a farmer. In 1863 he served with the Union Army in the 187th Regiment Indiana Volunteers during the American Civil War. A top graduate of Hanover College (1867), where he majored in the humanities, Wiley then studied at Indiana Medical College where he received his M.D. in 1871. After he graduated, Wiley accepted a position teaching chemistry at the medical college, where he taught Indiana's first laboratory course in chemistry beginning in 1873. Following a brief interlude at Harvard, where he was awarded a B.S. degree after only a few months of intense effort, he accepted a faculty position in chemistry at the newly opened Purdue University in 1874. In 1878, Wiley travelled overseas where he attended the lectures of August Wilhelm von Hofmann — the celebrated German discoverer of several organic tar derivatives, including aniline. While in Germany, Wiley was elected to the prestigious German Chemical Society founded by Hoffman. Wiley spent most of his time in the Imperial Food Laboratory in Bismarck working with Eugene Sell, mastering the use of the polariscope and studying sugar chemistry. Upon his return to Purdue, Wiley was asked by the Indiana State Board of Health to analyze the sugars and syrups on sale in the state to detect any adulteration. He spent his last years at Purdue studying sorghum culture and sugar chemistry, hoping, as did others, to help the United States develop a strong domestic sugar industry. His first published paper in 1881 discussed the adulteration of sugar with glucose. State nickname: The Hoosier State Other U.S. States Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels Official languages English Area 94,321 km² (38th)  - Land 92,897 km²  - Water 1,424 km² (1. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Union Army refers to the United States Army during the American Civil War. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... Hanover College is a liberal arts college for men and women, located in Hanover, Indiana, near the banks of the Ohio River. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Harvard, see Harvard (disambiguation) Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... Purdue University is a public land-grant university system within the state of Indiana. ... Events January - April January 1 - New York City annexes The Bronx January 23 - Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, to Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Emperor Alexander III of Russia. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... August Wilhelm von Hofmann (April 8, 1818 _ May 5, 1892) was a German chemist. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2)is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ... This article deals with sugar as food and as an important, widely traded commodity; the word also has other uses; see Sugar (disambiguation) A sugar is a form of carbohydrate; the most commonly used sugar is a white crystalline solid, sucrose; used to alter the flavor and properties (mouthfeel, perservation... Species Sorghum × almum Sorghum almum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum caudatum Sorghum × drummondii Sorghum halepense Sorghum propinquum References ITIS 42106 2002-09-22 Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare or Sorghum bicolor) is a grass (Family Poaceae), whose seeds are used to make a flour and as cattle feed. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ...


Wiley was offered the position of Chief Chemist in the United States Department of Agriculture by George Loring, the Commissioner of Agriculture, in 1882. Loring was seeking to replace Peter Collier, his current Chief Chemist, with someone who could employ a more objective approach to the study of sorghum, the potential of which as a sugar source, was far from proven. Wiley accepted the offer after being passed over for the presidency of Purdue, allegedly because he was "too young and too jovial," unorthodox in his religious beliefs, and also a bachelor. Wiley brought with him to Washington a practical knowledge of agriculture, a sympathetic approach to the problems of agricultural industry and an untapped talent for public relations. After assisting Congress in their earliest questions regarding the safety of the chemical preservatives then being employed in foods, Wiley was appropriated $5,000 in 1902 to study the effects of a diet consisting in part of the various preservatives on human volunteers. These famous "poison squad" studies drew national attention to the need for a federal food and drug law. Wiley soon became a crusader and coalition builder in support of national food and drug regulation which earned him the title of "Father of the Pure Food and Drugs Act" when it became law in 1906. Wiley authored two editions of Foods and Their Adulteration (1907 and 1911), which detailed the history, preparation and subsequent adulteration of basic foodstuffs to a broad audience. He was also a founding father of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and left a legacy to the American pure food movement as its "crusading chemist" that was both broad and substantial. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The fact that enforcement of the federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was given to the Bureau of Chemistry rather than placed in the Department of Commerce or the Department of the Interior is a tribute to the scientific qualifications which the Bureau of Chemistry brought to the study of food and drug adulteration and misbranding. The first food and drug inspectors were hired to complement the work of the laboratory scientists, and an inspection program was launched which revolutionized the country's food supply within the first decade under the new federal law. Wiley's tenure, however, was marked by controversy over the administration of the 1906 statute which he had worked so hard to secure. Concerns over preserving chemicals, which had not been specifically addressed in the law, continued to be controversial. The Secretary of Agriculture appointed a Referee Board of Consulting Scientists, headed by Ira Remsen at Johns Hopkins University to repeat Wiley's human trials of preservatives. The use of saccharin, bleached flour, caffeine, and benzoate of soda were all important issues which had to be ultimately settled by the courts in the early days under the new law. Under Wiley's leadership, however, the Bureau of Chemistry grew significantly, both in strength and in stature after assuming responsibility for the enforcement of the 1906 Act. Between 1906 and 1912, Wiley's staff expanded from 110 to 146 and in 1910 the Bureau moved into its own building. Appropriations, which had been only $155,000 in 1906 were $963,780 in 1912. Categories: Law stubs | United States law ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Ira Remsen (February 10, 1846 - March 4, 1927) was a chemist who discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin and was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. ... The Johns Hopkins University is an internationally prestigious private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland. ... The chemical structure of saccharin. ... Caffeine molecular structure Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, and methyltheobromine, is an alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba maté, guarana, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Sodium benzoate (E211), also called benzoate of soda, has chemical formula C6H5COONa. ...


In 1912, Wiley resigned and took over the laboratories of Good Housekeeping magazine where he established the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval and worked tirelessly on behalf of the consuming public. Harvey Wiley died at his home in Washington D.C. in 1930, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... Good Housekeeping is a womens magazine owned by the Hearst Corporation, featuring articles about home economics as well as literary articles. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Arlington Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, is an American military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Robert E. Lees home. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Harvey W. Wiley (1853 words)
Harvey Washington Wiley (October 30, 1844, Kent, Indiana - June 30, 1930, Washington, D.C.) was a noted chemist involved with the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
Harvey Washington Wiley was born in a log farmhouse in Indiana, the son of a farmer.
Harvey Wiley died at his home in Washington D.C. in 1930, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Vidyya Medical News Service   - Today in Vidyya    (1419 words)
Chief chemist Harvey W. Wiley, M.D., considered by many to be the founding father of the FDA, spearheaded the effort to separate scientific facts on food safety from the recurrent food safety scares that had fast become the subject of growing public mistrust, inflammatory publications, and Congressional hearings.
Wiley hoped to learn "whether preservatives should ever be used or not, and if so, what preservatives and in what quantities." Ultimately, if Wiley could prove from his studies that food adulteration went beyond flagrant cheating to obvious harm, then both the public and Congress would likely support a national policy.
Wiley was convinced that any kind of regulation would have to treat all preservatives alike--ruling out discrimination between food chemicals according to their risks and benefits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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