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Encyclopedia > Hartley Shawcross
Hartley Shawcross, Attorney-General of England and Wales 1945-51
Hartley Shawcross, Attorney-General of England and Wales 1945-51

The Right Honourable Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross, PC, GBE KC (February 4, 1902July 10, 2003), was a British barrister and politician and the lead British prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal. Hartley Shawcross, Attorney-General of England and Wales 1945-51 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hartley Shawcross, Attorney-General of England and Wales 1945-51 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt Hon. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ...

Hartley William Shawcross was born to John and Hilda Shawcross in Germany, whilst his father was teaching English at Giessen University. He was educated at Dulwich College, the London School of Economics and University of Geneva and sat for the Bar at Gray's Inn, where he won first-class honours. He was the youngest man ever to be made King's Counsel. Dulwich College gates Dulwich College is an independent, fee-paying school, called a public school in the UK, in Dulwich, south-east London, England. ... The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as the London School of Economics or simply the LSE, is a specialist university based in London, often regarded as the worlds most prestigious social science institution with unrivalled diversity. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is one of the oldest universities in the world. ... Grays Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England to which barristers belong and where they are called to the bar. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of...

He joined Labour at a young age, and served as Member of Parliament from St Helens from 1945 to 1958, holding the position of Attorney-General from 1945 to 1951. It was in 1946 when debating the repeal of anti-Union laws in the House of Commons that Shawcross made the "We are the masters at the moment" comment (widely misquoted as "We are the masters now") that came to haunt him. The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... St Helens is a town in the traditional county of Lancashire and the metropolitan county of Merseyside in North West England. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General, is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and is now the dominant branch of Parliament. ...

As Attorney-General, he prosecuted William Joyce ("Lord Haw-Haw") and John Amery for treason and also prosecuted Klaus Fuchs and Alan Nunn May, for giving atomic secrets to the Soviet Union and John George Haigh (the acid bath murderer) for murder. He was knighted in 1945 and named Chief Prosecutor for the United Kingdom at Nuremberg. From 1945 to 1949, he was Britain's principal United Nations delegate and in 1951, he briefly served as President of the Board of Trade until the Labour government's defeat in the election of that year. He ended his law career the same year, and resigned from Parliament in 1958, saying he was tired of party politics. He was made one of Britain's first life peers on February 14, 1959 as Baron Shawcross of Friston, in the County of Sussex, and sat in the House of Lords as a cross-bencher. In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General, is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... William Joyce (April 24, 1906 – January 3, 1946), known as Lord Haw-Haw was a fascist politician and Nazi propaganda broadcaster to the United Kingdom during World War II. He was born in New York, to Irish parents who had taken United States nationality. ... John Amery (March 14, 1912–December 19, 1945) was a British anti-Communist who proposed to Hitler the forming of a British volunteer force (what became the British Free Corps), made recruitment efforts and propaganda broadcasts for Nazi Germany. ... Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs (b. ... Alan Nunn May (May 2, 1911 — January 12, 2003) was a British atomic scientist and a spy who supplied secrets of British and American atomic bomb research to the Soviets during the Manhattan project. ... John George Haigh was a serial killer who admitted to killing eight people (but was only charged with six murders) in England in the 1940s. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ...

In 1957, he was among a group of eminent British lawyers that founded JUSTICE, the human rights and law reform organisation and he became its first chairman - a position he held until 1972. 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... JUSTICE is a human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. ...

He was also instrumental in the foundation of the University of Sussex and served as chancellor of the university from 1965 to 1985. // University of Sussex Logo © University of Sussex The University of Sussex is an English campus university located near the East Sussex village of Falmer, near Brighton and Hove and on the edge of the South Downs. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Lord Shawcross was married three times. His first wife Alberta Rosita Shyvers (m. May 24, 1924) suffered from multiple sclerosis and committed suicide on December 30, 1943. His second wife Joan Winifred Mather (m. September 21, 1944) died in a riding accident on the Sussex Downs on January 26, 1974. At the age of 95 he married Mrs. Susanne Monique Huiskamp on April 18, 1997 in Gibraltar.

He had two sons, the author and historian William Shawcross, Hume Shawcross, and a daughter, Joanna Shawcross, by his second wife. He died at home at Cowbeech, East Sussex at the age of 101, the last surviving member of Clement Attlee's government. The word author has several meanings: The author of a book, story, article or the like, is the person who has written it (or is writing it). ... A historian is a person who studies history. ... William Shawcross (b. ... The Right Honourable Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...

Shawcross and the Nuremberg Trials

Shawcross' advocacy before the Nuremberg Trial was devastating. His most famous line was:

"There comes a point when a man must refuse to answer to his leader if he is also to answer to his own conscience."

Shawcross avoided the crusading style of American, Russian and French prosecutors. Shawcross opening speech, which lasted two days, was able to undermine any belief that the Nuremberg Trials were a victor's justice, an exacted vengeance against defeated foes. Instead, Shawcross focussed on the rule of law. Shawcross demonstrated to the court that the laws the defendants had broken had been expressed in international treaties and agreements pre-dating the war, and to which Germany was a party. JUSTICE is a human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. ... Revenge is retaliation against a person or group in response to wrongdoing. ... The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure. ...

On the question of conscience, in his closing speech Shawcross ridiculed any notion that any of the defendants could have remained ignorant of thousands of Germans exterminated because they were old or mentally ill. Shawcross used the same argument for the millions of other people "annihilated in the gas chambers or by shooting". Shawcross maintained that each of the 22 defendants was a party to "common murder in its most ruthless forms".

Shawcross' advocacy was instrumental in obtaining convictions against the remaining Nazi leadership on grounds which were perceived as fair and lawful. Look up Nazi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

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Hartley Shawcross

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Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross at AllExperts (909 words)
Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross, GBE, PC, KC (4 February 1902 – 10 July 2003), was a British barrister and politician and the lead British prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal.
Shawcross demonstrated to the court that the laws the defendants had broken had been expressed in international treaties and agreements pre-dating the war, and to which Germany was a party.
Shawcross' advocacy was instrumental in obtaining convictions against the remaining Nazi leadership on grounds which were perceived as fair and lawful.
[Deathwatch] Lord Hartley William Shawcross, Nuremberg prosecutor , 101 (662 words)
Hartley William Shawcross was involved in a number of high-profile cases throughout his career, prosecuting a major treason trial and an atomic spying case.
Shawcross then was appointed Britain's chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg, Germany, trials of Nazi war criminals, signing an indictment along with representatives of the United States, France and the Soviet Union.
Shawcross called the Nazi defendants "fl-hearted murderers, plunderers and conspirators of which the world has not known their equal." "There comes a point when a man must refuse to answer to his leader if he is also to answer to his own conscience," he said in court.
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