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Encyclopedia > Harry Smith (army)

Lieutenant-General Harry George Wakelyn Smith (28 June 1787-12 October 1860) was a notable English soldier and military commander of the early 19th century. Sir Harry (as he preferred to be known) is particularly remembered as the hero of the Battle of Aliwal (India) in 1846. (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment (such as a uniform and weapon) to defend that country or its interests. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Great Britain Sikhs Commanders Sir Harry Smith Runjoor Singh Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Aliwal was fought on January 28, 1846, between the British and the Sikhs. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


He was born in Whittlesey, Cambridgeshire, the son of a surgeon. A chapel in the town's St Mary's church was restored in his memory in 1862, and a local community college also bears his name. Whittlesey (historically known as Whittlesea - the name of the railway station is still spelt this way - or Witesie) is a ancient Fenland market town around 6 miles east of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire in England. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Harry Smith - for throughout life he adopted the more familiar form of his Christian name - was educated privately and entered the army in 1805. His first active service was in South America in 1806, but first came to prominence during the Peninsular War in which he served from 1808 through to the end at the Battle of Toulouse in 1814. On the day following the storming of Badajoz (the 6th of April 1812) a well-born Spanish lady, whose entire property in the city had been destroyed, presented herself at the British lines seeking protection from the licence of the soldiery for herself and her sister, a child of fourteen, by whom she was accompanied. The latter, whose name was Juana Maria de Los Dolores de León, had but recently emerged from a convent; but notwithstanding her years she was married to Harry Smith a few days later. She remained with him throughout the rest of the war, accompanying the baggage train, sleeping in the open on the field of battle, riding freely among the troops, and sharing all the privations of campaigning. Her beauty, courage, sound judgment and amiable character endeared her to the officers, including the Duke of Wellington, who spoke of her familiarly as Juanita; and she was idolized by the soldiers. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Peninsular War (1808–1814) (known as War of Independence in Spain, as French Invasions in Portugal and as Guerre dEspagne in France) was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought in the Iberian Peninsula with Spanish, Portuguese, and the British forces fighting against Napoleonic French. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The battle of Toulouse, fought on April 10, 1814 occurred four days after Napoleon had surrendered in Paris to the victorious Prussians. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Badajoz (formerly Badajos), the capital of the Spanish province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, is situated close to the Portuguese frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway. ... Juana Maria de los Delores de Leon Smith (d. ... The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ...


At the close of the war Harry Smith volunteered for service in the United States, where he was present at the battle of Bladensburg (the 24th of August 1814), and witnessed the burning of the capitol at Washington; which, as he said, horrified us coming fresh from the duke's humane warfare in the south of France. The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown Casualties {{{notes}}} The Burning of Washington is the name given to the razing of Washington, D.C., by British and Canadian forces during the War of 1812. ...


He was also present at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Combatants France Anglo-Allied/Prussian/ Dutch Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Dutch 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 22,000 {{{notes}}} Map of the Waterloo campaign The Battle of Waterloo, fought... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Returning to Europe he was brigade-major at the battle of Waterloo; and in 1828 was ordered to the Cape of Good Hope, where he commanded a division in the Kaffir War of 1834-36. In 1835 he accomplished the feat of riding from Cape Town to Grahamstown, in less than six days; and having restored confidence among the whites by his energetic measures, he was appointed governor of the ness Province of Queen Adelaide, where he gained unbounded influence over the native tribes, whom he vigorously set himself to civilize and benefit. But though supported by Sir Benjamir D'Urban, the high commissioner, the ministry in London reversec his policy and, to quote Smith's own words, directed the Province of Queen Adelaide to be restored to barbarism. Smith himself was removed from his command, his departure being deplored alike by the Kaffirs and the Dutch; and numbers of the latter, largely in consequence of this policy of Lord Gleneig began the migration to the interior known as the great trek. World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Combatants France Anglo-Allied/Prussian/ Dutch Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Dutch 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 22,000 {{{notes}}} Map of the Waterloo campaign The Battle of Waterloo, fought... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Province Western Cape Mayor Nomaindia Mfeketo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Grahamstown is a town in the Eastern Cape Province, of the Republic of South Africa and is known in Xhosa as iRhini. ... Queen Adelaide may refer to: Adelaide of Italy Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen Queen Adelaide, Cambridgeshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Major-General Sir Benjamin DUrban (1777- 25 May 1849) was a British general and colonial administrator, who is best known for his frontier policy when he was the Governor in the Cape Colony (now in South Africa). ... The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London (see Wiktionary:London for the name in other languages) is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. ...


Harry Smith was now appointed deputy-adjutant-general o the forces in India, where he took part in the Gwalior campaign of 1843 (for which he received a K.C.B.) and the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-46. He was in command of a division under Sir Hugh Gough at the battles of Mudki and Ferozeshah, where he conspicuously distinguished himself, but was insufficiently supported by the commander-in-chief. After the second of these actions Sir Harry Smith was appointed to an independent command, and on the 28th of January 1846 he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Sikhs at Aliwal on the Sutlej. Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough (November 3, 1779 - March 2, 1869), British field-marshal, a descendant of Francis Gough who was made bishop of Limerick in 1626, was born at Woodstown, Limerick. ... The Battle of Mudki was fought on December 18, 1845, between Great Britain and the Sikhs. ... The Battle of Ferozeshah was fought on December 21 and December 22 of 1845 between the British and the Sikhs, at the village Ferozeshah in Punjab. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... Combatants Great Britain Sikhs Commanders Sir Harry Smith Runjoor Singh Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Aliwal was fought on January 28, 1846, between the British and the Sikhs. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ...


At the battle of Sobraon on the 10th of February he again commanded a division under Gough. For the great victory of Aliwal he was awarded the thanks of parliament; and the speech of the duke of Wellington was perhaps the warmest encomium ever bestowed by that great commander on a meritorious officer. Sir Harry was at the same time created a baronet; and as a special distinction the words of Aliwal were by the patent appended to the title. The Battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 between British forces and the Sikhs. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ...


In 1847 he returned to South Africa as governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner, to grapple with the difficulties he had foreseen eleven years before. He took command of an expedition to deal with the disaffected Boers in the Orange River Sovereignty, and fought the action of Boomplaats on the 29th of August 1848. In December 1850 war broke out with the Kaffirs; Sir Harry Smith was insufficiently supplied with troops from England; and though his conduct of the operations was warmly approved by the duke of Wellington and other military authorities, Lord Grey, in a dispatch never submitted to the queen, recalled him in 1852 before the Kaffirs had been completly subdued. He protested strongly against the abandonment of the Orange River Sovereignty to the Boers, which was carried out two years after his departure, and he actively furthered the granting of responsible government to Cape Colony. Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... The title Earl Grey was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1806 for General Sir Charles Grey. ...


His wife Juana gave her name to Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal. Harrismith in the Free State was named after Smith himself (a further town, Aliwal North in the Eastern Cape, also marks Smith's connection with South Africa). Ladysmith (1991: pop. ... Capital Pietermaritzburg Largest city Durban Area  - Total Ranked 7th 92,100 km² Premier (List) Sbu Ndebele (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density Ranked 1st 9,426,019 8,417,021 102/km² (2001) Languages isiZulu (80. ... Harrismith is a large town situated on the N3 highway in the Free State Province between Johannesburg and Durban. ... Capital Bloemfontein Largest city Bloemfontein Area  - Total Ranked 3rd 129,480 km² Premier Beatrice Marshoff (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density Ranked 8th 2,706,776 2,633,504 21/km² (2001) Languages Sotho (62%) Afrikaans (14%) isiXhosa (9. ... Aliwal North is a town on the Orange River, in central South Africa. ... The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. ...


His autobiography, first published posthumously in 1901, is regarded as a classic of love and war. An autobiography (from the Greek auton, self, bios, life and graphein, write) is a biography written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer (styled as told to or with). The term dates from the late eighteenth century, but the form is much older. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The story of Harry Smith and his wife in the Peninsular Campaign and the Battle of Waterloo is affectionately and with much attention to historical detail narrated in Georgette Heyer's meticulously researched historical novel The Spanish Bride (1940) Georgette Heyer, (pronounced hair), (August 16, 1902 – July 4, 1974) was a historical romance and detective story novelist. ...


Bibliography

Harry Smith, "Autobiography", J. Murray, London, 1901


Joseph H Lehmann, "Remember you are an Englishman": A Biography of Sir Harry Smith, 1787 - 1860, Jonathan Cape, London, 1977.


Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th to 14th editions, 1877 - 1977.


Georgette Heyer, "The Spanish Bride", Heinemann, London, 1940


External links

  • Harry Smith, Autobiography, from the University of Pennsylvania Digital Library Project

References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

 
 

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