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Encyclopedia > Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman

In office
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
Vice President None (1945–1949),
Alben W. Barkley (1949–1953)
Preceded by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower

In office
January 20, 1945 – April 12, 1945
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Henry A. Wallace
Succeeded by Alben W. Barkley

In office
January 3, 1935 – January 17, 1945
Preceded by Roscoe C. Patterson
Succeeded by Frank P. Briggs

Born May 8, 1884(1884-05-08)
Lamar, Missouri
Died December 26, 1972 (aged 88)
Kansas City, Missouri
Political party Democratic
Spouse Bess Wallace Truman
Occupation Small businessman (haberdasher), farmer
Religion Baptist
Signature Harry S. Truman's signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Missouri National Guard
Years of service 1905-1920
Rank Colonel
Commands Battery D, 129th Field Artillery, 60th Brigade, 35th Infantry Division
Battles/wars World War I

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953). As vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term. Harry Truman: Is most likely: Harry S. Truman, the 33rd President of the United States Can also be: The victim of Mt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x641, 94 KB) This image is a work of an employee of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... FDR redirects here. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... FDR redirects here. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Missouri was admitted to the Union on August 10, 1821. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the U.S. Senator from New York whom this person was named after, see Roscoe Conkling. ... Frank Parks Briggs (February 25, 1894 - September 23, 1992) was a United States Senator from Missouri. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lamar is a city located in Barton County, Missouri. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman (February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982), often known as Bess Truman, was the wife of Harry S Truman and First Lady of the United States from 1945 to 1953. ... Mom and pop store redirects here. ... A businessperson is a generic term for someone who is employed at a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically, someone who is involved in the management (at any level) of a company. ... A haberdasher is a person who sells small items via retail, commonly items used in clothing, such as ribbons and buttons, or completed accessories, such as hats or gloves. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard Seal of the National Guard Missile Defense The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 35th Infantry Division. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... FDR redirects here. ...


During World War I Truman served as an artillery officer. After the war he became part of the political machine of Tom Pendergast and was elected a county judge in Missouri and eventually a United States Senator. After he gained national prominence as head of the wartime Truman Committee, Truman replaced vice president Henry A. Wallace as Roosevelt's running mate in 1944. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Field Artillery, representing two crossed field guns The U.S. Army Field Artillery was founded on 17 November 1775 by the Continental Congress, which unanimously elected Henry Knox Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery. The regiment formally entered service on 1 Jan 1776. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Thomas Joseph Pendergast (July 22, 1873 – January 26, 1945) controlled Kansas City as a political boss. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... A running mate is a person running for a subordinate position on a joint ticket during an election. ...


As president, Truman faced challenge after challenge in domestic affairs. The disorderly reconversion of the economy of the United States was marked by severe shortages, numerous strikes, and the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act over his veto. He confounded all predictions to win re-election in 1948, largely due to his famous Whistle Stop Tour of rural America. After his re-election he was able to pass only one of the proposals in his Fair Deal program. He used executive orders to begin desegregation of the U.S. armed forces and to launch a system of loyalty checks to remove thousands of communist sympathizers from government office, even though he strongly opposed mandatory loyalty oaths for governmental employees, a stance that led to charges that his administration was soft on communism. Truman's presidency was also eventful in foreign affairs, with the end of World War II and his decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan, the founding of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine to contain communism, the beginning of the Cold War, the creation of NATO, and the Korean War. Corruption in Truman's administration reached the cabinet and senior White House staff. Republicans made corruption a central issue in the 1952 campaign. The economy of the United States has been the worlds largest national economy since the late 1890s;[1] its gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated as $13. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... President Harry S. Truman at the mic, left Harley O. Staggers & Alben W. Barkley. ... In United States history, the Fair Deal was U.S. President Harry S Trumans policy of social improvement, outlined in his 1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A loyalty oath is an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state to which an individual is a member. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... UN redirects here. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... GOP redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Truman, whose demeanor was very different from that of the patrician Roosevelt, was a folksy, unassuming president. He popularized such phrases as "The buck stops here" and "If you can't stand the heat, you better get out of the kitchen."[1] He overcame the low expectations of many political observers who compared him unfavorably with his highly regarded predecessor. At one point in his second term, near the end of the Korean War, Truman's public opinion ratings reached the lowest of any United States president. Despite negative public opinion during his term in office, popular and scholarly assessments of his presidency became more positive after his retirement from politics and the publication of his memoirs. He died in 1972. Many U.S. scholars today rank him among the top ten presidents. Truman's legendary upset victory in 1948 over Thomas E. Dewey is routinely invoked by underdog presidential candidates. Famous The Buck Stops Here sign from President Harry Trumans desk The buck stops here is a term that was popularized by U.S. President Harry Truman. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ...

Personal life

Truman was born on May 8, 1884 in Lamar, Missouri, the second child of John Anderson Truman (1851-1914) and Martha Ellen Young Truman (1852-1947). His parents chose the name Harry after his mother's brother, Harrison Young (1846-1916), Harry's uncle.[2] His parents chose "S" as his middle name, in attempt to please both of Harry's grandfathers, Anderson Shippe Truman and Solomon Young; the initial did not actually stand for anything, as was a common practice among Scots-Irish.[3][4] A brother, John Vivian (1886–1965), soon followed, along with sister Mary Jane Truman (1889–1978). is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lamar is a city located in Barton County, Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ...


John Truman was a farmer and livestock dealer. The family lived in Lamar until Harry was ten months old. They then moved to a farm near Harrisonville, then to Belton, and in 1887 to his grandparents' 600 acre (240 ha) farm in Grandview.[5] When Truman was six, his parents moved the family to Independence, so he could attend the Presbyterian Church Sunday School. Truman did not attend a traditional school until he was eight. Harrisonville is a city in Cass County, Missouri, United States. ... Belton is a city in Cass County, Missouri, near Kansas City. ... Grandview is a city located in Jackson County, Missouri. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


As a young boy, Truman had three main interests: music, reading, and history, all encouraged by his mother. He was very close to his mother for as long as she lived, and as president solicited political as well as personal advice from her.[6] He got up at five every morning to practice the piano, and went to a local music teacher twice a week until he was fifteen.[7] Truman also read a great deal of popular history. He was a page at the 1900 Democratic National Convention at Convention Hall in Kansas City.[8] Pianoforte redirects here. ... Convention Hall The 1900 Democratic National Convention was a United States presidential nominating convention that took place the week of July 4, 1900 at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri. ... Convention Hall Convention Hall was a convention center in Kansas City, Missouri that hosted the 1900 Democratic National Convention and 1928 Republican National Convention. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


After graduating from Independence High School (now William Chrisman High School) in 1901, Truman worked as a timekeeper on the Santa Fe Railroad, sleeping in "hobo camps" near the rail lines;[9] he then worked at a series of clerical jobs. He returned to the Grandview farm in 1906 and stayed there until 1917 when he went into military service. William Chrisman High School is a High School located in Independence, Missouri. ... The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (AAR reporting marks ATSF), often abbreviated as Santa Fe, was one of the largest railroads in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The physically demanding work he put in on the Grandview farm was a formative experience. During this period he courted Bess Wallace and even proposed to her in 1911. She turned him down, and Truman said he wanted to make more money than a farmer before he proposed again. He did propose again in 1918, after coming back as a Captain from World War I, and she accepted. Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman (February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982), often known as Bess Truman, was the wife of Harry S Truman and First Lady of the United States from 1945 to 1953. ...


Truman was the only president who served after 1897 not to earn a college degree: poor eyesight prevented him from applying to West Point, his childhood dream, and financial constraints prevented him from securing a degree elsewhere.[6] He did, however, study for two years toward a law degree at the Kansas City Law School (now the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law) in the early 1920s. USMA redirects here. ... The University of Missouri-Kansas City (abbreviated UMKC) is an institution of higher learning located in Kansas City, Missouri. ...


World War I

Truman in uniform ca. 1918
Truman in uniform ca. 1918

Truman enlisted in the Missouri National Guard in 1905, and served in it until 1911. With the onset of American participation in World War I, he rejoined the Guard. At his physical in 1905, his eyesight had been an unacceptable 20/50 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left.[10] Reportedly he passed by secretly memorizing the eye chart.[11] The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...


Before going to France, he was sent to Camp Doniphan, adjacent to Fort Sill, near Lawton, Oklahoma for training. He ran the camp canteen with a Jewish friend, Sergeant Edward Jacobson, who had experience in a Kansas City clothing store as a clerk. At Ft. Sill he also met Lieutenant James M. Pendergast, the nephew of Thomas Joseph (T.J.) Pendergast, a Kansas City politician. Both men would have profound influences on later events in Truman's life.[12][13][14][15] Fort Sill is a United States Army post near Lawton, Oklahoma; about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. ... Lawton is a city in Comanche County, Oklahoma, United States. ... Edward Jacobson (Born 17 June 1891, New York City - Died 25 October 1955, Kansas City, Missouri) was a Jewish American Kansas City businessman. ... Thomas Joseph Pendergast (July 22, 1873 – January 26, 1945) controlled Kansas City as a political boss. ...


Truman was chosen to be an officer, and then battery commander in an artillery regiment in France. His unit was Battery D, 129th Field Artillery, 60th Brigade, 35th Infantry Division, known for its discipline problems.[16] During a sudden attack by the Germans in the Vosges Mountains, the battery started to disperse; Truman ordered them back into position using profanities that he had "learned while working on the Santa Fe railroad."[16] Shocked by the outburst, his men reassembled and followed him to safety. Under Captain Truman's command in France, the battery did not lose a single man.[16] The war was a transformative experience that brought out Truman's leadership qualities; he later rose to the rank of Colonel in the National Guard, and his war record made possible his later political career in Missouri.[16] Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 35th Infantry Division. ... Typical landscape in Vosges mountains (Chajoux valley, La Bresse, France) Waterfall in eastern Vosges mountains Glacial lake in Vosges mountains (Lac de Schiessrothried) The Vosges Mountains is a range in eastern France, stretching along the west side of the Rhine valley in a NNE direction, from Belfort to Saverne. ...


Marriage and early business career

The Trumans' wedding day, June 28, 1919
The Trumans' wedding day, June 28, 1919

At the war's conclusion, Truman returned to Independence and married his longtime love interest, Bess Wallace, on June 28, 1919. The couple had one child, Mary Margaret (born February 17, 1924 - January 29, 2008). Photo of the Trumans on the wedding day, Saturday, 28 June 1919, from the National Archives: http://www. ... Photo of the Trumans on the wedding day, Saturday, 28 June 1919, from the National Archives: http://www. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


A month before the wedding, banking on their success at Fort Sill and overseas, Truman and Jacobson opened a haberdashery of the same name at 104 West 12th Street in downtown Kansas City. After a few successful years, the store went bankrupt during the recession of 1921, which greatly affected the farm economy.[6] Truman blamed the fall in farm prices on the policies of the Republicans; he worked to pay off the debts until 1934, just as he was going into the U.S. Senate, when banker William T. Kemper retrieved the note during the sale of a bankrupt bank and allowed Truman to pay it off for $1,000. (At the same time Kemper made a $1,000 contribution to Truman's campaign.) A haberdasher is a person who sells small items via retail, commonly items used in clothing, such as ribbons and buttons, or completed accessories, such as hats or gloves. ... The post-WWI recession was an economic recession that hit much of the world after the First World War. ... William Thornton Kemper, Sr. ...


Former comrades in arms and former business partners, Jacobson and Truman remained close friends for life. Decades later, Jacobson's advice to Truman on Zionism would play a critical role in the US government's decision to recognize Israel.[17] This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Politics

Jackson County judge

In 1925, with the help of the Kansas City Democratic machine led by boss Tom Pendergast, Truman was elected as a judge of the County Court of the eastern district of Jackson County[6]—an administrative, not judicial, position similar to county commissioners elsewhere. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ... Thomas Joseph Pendergast (July 22, 1873 – January 26, 1945) controlled Kansas City as a political boss. ... Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. ...


In 1922, Truman gave a friend $10 for an initiation fee for the Ku Klux Klan but later asked to get his money back; he was never initiated, never attended a meeting, and never claimed membership.[18][19] Though Truman at times expressed anger towards Jews in his diaries, his business partner and close friend Edward Jacobson was Jewish.[20][21][22] Truman's attitudes toward blacks were typical of white Missourians of his era, and were expressed in his casual use of terms like "nigger." Years later, another measure of his racial attitudes would come to the forefront: tales of the abuse, violence, and persecution suffered by many African American veterans upon their return from World War II infuriated Truman, and were a major factor in his decision to use Executive Order 9981 to back civil rights initiatives and desegregate the armed forces.[23] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Edward Jacobson (Born 17 June 1891, New York City - Died 25 October 1955, Kansas City, Missouri) was a Jewish American Kansas City businessman. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Chicago Defender announces Executive Order 9981. ... See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968) The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ...


He was not reelected in 1924 but in 1926 was elected the presiding judge for the court and reelected in 1930.


In 1930 Truman coordinated the "Ten Year Plan," which transformed Jackson County and the Kansas City skyline with new public works projects, including an extensive series of roads, construction of a new Wight and Wight-designed County Court building, and the dedication of a series of 12 Madonna of the Trail monuments honoring pioneer women. Much of the building was done with Pendergast Ready Mixed concrete. Nelson Atkins Museum (before the 2007 remodeling) Wight and Wight was an architecture firm in Kansas City, Missouri consisting of the brothers Thomas Wight (1874-1949) and William Wight (1882-1947) who designed several landmark buildings in Missouri and Kansas. ... Madonna of the Trail monument at Bethesda, Maryland Madonna of the Trail is a series of monuments dedicated to the spirit of pioneer women in the United States. ...


In 1933 Truman was named Missouri's director for the Federal Re-Employment program (part of the Civil Works Administration)at the request of Postmaster General James Farley as payback to Pendergast for delivering the Kansas City vote to Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election. The appointment confirmed Pendergast's control over federal patronage jobs in Missouri and marked the zenith of his power. It was also to create a relationship between Truman and Harry Hopkins and assure avid Truman support for the New Deal.[24] 6,000 Men and a Scenic Boulevard; San Francisco, California, ca. ... House Resolution 368, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, March 2 1982 Robert Caro, The Path to Power James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelts closest advisors. ...


U.S. Senator

First term

Senator Truman seeks re-election during this July 1940 speech in Sedalia, Missouri.
Senator Truman seeks re-election during this July 1940 speech in Sedalia, Missouri.

Truman was Tom Pendergast's chosen candidate in the 1934 U.S. Senate election for Missouri. During the Democratic primary, Truman defeated John J. Cochran and Tuck Milligan, the brother of federal prosecutor Maurice M. Milligan. Truman then defeated the incumbent Republican, Roscoe C. Patterson, by nearly 20 percent. Image File history File links Senator_Harry_Truman. ... Image File history File links Senator_Harry_Truman. ... Sedalia is a city located in Pettis County, Missouri, at the intersection of U.S. Highway 50 and U.S. Highway 65. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups  Simultaneous hold  Farmer-Labor hold  Progressive hold The United States Senate elections, 1934 were elections for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of Democratic President Franklin Delano Roosevelts first term. ... For other uses, see Primary. ... John Joseph Cochran (August 11, 1880 - March 6, 1947) was a U.S. Representative from Missouri. ... Maurice M. Milligan (1884-1959),a U.S. District Attorney for Western Missouri, is most famous for the successful 1939 prosecution of Kansas City boss Tom Pendergast. ... For the U.S. Senator from New York whom this person was named after, see Roscoe Conkling. ...


During the election day, four people were killed at the polls, prompting various investigations into Kansas City election practices.


Truman assumed office under a cloud as "the senator from Pendergast." He gave patronage decisions to Pendergast but always maintained he voted his conscience. Truman always defended the patronage by saying that by offering a little, he saved a lot.


In his first term as a U.S. Senator, Truman spoke out bluntly against corporate greed, and warned about the dangers of Wall Street speculators and other moneyed special interests attaining too much influence in national affairs.[25] He was, however, largely ignored by President Roosevelt, who appears not to have taken him seriously at this stage. Truman reportedly had difficulty getting White House secretaries to return his calls.[26] Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ...


The 1936 election of Pendergast-backed Governor Lloyd C. Stark revealed even bigger voter irregularities in Missouri than had been uncovered in 1934. Milligan prosecuted 278 defendants in vote fraud cases; he convicted 259. Stark turned on Pendergast, urged prosecution, and was able to wrest federal patronage from the Pendergast machine.[27] Lloyd Crow Stark (November 23, 1886 – September 17, 1972) was a Governor of the U.S. state of Missouri. ...


Ultimately Milligan discovered that Pendergast had not paid federal taxes between 1927 and 1937 and had conducted a fraudulent insurance scam. In 1939, Pendergast pled guilty and received a $10,000 fine and a 15-month sentence at Leavenworth Federal Prison. No charges were filed against Truman. The United States Penitentiary (USP), Leavenworth is located in Leavenworth, Kansas on 1,583 acres (6. ...


1940 election

Truman's prospects for re-election to the Senate looked bleak. In 1940, both Stark and Maurice Milligan challenged him in the Democratic primary for the Senate. Robert E. Hannegan, who controlled St. Louis Democratic politics, threw his support in the election behind Truman. (Hannegan would go on to broker the 1944 deal that put Truman on the vice presidential ticket for Roosevelt.) Truman campaigned tirelessly and combatively. In the end, Stark and Milligan split the anti-Pendergast vote in the Democratic primary, with Stark and Milligan having more combined votes than Truman.[28]  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups  Progressive hold The United States Senate elections of 1940 were elections for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of Franklin Roosevelt to his third term as President. ... Robert Emmet Hannegan was born on June 30, 1903, in St. ... St. ...


In September 1940, during the general election campaign, Truman was elected Grand Master of the Missouri Grand Lodge of Freemasonry.[29] In November of that year, he defeated Kansas City State Senator Manvel H. Davis by over 40,000 votes and retained his Senate seat.[30] Truman said later that the Masonic election assured his victory in the general election over State Senator Davis.[31] In Freemasonry the Grand Master is the supreme ruler of the Craft within a given jurisdiction. ... A Grand Lodge, or Grand Orient, is the usual governing body of Craft, or Blue Lodge, Freemasonry in a particular jurisdiction. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... Manvel Humphrey Davis (April 7, 1891 – February 10, 1959) was a member of the Missouri House of Representatives and Missouri State Senate. ...


The successful 1940 Senate campaign is regarded by many biographers as a personal triumph and vindication for Truman and as a precursor to the much more celebrated 1948 drive for the White House, another contest where he was underestimated.[32] It was the turning point of his political career.


Defense policy statements

On June 23, 1941, the day after Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union, Senator Truman declared: "If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany, and that way let them kill as many as possible, although I don't want to see Hitler victorious under any circumstances. Neither of them thinks anything of their pledged word."[33] Although the sentiment was in line with what many Americans felt at the time, it was regarded by later biographers as both inappropriate and cynical.[34][35] The remark was the first in a long series of prominently inopportune off-the-cuff statements by Truman to members of the national press corps. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


Truman Committee

Truman gained fame and respect when his preparedness committee (popularly known as the "Truman Committee") investigated the scandal of military wastefulness by exposing fraud and mismanagement. The Roosevelt administration had initially feared the Committee would hurt war morale, and Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson wrote to the president declaring it was "in the public interest" to suspend the committee. Truman wrote a letter to FDR saying that the committee was "100 percent behind the administration" and that it had no intention of criticizing the military conduct of the war.[36] The committee was considered a success and is reported to have saved at least $15 billion. Truman's advocacy of common-sense cost-saving measures for the military attracted much attention. In 1943, his work as chairman earned Truman his first appearance on the cover of Time. He would eventually appear on nine Time covers and be named the magazine's Man of the Year for 1945 and 1948.[37] After years as a marginal figure in the Senate, Truman was cast into the national spotlight after the success of the Truman Committee.[37] The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is currently chaired by Senator Norm Coleman (R-MN), with Carl Levin (D-MI) as a ranking member. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Robert Porter Patterson was the United States Secretary of War under United States President Harry S. Truman from the 27th of September 1945 to the 18th of July, 1947. ... FDR redirects here. ... TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...


Vice Presidency

Following months of uncertainty over the president's preference for a running mate, Truman was selected as Roosevelt's vice presidential candidate in 1944 as the result of a deal worked out by Hannegan, who was Democratic National Chairman that year. Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Although his public image remained that of a robust, engaged world leader, Roosevelt's physical condition was in fact rapidly deteriorating in mid-1944. A handful of key FDR advisers, including outgoing Democratic National Committee Chairman Frank C. Walker, incoming Chairman Robert Hannegan, party treasurer Edwin W. Pauley, strategist Ed Flynn, and lobbyist George E. Allen closed ranks in the summer of 1944 to "keep Henry Wallace off the ticket."[38] They considered Wallace, the incumbent vice president, too liberal, and had grave concerns about the possibility of his ascension to the presidency. Allen would later recall that each of these men "realized that the man nominated to run with Roosevelt would in all probability be the next President. . ."[39] Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Edwin Wendell Pauley Sr. ... Born into a middle-class Irish family in the Bronx, Edward J. Flynn (1891-1953) rose to become one of the most influential Irish American political figures from 1920s to the 1950s. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ...


After meeting personally with the party leaders, FDR agreed to replace Wallace as vice president; however, Roosevelt chose to leave the final selection of a running mate unresolved until the later stages of the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. James F. Byrnes of South Carolina was initially favored, but labor leaders opposed him (Roosevelt also opposed Byrnes, but was reluctant to disappoint any candidate and did not want to tell them directly, and famously told Hannegan to "clear it [Byrnes's nomination] with Sidney", meaning labor leader Sidney Hillman, a few days before the convention).[40] In addition, Byrnes's status as a segregationist gave him problems with Northern liberals,[41] and he was also considered vulnerable because of his conversion from Catholicism.[42][43] Reportedly, Roosevelt offered the position to Governor Henry F. Schricker of Indiana, but he declined.[44] Before the convention began, Roosevelt wrote a note saying he would accept either Truman or Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas; state and city party leaders preferred Truman. Truman himself did not campaign directly or indirectly that summer for the number two spot on the ticket, and always maintained that he had not wanted the job of vice president. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Sidney Hillman (March 23, 1887 - July 10, 1946) was an American labor leader. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Henry Frederick Schricker (August 30, 1883 - December 28, 1966) was governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from 1941 to 1945 and from 1949 to 1953. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...


Truman's candidacy was humorously dubbed the second "Missouri Compromise" at the 1944 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, as his appeal to the party center contrasted with the liberal Wallace and the conservative Byrnes. The nomination was well received, and the Roosevelt-Truman team went on to score a 432–99 electoral-vote victory in the 1944 presidential election, defeating Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York and Governor John Bricker of Ohio. Truman was sworn in as vice president on January 20, 1945, and served less than three months. The United States in 1820. ... The 1944 Democratic National Convention was held at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois from July 19 - July 21, 1944. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... This article is about the state. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Truman's vice-presidency was relatively uneventful, and Roosevelt rarely contacted him, even to inform him of major decisions. Truman shocked many when he attended his disgraced patron Pendergast's funeral a few days after being sworn in. Truman was reportedly the only elected official who attended the funeral. Truman brushed aside the criticism, saying simply, "He was always my friend and I have always been his."[6]


On April 12, 1945, Truman was urgently called to the White House, where Eleanor Roosevelt informed him that the president had died after suffering a massive cerebral hemorrhage. Truman's first concern was for Mrs. Roosevelt. He asked if there was anything he could do for her, to which she replied, "Is there anything we can do for you? For you are the one in trouble now."[45] is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ...


Presidency 1945–1953

First term (1945–1949)

Assuming office

Presidential portrait of Truman painted by Greta Kempton
Presidential portrait of Truman painted by Greta Kempton

Truman had been vice president for only 82 days when President Roosevelt died. He had had very little meaningful communication with Roosevelt about world affairs or domestic politics after being sworn in as vice president, and was completely uninformed about major initiatives relating to the successful prosecution of the war—notably the top secret Manhattan Project, which was about to test the world's first atomic bomb. Image File history File links Official Presidential Portrait. ... Image File history File links Official Presidential Portrait. ... Greta Kempton Greta Kempton (March 22, 1901 - December 10, 1991) born Martha Greta Kempton in Vienna, Austria. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


Shortly after taking the oath of office, Truman said to reporters:

"Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now. I don't know if you fellas ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me what happened yesterday, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."

A few days after his swearing in, he wrote to his wife, Bess: "It won't be long until I can sit back and study the whole picture and. . . there'll be no more to this job than there was to running Jackson County and not anymore worry."[6] However, the simplicity he had predicted would prove elusive.


Upon assuming the presidency, Truman asked all the members of FDR's cabinet to remain in place, told them that he was open to their advice, and laid down a central principle of his administration: he would be the one making decisions, and they were to support him.[46] Just a few weeks after he assumed office, on his 61st birthday, the Allies achieved victory in Europe. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. ...


Atomic bomb use

For more details on this topic, see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Truman was quickly briefed on the Manhattan Project and authorized use of atomic weapons against the Japanese in August 1945, after Japan rejected the Potsdam Declaration. The atomic bombings that followed were the first, and so far the only, instance of nuclear warfare. The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ...


On the morning of August 6, 1945, the B-29 bomber Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.[47] Two days later, having heard nothing from the Japanese government, the U.S. military proceeded with its plans to drop a second atomic bomb. On August 9, Nagasaki was also devastated.[48] Truman received news of the bombing while aboard the heavy cruiser USS Augusta on his way back to the U.S. after the Potsdam Conference. The Japanese agreed to surrender on August 14.[49] is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit before the bombing of Hiroshima. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... The fourth USS Augusta (CA-31) (originally CL-31) was a Northampton-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, notable for service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II, and for her occasional use as a presidential flagship carrying both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the Potsdam Conference, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was aware of the U.S. government's possession of the atomic bomb.[50][51][52] In the years since the bombings, however, questions about Truman's choice have become more pointed. Supporters of Truman's decision to use the bomb argue that it saved hundreds of thousands of lives that would have been lost in an invasion of mainland Japan. Eleanor Roosevelt spoke in support of this view when she said, in 1954, that Truman had "made the only decision he could," and that the bomb's use was necessary "to avoid tremendous sacrifice of American lives."[53] Others, including historian Gar Alperovitz, have argued that the use of nuclear weapons was unnecessary and inherently immoral.[54] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... -1...


Strikes and economic upheaval

President Harry Truman with "The Buck Stops Here" sign on his desk
President Harry Truman with "The Buck Stops Here" sign on his desk

The end of World War II was followed in the United States by uneasy and contentious conversion back to a peacetime economy. The president was faced with a sudden renewal of labor-management conflicts that had lain dormant during the war years, severe shortages in housing and consumer products, and widespread dissatisfaction with inflation, which at one point hit six percent in a single month.[55] In this polarized environment, there was a wave of destabilizing strikes in major industries, and Truman's response to them was generally seen as ineffective.[55] In the spring of 1946, a national railway strike, unprecedented in the nation's history, brought virtually all passenger and freight lines to a standstill for over a month. When the railway workers turned down a proposed settlement, Truman announced that he would seize control of the railways and even threatened to draft striking workers into the armed forces.[56] While delivering a speech before Congress requesting authority for this plan, Truman received word that the strike had been settled on his terms.[56] He announced this development to Congress on the spot and received a tumultuous ovation that was replayed for weeks on newsreels. Although the resolution of the crippling railway strike made for stirring political theater, it actually cost Truman politically: his proposed solution was seen by many as high-handed; and labor voters, already wary of Truman's handling of workers' issues, were deeply alienated.[55] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Famous The Buck Stops Here sign from President Harry Trumans desk The buck stops here is a term that was popularized by U.S. President Harry Truman. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


United Nations, Marshall Plan, and the Cold War

As a Wilsonian internationalist, Truman strongly supported the creation of the United Nations, and included former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt on the delegation to the U.N.'s first General Assembly in order to meet the public desire for peace after the carnage of World War II. Faced with communist abandonment of commitments to democracy made at the Potsdam Conference, and with communist advances in Greece (leading to the Greek Civil War) and in Turkey that suggested a hunger for global domination, Truman and his foreign policy advisors concluded that the interests of the Soviet Union were quickly becoming incompatible with those of the United States. The Truman administration articulated an increasingly hard line against the Soviets. Wilsonianism or Wilsonian are words used to describe a certain type of ideological perspectives on foreign policy. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was...


Although he claimed no personal expertise on foreign matters, and although the opposition Republicans controlled Congress, Truman was able to win bipartisan support for both the Truman Doctrine, which formalized a policy of containment, and the Marshall Plan, which aimed to help rebuild postwar Europe. To get Congress to spend the vast sums necessary to restart the moribund European economy, Truman used an ideological argument, arguing forcefully that communism flourishes in economically deprived areas. His goal was to "scare the hell out of Congress."[57] As part of the U.S. Cold War strategy, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 and reorganized military forces by merging the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (later the Department of Defense) and creating the U.S. Air Force. The act also created the CIA and the National Security Council. The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Seal The United States Department of the Navy was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy and Marine Corps. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... USAF redirects here. ... CIA redirects here. ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ...


Fair Deal

After many years of Democratic majorities in Congress and two Democratic presidents, voter fatigue with the Democrats delivered a new Republican majority in the 1946 midterm elections, with the Republicans picking up 55 seats in the House of Representatives and several seats in the Senate. Although Truman cooperated closely with the Republican leaders on foreign policy, he fought them bitterly on domestic issues. He failed to prevent tax cuts or the removal of price controls. The power of the labor unions was significantly curtailed by the Taft-Hartley Act, which was enacted by overriding Truman's veto.[58] In politics, voter fatigue is the apathy that the public can experience when they are required to vote too often. ... The U.S. House election, 1946 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1946 which occurred in the middle of President Harry Trumans first term. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The United States Senate elections of 1946 were in the middle of Democratic President Harry Trumans first term. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ...


As he readied for the approaching 1948 election, Truman made clear his identity as a Democrat in the New Deal tradition, advocating national health insurance,[59] the repeal of the anti-union Taft-Hartley Act, and an aggressive civil rights program. Taken together, it all constituted a broad legislative agenda that came to be called the "Fair Deal." This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... In United States history, the Fair Deal was U.S. President Harry S Trumans policy of social improvement, outlined in his 1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949. ...


Truman's proposals made for potent campaign rhetoric but were not well received by Congress, even after Democratic gains in the 1948 election. Only one of the major Fair Deal bills, the Housing Act of 1949, was ever enacted.[60][61] The U.S. House election, 1948 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1948 which coincided with President Harry Trumans re-election. ...


Recognition of Israel

For more details on this topic, see Declaration of Independence (Israel).

Truman was a key figure in the establishment of the Jewish state in the Palestine Mandate. In shaping his policy toward Palestine, Truman experienced continuous pressures, especially from the Jewish community, virtually from the very moment he took office as president [62]. Truman writes, “Top Jewish leaders in the United States were putting all sorts of pressure on me to commit American power and forces on behalf of the Jewish aspirations in Palestine[63].” In 1946, an Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry recommended the gradual establishment of two states in Palestine, with neither Jews nor Arabs dominating. However, there was little Zionist [64] support for the two-state proposal. Britain’s empire was in rapid decline, and under pressure to withdraw from Palestine quickly because of attacks on British forces by armed Zionist groups and Arab militias.[65] David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... On June 24, 1922 the League of Nations agreed upon a document called the Palestine Mandate. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... “UK” redirects here. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


At the urging of the British, a special U.N. committee, UNSCOP, recommended the immediate partitioning of Palestine into two states, and with Truman's support, this initiative was approved by the General Assembly on November 29, 1947. According to Truman, “The facts were that not only were there pressure movements around the United Nations unlike anything that had been seen there before, but that the White House, too, was subjected to a constant barrage. I do not think I ever had as much pressure and propaganda aimed at the White House as I had in this instance. The persistence of a few of the extreme Zionist leaders - actuated by a political motive and engaging in political threats - disturbed and annoyed me.”[66] The president noted in a letter to Eleanor Roosevelt, “I regret this situation very much because my sympathy has always been on their [Zionist] side.”[67] UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ...


The British announced on November 30, 1947 that they would leave Palestine by May 15, 1948. A civil war broke out in Palestine and the Arab League Council nations began moving troops to Palestine's borders. The Zionist idea of a Jewish state in the Middle East was popular in the U.S., particularly among urban Jewish voters, one of Truman's key constituencies. Truman additionally viewed a viable Jewish state as the best way to resettle the some 250,000 Jewish Holocaust refugees living in displaced person camps.[68] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1948 Palestine war refers to the events that happened between the vote on the partition plan of Palestine on November 30, 1947, to the end of the first Arab-Israeli war on July 20, 1949. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... A displaced persons camp is in principle any temporary facility for displaced persons but in common usage refers to camps for individuals displaced as a result of World War II, particularly refugees from Eastern Europe. ...


The State Department, however, disagreed with the decision. Secretary of State George Marshall and most of the foreign service experts strongly opposed the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.[69][70] Thus, when Truman agreed to meet with Chaim Weizmann, at the request of Edward Jacobson he found himself overruling his own Secretary of State. In the end, Marshall did not publicly dispute the president's decision, as Truman feared he might. Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, was perhaps most vocal on the issue of Palestine and spoke repeatedly about the perils of arousing Arab hostility, which might result in denial of access to petroleum resources in the area [71] and about “the impact of this question on the security of the United States.”[72] Truman recognized the State of Israel on May 14, 1948, eleven minutes after it declared itself a nation.[73][74] Department of State redirects here. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Edward Jacobson (Born 17 June 1891, New York City - Died 25 October 1955, Kansas City, Missouri) was a Jewish American Kansas City businessman. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lenczowski ([1]) writes[75] “Whatever misgivings Truman might have had about the Zionist program, he eventually not only embraced it but added impetus to it by ordering the US delegation at the United Nations to vote for partition. It is not easy to give an evaluation of his motives in choosing this option. Initially, he was merely interested in relieving human misery by urging admission of displaced Jews to British-ruled Palestine. In that early stage, he appeared to be quite firm in rejecting “a political structure imposed on the Middle East that would result in conflict.”[76] He was also aware, as we have seen, of the gains likely to accrue to the Soviets if Arabs were to be antagonized. Yet he ultimately chose a policy that did lead to conflict and opened the gates to Soviet penetration in the Arab world, as the examples of Nasser’s, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and other states showed. Was this policy based on his genuine conversion to the idea that the thus generated conflict in the Middle East was of secondary importance and that the Soviet factor could be safely disregarded? This alternative does not quite square with his determination to stop Soviet advances in the northern tier of Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Furthermore, as his arms embargo indicated, he did not identify US interest with Israel’s victory and never went on record claiming that Israel was America’s ally or strategic asset. This leaves us with the other possible alternative - that despite his resentment of the political pressures at home he chose to give them priority over other considerations. Certain observers who stood close to the decision-making process of that era were convinced that domestic politics constituted a major motivation in Truman’s behavior.[77] In the often quoted statement addressed to four American envoys from the middle east who, at a meeting in the White House on November 10, 1945, warned him of adverse effects of a pro-Zionist policy, he declared: “I am sorry, gentlemen, but I have to answer to hundreds of thousands who are anxious for the success of Zionism: I do not have hundreds of thousands of Arabs among my constituents.””[78]


Berlin Airlift

For more details on this topic, see Berlin Blockade.

On June 24, 1948, the Soviet Union blocked access to the three Western-held sectors of Berlin. The Allies had never negotiated a deal to guarantee supply of the sectors deep within the Soviet-occupied zone. The commander of the American occupation zone in Germany, General Lucius D. Clay, proposed sending a large armored column driving peacefully, as a moral right, down the autobahn across the Soviet zone to West Berlin, with instructions to defend itself if it were stopped or attacked. Truman, however, following the consensus in Washington, believed this would entail an unacceptable risk of war. He approved a plan to supply the blockaded city by air. On June 25, the Allies initiated the Berlin Airlift, a campaign that delivered food and other supplies, such as coal, using military airplanes on a massive scale. Nothing remotely like it had ever been attempted before. The airlift worked; ground access was again granted on May 11, 1949. The airlift continued for several months after that. The Berlin Airlift was one of Truman's great foreign policy successes as president; it significantly aided his election campaign in 1948.[79] Occupation zones after 1945. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlin is the capital city of reunited Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Defense cutbacks

Truman, Congress, and the Pentagon followed a strategy of rapid demobilization after World War II, mothballing ships and sending the veterans home. The reasons for this strategy, which persisted through Truman's first term and well into his second, were largely financial. In order to fund domestic spending requirements, Truman had advocated a policy of defense program cuts for the U.S. armed forces at the end of the war. The Republican majority in Congress, anxious to enact numerous tax cuts, approved of Truman's plan to "hold the line" on defense spending.[80] In addition, Truman's experience in the Senate left him with lingering suspicions that large sums were being wasted in the Pentagon.[81] In 1949, Truman appointed Louis A. Johnson as Secretary of Defense. Impressed by U.S. advances in atomic bomb development, Truman and Johnson initially believed that the atomic bomb rendered conventional forces largely irrelevant to the modern battlefield. This assumption eventually had to be revisited, however, as the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic weapon in the same year. This article is about the United States military building. ... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test. ...


Nevertheless, reductions continued, adversely affecting U.S. conventional defense readiness.[82][83] Both Truman and Johnson had a particular antipathy to Navy and Marine Corps budget requests.[83][84] Truman had a well-known dislike of the Marines dating back to his service in World War I, and famously said, "The Marine Corps is the Navy's police force, and as long as I am President that is what it will remain. They have a propaganda machine that is almost equal to Stalin's."[83][84] Indeed, Truman had proposed disbanding the Marine Corps entirely as part of the 1948 defense reorganization plan, a plan that was abandoned only after a letter-writing campaign and the intervention of influential congressmen who were Marine veterans.[83][84] USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Under Truman defense budgets through Fiscal Year 1950, many Navy ships were mothballed, sold to other countries, or scrapped. The U.S. Army, faced with high turnover of experienced personnel, cut back on training exercises, and eased recruitment standards. Usable equipment was scrapped or sold off instead of stored, and even ammunition stockpiles were cut.[85][83] The Marine Corps, its budgets slashed, was reduced to hoarding surplus inventories of World War II-era weapons and equipment.[84][82][83] It was only after the invasion of South Korea by the North Koreans in 1950 that Truman sent significantly larger defense requests to Congress—and initiated what might be considered the modern period of defense spending in the United States. The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ...


Civil rights

Further information: President's Committee on Civil Rights

A 1947 report by the Truman administration titled To Secure These Rights presented a detailed ten-point agenda of civil rights reforms. In February 1948, the president submitted a civil rights agenda to Congress that proposed creating several federal offices devoted to issues such as voting rights and fair employment practices. This provoked a storm of criticism from Southern Democrats in the run up to the national nominating convention, but Truman refused to compromise, saying: "My forebears were Confederates. . . . But my very stomach turned over when I had learned that Negro soldiers, just back from overseas, were being dumped out of Army trucks in Mississippi and beaten."[18] The Presidents Committee on Civil Rights was established by U.S. President Harry Trumans Executive Order 9808 on December 5, 1946. ... Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ... Employment discrimination refers to employment practices that are prohibited by law such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Election of 1948

For more details on this topic, see United States presidential election, 1948.
Truman was so widely expected to lose the 1948 election that the Chicago Tribune ran this incorrect headline. Truman is standing on the rear platform of the train car Ferdinand Magellan at St. Louis Union Station.
Truman was so widely expected to lose the 1948 election that the Chicago Tribune ran this incorrect headline. Truman is standing on the rear platform of the train car Ferdinand Magellan at St. Louis Union Station.

The 1948 presidential election is best remembered for Truman's stunning come-from-behind victory.[86] In the spring of 1948, Truman's public approval rating stood at 36 percent,[87] and the president was nearly universally regarded as incapable of winning the general election. The "New Deal" operatives within the party—including FDR's son James—tried to swing the Democratic nomination to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, a wildly popular figure whose political views—and party affiliation—were totally unknown. Eisenhower emphatically refused to accept, and Truman outflanked opponents to his nomination. The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Image File history File links Harry S. Truman holding a copy of the Chicago Tribune at Union Station in St. ... Image File history File links Harry S. Truman holding a copy of the Chicago Tribune at Union Station in St. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... The Ferdinand Magellan is a former Pullman Company observation car which served as Presidential Rail Car, U.S. Number 1 from 1943 until 1958. ... St. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) and his son James Roosevelt (1907-1991) in 1934. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


At the 1948 Democratic National Convention, Truman attempted to calm turbulent domestic political waters by placing a tepid civil rights plank in the party platform; the aim was to assuage the internal conflicts between the northern and southern wings of his party. Events overtook the president's efforts at compromise, however. A sharp address given by Mayor Hubert Humphrey of Minneapolis—as well as the local political interests of a number of urban bosses—convinced the Convention to adopt a stronger civil rights plank, which Truman approved wholeheartedly. All of Alabama's delegates, and a portion of Mississippi's, walked out of the convention in protest.[88] Unfazed, Truman delivered an aggressive acceptance speech attacking the 80th Congress and promising to win the election and "make these Republicans like it."[89] The 1948 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia from July 12 to July 14, and resulted in the nomination of President Harry Truman for President and of Alben Barkley for Vice President. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Within two weeks, Truman issued Executive Order 9981, racially integrating the U.S. Armed Services.[90][91][92] Truman took considerable political risk in backing civil rights, and many seasoned Democrats were concerned that the loss of Dixiecrat support might destroy the Democratic Party. The fear seemed well justified—Strom Thurmond declared his candidacy for the presidency and led a full-scale revolt of Southern "states' rights" proponents. This revolt on the right was matched by a revolt on the left, led by former Vice President Henry A. Wallace on the Progressive Party ticket. Immediately after its first post-FDR convention, the Democratic Party found itself disintegrating. Victory in November seemed a remote possibility indeed, with the party not simply split but divided three ways. The Chicago Defender announces Executive Order 9981. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... The United States Progressive Party of 1948 was a political party that ran former Vice President Henry A. Wallace of Iowa for president and U.S. Senator Glen H. Taylor of Idaho for vice president in 1948. ...


There followed a remarkable 21,928-mile (35,290 km) presidential odyssey,[93] an unprecedented personal appeal to the nation. Truman and his staff crisscrossed the United States in the presidential train; his "whistlestop" tactic of giving brief speeches from the rear platform of the observation car Ferdinand Magellan came to represent the entire campaign. His combative appearances, such as those at the town square of Harrisburg, Illinois, captured the popular imagination and drew huge crowds. Six stops in Michigan drew a combined total of half a million people;[94] a full million turned out for a New York City ticker-tape parade.[95] President Harry S. Truman at the mic, left Harley O. Staggers & Alben W. Barkley. ... When passenger trains were still the preferred mode of intercity transportation in America, observations often were used by those campaigning for public office, especially for the Presidency of the United States. ... The Ferdinand Magellan is a former Pullman Company observation car which served as Presidential Rail Car, U.S. Number 1 from 1943 until 1958. ... Harrisburg is a city in Saline County, Illinois, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The large, mostly spontaneous gatherings at Truman's depot events were an important sign of a critical change in momentum in the campaign—but this shift went virtually unnoticed by the national press corps, which continued reporting Republican Thomas Dewey's apparent impending victory as a certainty. One reason for the press's inaccurate projection was polls conducted primarily by telephone in a time when many people, including much of Truman's populist base, did not own a telephone.[96] This skewed the data to indicate a stronger support base for Dewey than existed, resulting in an unintended and undetected projection error that may well have contributed to the perception of Truman's bleak chances. The three major polling organizations also stopped polling well before the November 2 election date—Roper in September, and Crossley and Gallup in October—thus failing to measure the very period when Truman appears to have surged past Dewey.[97][98] Thomas Edmund Dewey (b. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the end, Truman held his midwestern base of progressives, won most of the Southern states despite his civil rights plank, and squeaked through with narrow victories in a few critical "battleground" states, notably Ohio, California, and Illinois. The final tally showed that the president had secured 303 electoral votes, Dewey 189, and Thurmond only 39. Henry Wallace got none. The defining image of the campaign came after Election Day, when Truman held aloft the erroneous front page of the Chicago Tribune with a huge headline proclaiming "Dewey Defeats Truman."[99] This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Truman's no-holds-barred style of campaigning in the face of seemingly impossible odds became a campaign tactic that would be repeated by, and appealed to by, many presidential candidates in years to come, notably George H. W. Bush in 1992, another trailing incumbent who fought constantly with Congress. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ...


Truman did not have a vice president in his first term.[100] His running mate, and eventual vice president for the term that began January 20, 1949, was Alben W. Barkley. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ...


Second term (1949–1953)

Truman's second term was grueling, in large measure because of foreign policy challenges connected directly or indirectly to his policy of containment. For instance, he quickly had to come to terms with the end of the American nuclear monopoly. With information provided by its espionage networks in the United States, the Soviet Union's atomic bomb project progressed much faster than had been expected and they exploded their first bomb on August 29, 1949. On January 7, 1953, Truman announced the detonation of the first U.S. hydrogen bomb. Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ...


NATO

Truman was a strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which established a formal peacetime military alliance with Canada and many of the democratic European nations that had not fallen under Soviet control following World War II. The importance of this treaty, which Truman successfully guided through the Senate in 1949, is hard to overstate. It checked Soviet expansion in Europe, and sent a clear message to communist leaders that the world's democracies were willing and able to build new security structures in support of democratic ideals. The United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Iceland, and Canada were the original treaty signatories; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952. This article is about the military alliance. ...


People's Republic of China

On December 21, 1949, Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) and his National Revolutionary Army left mainland China, fleeing to Taiwan in the face of successful attacks by Mao Zedong's communist army during the Chinese Civil War. In June 1950, Truman ordered the U.S. Navy's Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent further conflict between the communist government at the China mainland and the Republic of China at Taiwan. Truman also called for Taiwan not to make any further attack on the mainland.[101] is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , sometimes shortened to 國軍 or National Army) was the party army of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMTs period of party rule beginning in 1928. ... ... Mao redirects here. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military formation based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Soviet espionage and McCarthyism

Throughout his presidency, Truman had to deal with accusations that the federal government was harboring Soviet spies at the highest level. Testimony in Congress on this issue garnered national attention, and thousands of people were fired as security risks. An optimistic, patriotic man, Truman was dubious about reports of potential Communist or Soviet penetration of the U.S. government, and his oft-quoted response was to dismiss the allegations as a "red herring."[102]


In August 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a former spy for the Soviets and a senior editor at Time magazine, testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and presented a list of what he said were members of an underground communist network working within the United States government in the 1930s. One was Alger Hiss, a senior State Department official. Hiss denied the accusations.[103] Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ...


Chambers's revelations led to a crisis in American political culture, as Hiss was convicted of perjury. On February 9, 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy accused the State Department of having communists on the payroll, and specifically claimed that Secretary of State Dean Acheson knew of, and was protecting, 205 communists within the State Department.[104] At issue was whether Truman had discovered all the subversive agents that had entered the government during the Roosevelt years. Many on the right, such as McCarthy and Congressman Richard Nixon, insisted that he had not. is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


By spotlighting this issue and attacking Truman's administration, McCarthy quickly established himself as a national figure, and his explosive allegations dominated the headlines. His claims were short on confirmable details, but they nevertheless transfixed a nation struggling to come to grips with frightening new realities: the Soviet Union's nuclear explosion, the loss of U.S. atom bomb secrets, the fall of China to communism, and new revelations of Soviet intelligence penetration of other U.S. agencies, including the Treasury Department.[102] Truman, a pragmatic man who had made allowances for the likes of Tom Pendergast and Stalin, quickly developed an unshakable loathing of Joseph McCarthy.[105] He counterattacked, saying that "Americanism" itself was under attack by elements "who are loudly proclaiming that they are its chief defenders. . . . They are trying to create fear and suspicion among us by the use of slander, unproved accusations and just plain lies. . . . They are trying to get us to believe that our Government is riddled with communism and corruption. . . . These slandermongers are trying to get us so hysterical that no one will stand up to them for fear of being called a communist. Now this is an old communist trick in reverse. . . . That is not fair play. That is not Americanism."[104] Nevertheless Truman was never able to shake his image among the public of being unable to purge his government of subversive influences.[102] The U.S. Treasury building today. ...


Pakistan

President Truman recognised the newly created state of Pakistan in 1947 and the United States was one of the first countries in the world to do so. President Truman personally invited Pakistan's first Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and his wife Begum Ra'ana to the United States for talks. Liaquat Ali Khan accepted the invitation and arrived in Washington in May 1950. Liaquat toured the United States and gave various speeches to the US Senate. At the time of the visit Pakistan was non-aligned between the US-led Western Bloc and the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc and it had recognised the Communist-led People's Republic of China, ignoring Washington's opposition to Peking. Despite the success of his US tour, Liaquat Ali's Government did not make any drastic change in its foreign policy of semi-non-alignment in the Cold War rivalry. In the UN Security Council, it did oppose North Korea's aggression against pro-American South Korea but refused to send Pakistani combat troops to join the UN force in the Korean Peninsula. This was mainly because Pakistan was recently recovering from its war with India over the disputed Kashmir in 1948.[106][107] Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Korean War

For more details on this topic, see Korean War.
President Truman signing a proclamation declaring a national emergency that initiates U.S. involvement in the Korean War.
President Truman signing a proclamation declaring a national emergency that initiates U.S. involvement in the Korean War.

On June 25, 1950, the North Korean People's Army under the command of Kim Il-sung invaded South Korea, precipitating the outbreak of the Korean War. Poorly trained and equipped, without tanks or air support, the South Korean Army was rapidly pushed backwards, quickly losing the capital, Seoul.[108] Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Download high resolution version (600x778, 73 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (600x778, 73 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...


Stunned, Truman called for a naval blockade of Korea, which went into effect; while the U.S. Navy no longer possessed sufficient surface ships with which to enforce such a measure, no ships tried to challenge it.[109] Truman promptly urged the United Nations to intervene; it did, authorizing armed defense for the first time in its history. The Soviet Union, which was boycotting the United Nations at the time, was not present at the vote that approved the measure. However, Truman decided not to consult with Congress, an error that greatly weakened his position later in the conflict.[110]


In the first four weeks of the conflict, the American infantry forces hastily deployed to Korea proved too few and were under-equipped. The Eighth Army in Japan was forced to recondition World War II Sherman tanks from depots and monuments for use in Korea.[83][111] The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such...

"I fired him [MacArthur] because he wouldn't respect the authority of the President... I didn't fire him because he was a dumb son of a bitch, although he was, but that's not against the law for generals. If it was, half to three-quarters of them would be in jail."
Harry S. Truman, quoted in Time magazine

Responding to criticism over readiness, Truman fired his Secretary of Defense, Louis A. Johnson, replacing him with retired General George Marshall. Truman (with UN approval) decided on a roll-back policy—that is, conquest of North Korea.[112] UN forces led by General Douglas MacArthur led the counterattack, scoring a stunning surprise victory with an amphibious landing at the Battle of Inchon that nearly trapped the invaders. UN forces then marched north, toward the Yalu River boundary with China, with the goal of reuniting Korea under UN auspices. Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. ... The term son of a bitch or son-of-a-bitch (often pronounced sumbitch in the Southern United States, and frequently euphemised to s. ... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Combatants  United Nations  North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Chesty Puller Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun The Battle of Inchon (Korean spelling: Incheon) (Korean: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ...


China surprised the UN forces with a large-scale invasion in November. The UN forces were forced back to below the 38th parallel, then recovered; by early 1951 the war became a fierce stalemate at about the 38th parallel where it had begun. UN and U.S. casualties were heavy. Truman rejected MacArthur's request to attack Chinese supply bases north of the Yalu, but MacArthur nevertheless promoted his plan to Republican House leader Joseph Martin, who leaked it to the press. Truman was gravely concerned that further escalation of the war might draw the Soviet Union further into the conflict: it was already supplying weapons and providing warplanes (with Korean markings and Soviet fliers). On April 11, 1951, Truman fired MacArthur from all his commands in Korea and Japan. The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... Joseph William Martin, Jr (November 3, 1884 - March 6, 1968) was an American politician from North Attleborough, Massachusetts. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Relieving MacArthur of his command was among the least politically popular decisions in presidential history. Truman's approval ratings plummeted, and he faced calls for his impeachment from, among others, Senator Robert Taft. The Chicago Tribune called for immediate impeachment proceedings against Truman: Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ...

President Truman must be impeached and convicted. His hasty and vindictive removal of Gen. MacArthur is the culmination of series of acts which have shown that he is unfit, morally and mentally, for his high office. . . . The American nation has never been in greater danger. It is led by a fool who is surrounded by knaves. . . .[113]

Fierce criticism from virtually all quarters accused Truman of refusing to shoulder the blame for a war gone sour and blaming his generals instead. MacArthur returned to the United States to a hero's welcome, and, after an address before Congress, was even rumored as a candidate for the presidency.


The war remained a frustrating stalemate for two years, with over 30,000 Americans killed, until a peace agreement restored borders and ended the conflict.[114] In the interim, the difficulties in Korea and the popular outcry against Truman's sacking of MacArthur helped to make the president so unpopular that Democrats started turning to other candidates. In the New Hampshire primary on March 11, 1952, Truman lost to Estes Kefauver, who won the preference poll 19,800 to 15,927 and all eight delegates. Truman was forced to cancel his reelection campaign.[115] In February 1952, Truman's approval mark stood at 22 percent according to Gallup polls, the all-time lowest approval mark for an active American president.[116] The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... A Gallup Poll is an opinion poll conducted by The Gallup Organization and frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


Indochina

For more details on this topic, see First Indochina War.

United States' involvement in Indochina widened during the Truman administration. On V-J Day 1945, Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh declared independence from France, but the U.S. announced its support of restoring French power. In 1950, Ho again declared Vietnamese independence, which was recognized by Communist China and the Soviet Union. He controlled some remote territory along the Chinese border, while France controlled the remainder. Truman's "containment policy" called for opposition to Communist expansion, and led the U.S. to continue to recognize French rule, support the French client government, and increase aid to Vietnam. However, a basic dispute emerged: the Americans wanted a strong and independent Vietnam, while the French cared little about containing China but instead wanted to suppress local nationalism and integrate Indochina into the French Union.[117] Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ...


White House renovations

View of the interior shell of the White House during reconstruction in 1950
View of the interior shell of the White House during reconstruction in 1950

In 1948 Truman ordered a controversial addition to the exterior of the White House: a second-floor balcony in the south portico that came to be known as the "Truman Balcony." The addition was unpopular.[118] Image File history File links White-house-1950-interior-shell. ... Image File history File links White-house-1950-interior-shell. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Not long afterwards, engineering experts concluded that the building, much of it over 130 years old, was in a dangerously dilapidated condition. That August, a section of floor collapsed and Truman's own bedroom and bathroom were closed as unsafe. No public announcement about the serious structural problems of the White House was made until after the 1948 election had been won, by which time Truman had been informed that his new balcony was the only part of the building that was sound. The Truman family moved into nearby Blair House; as the newer West Wing, including the Oval Office, remained open, Truman found himself walking to work across the street each morning and afternoon. In due course the decision was made to demolish and rebuild the whole interior of the main White House, as well as excavating new basement levels and underpinning the foundations. The famous exterior of the structure, however, was buttressed and retained while the renovations proceeded inside. The work lasted from December 1949 until March 1952.[119] Blair House is a guest house for state visitors to Washington, D.C. (in the United States of America). ... The West Wing (in foreground) The West Wing is the part of the White House Complex in which the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, and the Situation Room are located. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ...


Assassination attempt

For more details on this topic, see Truman assassination attempt.

On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate Truman at Blair House. On the street outside the residence, Torresola mortally wounded a White House policeman, Leslie Coffelt, who shot Torresola dead before expiring himself. Collazo, as a co-conspirator in a felony that turned into a homicide, was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to death in 1952. Truman later commuted his sentence to life in prison. The assassination attempt on Harry S. Truman occurred on November 1, 1950. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Griselio Torresola (1925 – November 1, 1950) born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Rican Nationalists who attempted to assassinate United States President Harry Truman. ... Oscar Collazo (1914 – February 21, 1994) born in Florida, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Ricans who attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. ... Leslie William Coffelt (August 15, 1910 – November 1, 1950), was an American law enforcement officer. ...


Acknowledging the importance of the question of Puerto Rican independence, Truman allowed for a plebiscite in Puerto Rico to determine the status of its relationship to the United States.


The attack, which could easily have taken the president's life, drew new attention to security concerns surrounding his residence at Blair House. He had jumped up from his nap, and was watching the gunfight from his open bedroom window until a passerby shouted at him to take cover.[120]


Steel industry seizure attempt

For more details on this topic, see 1952 steel strike.

In response to a labor/management impasse arising from bitter disagreements over wage and price controls, Truman instructed his Secretary of Commerce, Charles W. Sawyer, to take control of a number of the nation's steel mills in April of 1952. Truman cited his authority as Commander in Chief and the need to maintain an uninterrupted supply of steel for munitions to be used in the war in Korea. The Supreme Court found Truman's actions unconstitutional, however, and reversed the order in a major separation-of-powers decision, Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer. The 6–3 decision, which held that Truman's assertion of authority was too vague and was not rooted in any legislative action by Congress, was delivered by a Court composed entirely of Justices appointed by either Truman or Roosevelt. The high court's reversal of Truman's order was one of the notable defeats of his presidency.[121] The 1952 steel strike was a strike by the United Steelworkers of America against U.S. Steel and nine other steelmakers. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1887 births | 1979 deaths ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Holding The President did not have the inherent authority to seize private property in the absence of either specifically enumerated authority under Article Two of the Constitution or statutory authority conferred on him by Congress. ...


Scandals and controversies

In 1950, the Senate, led by Estes Kefauver, investigated numerous charges of corruption among senior Administration officials, some of whom received fur coats and deep freezers for favors. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was involved. In 1950, 166 IRS employees either resigned or were fired,[122] and many were facing indictments from the Department of Justice on a variety of tax-fixing and bribery charges, including the assistant attorney general in charge of the Tax Division. When Attorney General Howard McGrath fired the special prosecutor for being too zealous, Truman fired McGrath.[123] Historians agree that Truman himself was innocent and unaware—with one exception. In 1945, Mrs. Truman received a new, expensive, hard-to-get deep freezer. The businessman who provided the gift was the president of a perfume company and, thanks to Truman's aide and confidante General Harry Vaughan, received priority to fly to Europe days after the war ended, where he bought new perfumes. On the way back he "bumped" a wounded veteran from a flight that would have taken him back to the US. Disclosure of the episode in 1949 humiliated Truman. The President responded by vigorously defending Vaughan, an old friend with an office in the White House itself. Vaughan was eventually connected to multiple influence-peddling scandals.[124] The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... a fur mozetta, canon, flanders Fur clothing is clothing made entirely of, or partially of, the fur of animals. ... Fridge redirects here. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... McGrath (middle) with Theodore Francis Green (middle left) and Harry S. Truman (far right). ...


Charges that Soviet agents had infiltrated the government bedeviled the Truman Administration and became a major campaign issue for Eisenhower in 1952.[125] In 1947, Truman set up loyalty boards to investigate espionage among federal employees.[126] Between 1947 and 1952, "about 20,000 government employees were investigated, some 2500 resigned 'voluntarily,' and 400 were fired."[127] He did, however, strongly oppose mandatory loyalty oaths for governmental employees, a stance that led to charges that his Administration was soft on Communism.[128]


In 1953, Senator Joseph McCarthy and Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. claimed that Truman had known Harry Dexter White was a Soviet spy when Truman appointed him to the International Monetary Fund.[129] [130]. Truman described the civil rights Selma marches as silly. He stated that the marches would not "accomplish a darned thing".[131] This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Herbert Brownell, Jr. ... Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes (right) at the Bretton Woods Conference Harry Dexter White (October 1892 – August 16, 1948) was an American economist and senior U.S. Treasury department official. ... IMF redirects here. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ...


Administration and Cabinet

All of the cabinet members when Truman became president in 1945 had been previously serving under Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The Truman Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Harry S. Truman 1945 – 1953
Vice President none 1945 – 1949
Alben W. Barkley 1949 – 1953
Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 1945 – 1945
James F. Byrnes 1945 – 1947
George C. Marshall 1947 – 1949
Dean G. Acheson 1949 – 1953
Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 1945 – 1945
Fred M. Vinson 1945 – 1946
John W. Snyder 1946 – 1953
Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson 1945 – 1945
Robert P. Patterson 1945 – 1947
Kenneth C. Royall 1947 – 1947
Secretary of Defense James V. Forrestal 1947 – 1949
Louis A. Johnson 1949 – 1950
George C. Marshall 1950 – 1951
Robert A. Lovett 1951 – 1953
Attorney General Francis Biddle 1945 –
Tom C. Clark 1945 – 1949
J. Howard McGrath 1949 – 1952
James P. McGranery 1952 – 1953
Postmaster General Frank C. Walker 1945 –
Robert E. Hannegan 1945 – 1947
Jesse M. Donaldson 1947 – 1953
Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal 1945 – 1947
Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes 1945 – 1946
Julius A. Krug 1946 – 1949
Oscar L. Chapman 1949 – 1953
Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard 1945 –
Clinton P. Anderson 1945 – 1948
Charles F. Brannan 1948 – 1953
Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace 1945 – 1946
W. Averell Harriman 1946 – 1948
Charles W. Sawyer 1948 – 1953
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins 1945 –
Lewis B. Schwellenbach 1945 – 1948
Maurice J. Tobin 1948 – 1953

Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893–October 12, 1971) was a United States Secretary of State under President Harry S. Truman. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Henry Morgenthau Jr. ... Frederick Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) served the United States in all three branches of government. ... Portrait of John W. Snyder U.S. Secretary of the Treasury painted by Greta Kempton. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Robert Porter Patterson was the United States Secretary of War under United States President Harry S. Truman from the 27th of September 1945 to the 18th of July, 1947. ... Kenneth Claiborne Royall (July 24, 1894 - May 25, 1971) was a U.S. general. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892–May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (1947 - 1949). ... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... Robert A. Lovett Robert Abercrombie Lovett (14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iona Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who is most famous as the primary American judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II... Thomas Campbell Clark (September 23, 1899 – June 13, 1977) was United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949 and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1949-1967). ... McGrath (middle left) with Theodore Francis Green (right) and Harry S. Truman (far right). ... James Patrick McGranery (July 8, 1895–December 23, 1962) was an American lawyer and politician. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Robert Emmet Hannegan was born on June 30, 1903, in St. ... Jesse Monroe Donaldson was born on August 17, 1885, in Shelbyville, Illinois. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892–May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (1947 - 1949). ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... Julius Albert Krug (November 23, 1907–March 26, 1970) was U.S. Secretary of the Interior under Harry Truman, serving 1946 to 1949. ... Oscar L. Chapman was the United States Secretary of the Interior during the last three years of the Truman administration. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Claude Raymond Wickard (1893-1967), born in Indiana, Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1940 to 1945. ... Clinton Presba Anderson (October 23, 1895–November 11, 1975), was an American Democratic politician who served as a U.S. Congressman from New Mexico (1941-1945), as United States Secretary of Agriculture (1945_1948), and as a U.S. Senator from New Mexico (1949-1973) This article incorporates facts obtained from... Charles Franklin Brannan (1903-1992) Charles Franklin Brannan (August 23, 1903 – July 2, 1992) was the Secretary of Agriculture from 1948 to 1953. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1887 births | 1979 deaths ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... Frances Coralie Perkins (born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 – May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. ... Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach was an American lawyer, politician, and judge. ... Maurice Joseph Tobin (May 22, 1901–July 19, 1953) was a Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, governor of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, and U.S. Secretary of Labor. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Truman appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Harold Hitz Burton (June 22, 1888 - October 28, 1964) was an American Senator and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Frederick Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) served the United States in all three branches of government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Thomas Campbell Clark (September 23, 1899 – June 13, 1977) was United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949 and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1949-1967). ... Sherman Minton, (October 20, 1890–April 9, 1965) was a Democratic United States Senator from Indiana and an associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ...

1952 election

For more details on this topic, see United States presidential election, 1952.

In 1951, the U.S. ratified the 22nd Amendment, making a president ineligible to be elected for a third time, or to be elected for a second time after having served more than two years of the previous president's term. The latter clause would have applied to Truman in 1952, except that a grandfather clause in the amendment explicitly excluded the current president from this provision. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ...


At the time of the 1952 New Hampshire primary, no candidate had won Truman's backing. His first choice, Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, had declined to run; Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson had also turned Truman down; Vice President Barkley was considered too old; and Truman distrusted and disliked Senator Estes Kefauver, whom he privately called "Cowfever."[132][133] Frederick Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) served the United States in all three branches of government. ... This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ...


Truman's name was on the New Hampshire primary ballot but Kefauver won. On March 29 Truman announced his decision not to run for re-election.[134] Stevenson, having reconsidered his presidential ambitions, received Truman's backing and won the Democratic nomination. Dwight D. Eisenhower, now a Republican and the nominee of his party, campaigned against what he denounced as Truman's failures regarding "Korea, Communism and Corruption" and the "mess in Washington,"[135] and promised to "go to Korea."[136] Eisenhower defeated Stevenson decisively in the general election, ending 20 years of Democratic rule. is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Post-presidency

Truman Library, Memoirs, and life as a private citizen

Truman returned to Independence, Missouri to live at the Wallace home he and Bess had shared for years with her mother. His predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had organized his own presidential library, but legislation to enable future presidents to do something similar still remained to be enacted. Truman worked to garner private donations to build a presidential library, which he then donated to the federal government to maintain and operate—a practice adopted by all of his successors. FDR redirects here. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ...


Once out of office, Truman quickly decided that he did not wish to be on any corporate payroll, believing that taking advantage of such financial opportunities would diminish the integrity of the nation's highest office. He also turned down numerous offers for commercial endorsements. Since his earlier business ventures had proved unremunerative, he had no personal savings. As a result, he faced financial challenges. Once Truman left the White House, his only income was his old army pension: $112.56 per month. Former members of Congress and the federal courts received a federal retirement package; President Truman himself had ensured that former servants of the executive branch of government would receive similar support. In 1953, however, there was no such benefit package for former presidents.

Truman (seated right) and his wife Bess (behind him) attend the signing of the Medicare Bill on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Truman (seated right) and his wife Bess (behind him) attend the signing of the Medicare Bill on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

He took out a personal loan from a Missouri bank shortly after leaving office, and then set about establishing another precedent for future former chief executives: a book deal for his memoirs of his time in office. Ulysses S. Grant had overcome similar financial issues with his own memoirs, but the book had been published posthumously, and he had declined to write about life in the White House in any detail. For the memoirs Truman received only a flat payment of $670,000, and had to pay two-thirds of that in tax; he calculated he got $37,000 after he paid his assistants.[137] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4850x3242, 2117 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lyndon B. Johnson Harry S. Truman Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4850x3242, 2117 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lyndon B. Johnson Harry S. Truman Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Truman's memoirs were a commercial and critical success;[138][139] they were published in two volumes in 1955 and 1956 by Doubleday (Garden City, N.Y) and Hodder & Stoughton (London): Memoirs by Harry S. Truman: Year of Decisions and Memoirs by Harry S. Truman: Years of Trial and Hope.


Truman was quoted in 1957 as saying to then-House Majority Leader John McCormack, "Had it not been for the fact that I was able to sell some property that my brother, sister, and I inherited from our mother, I would practically be on relief, but with the sale of that property I am not financially embarrassed."[140] John William McCormack (December 21, 1891 – November 22, 1980) was an American politician from Boston, Massachusetts. ...


In 1958, Congress passed the Former Presidents Act, offering a $25,000 yearly pension to each former president, and it is likely that Truman's financial status played a role in the law's enactment. The one other living former president at the time, Herbert Hoover, also took the pension, even though he did not need the money; reportedly, he did so to avoid embarrassing Truman.[141] Hoover may have been remembering an old favor: Shortly after becoming President, Truman had invited Hoover to the White House for an informal chat about conditions in Europe. This was Hoover's first visit to the White House since leaving office, as the Roosevelt administration had shunned Hoover.[142] Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Later life and death

In 1956, Truman took a trip to Europe with his wife, and was a sensation. In Britain he received an honorary degree in Civic Law from Oxford University, an event that moved him to tears. He met with his friend Winston Churchill for the last time, and on returning to the U.S., he gave his full support to Adlai Stevenson's second bid for the White House, although he had initially favored Democratic Governor W. Averell Harriman of New York for the nomination. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Churchill redirects here. ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ...


Upon turning 80, Truman was feted in Washington and asked to address the United States Senate, as part of a new rule that allowed former presidents to be granted "privilege of the floor." Truman was so emotionally overcome by the honor and by his reception that he was barely able to deliver his speech.[143] He also campaigned for senatorial candidates. A bad fall in the bathroom of his home in late 1964 severely limited his physical capabilities, and he was unable to maintain his daily presence at his presidential library.


In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Medicare bill at the Truman Library and gave the first two Medicare cards to Truman and his wife Bess to honor his fight for government health care as president. LBJ redirects here. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... The Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum is a library and museum dedicated to preserve the papers, books, and other historical materials relating to former President Harry S. Truman. ...


On December 5, 1972, he was admitted to Kansas City's Research Hospital and Medical Center with lung congestion from pneumonia. He subsequently developed multiple organ failure and died at 7:50 a.m. on December 26. Bess Truman died nearly ten years later, on October 18, 1982.[144] He and Bess are buried at the Truman Library. is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum is a library and museum dedicated to preserve the papers, books, and other historical materials relating to former President Harry S. Truman. ...


Legacy

When he left office in 1953, Truman was one of the most unpopular chief executives in history. His job approval rating of 22 percent in the Gallup Poll as of February 1952 was actually lower than Richard Nixon's was in August 1974 at 24 percent, the month that Nixon resigned. Public feeling toward Truman grew steadily warmer with the passing years, however, and the period shortly after his death consolidated a partial rehabilitation among both historians and members of the general public. Since leaving office, Truman has fared well in polls ranking the presidents. He has never been listed lower than ninth, and most recently was seventh in a Wall Street Journal poll in 2005. He has also had his critics. After a review of information available to Truman on the presence of espionage activities in the U.S. government, Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan concluded that Truman was "almost willfully obtuse" concerning the danger of American communism.[145] Nixon redirects here. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... Daniel Patrick “Pat” Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was a United States Senator, Ambassador, and eminent sociologist. ...


Truman died during a time when the nation was consumed with crises in Vietnam and Watergate, and his death brought a new wave of attention to his political career.[146] In the early and mid-1970s, Truman captured the popular imagination much as he had in 1948, this time emerging as a kind of political folk hero, a president who was thought to exemplify an integrity and accountability many observers felt was lacking in the Nixon White House. James Whitmore was nominated for an Academy Award for his portrayal of Truman in the one-man show Give 'em Hell, Harry!, Ed Flanders won an Emmy Award for playing Truman in Harry S. Truman: Plain Speaking, and the pop band Chicago recorded a nostalgic song, "Harry Truman" (1975). Watergate redirects here. ... Whitmore in The Asphalt Jungle James Allen Whitmore (born October 1, 1921) is an American film actor. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... Give em Hell, Harry! is a biographical play and 1975 film, written by Samuel Gallu, which is a one-man show about former President of the United States Harry S. Truman. ... Ed Flanders (December 29, 1934-February 22, 1995) was an American actor best known for his roles as Lieutenant Bricker in the television series M*A*S*H and Doctor Donald Westphall in the television series He was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on December 29, 1934. ... An Emmy Award. ... This article is about the American pop-rock-jazz band. ... Harry Truman is a song written by Robert Lamm for the group Chicago and recorded for their album Chicago VIII (1975), with lead vocals by Lamm. ...


Due to Truman's critical role in the US government's decision to recognize Israel, the Israeli rural town Kfar Truman, founded in 1949, was named after him.


The Truman Scholarship, a federal program that sought to honor U.S. college students who exemplified dedication to public service and leadership in public policy, was created in 1975.[147] President Harry S. Truman The Harry S. Truman Scholarship is a federal scholarship granted to U.S. college juniors for demonstrated leadership potential and a commitment to public service. ...


The President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a distinguished postdoctoral three-year appointment at Sandia National Laboratories, was created in 2004.[148] It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ...


The USS Harry S. Truman was named on September 7, 1996. The ship, sometimes known as the 'HST', was authorized as USS United States, but her name was changed before the keel laying. USS (CVN-75) is the eighth Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy, named after the 33rd President of the United States, Harry S. Truman. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The official mascot of the University of Missouri's athletic teams, the "Missouri Tigers," is named Truman the Tiger. The school of political science at the university is also named the "Truman School of Political Science." To mark its transformation from a regional state teachers' college to a selective liberal arts university and to honor the only Missourian to become president, Northeast Missouri State University became Truman State University on July 1, 1996. A member institution of the City Colleges of Chicago, Harry S Truman College in Chicago, Illinois is named in honor of the president for his dedication to public colleges and universities. The headquarters for the State Department, built in the 1930s but never officially named, was dedicated as the Harry S Truman Building in 2000. University of Missouri redirects here. ... The Missouri Tigers athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports teams of the University of Missouri–Columbia. ... Truman the Tiger is the official mascot of the athletic teams of the University of Missouri Tigers. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Teachers College, Columbia University (also known as Teachers College of Columbia University) was founded in 1887 by the philanthropist Grace Hoadley Dodge and philosopher Nicholas Murray Butler to provide a new kind of schooling for the teachers of the poor children of New York City, one that combined a humanitarian... A liberal arts college is an institution of higher education found in the United States, offering programs in the liberal arts at the post-secondary level. ... Truman State University is a public liberal arts and sciences university in Missouri and a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The City Colleges of Chicago was formed on September 11th, 1911. ... Harry S Truman College, more familiar as simply Truman College, is a community college located in the Chicago, Illinois Uptown community area on Broadway Avenue at Wilson Avenue. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ...


Thom Daniel, grandson of the Truman's accepted a star on the Missouri Walk of Fame in 2006 to honor his late grandfather. John Truman, Truman's nephew, would accept a star for Bess Truman in 2007. The Walk of Fame is in Marshfield, Missouri, a city Truman visited in 1948.


Historic sites

The Harry S Truman National Historic Site includes the home of President Harry S Truman in Independence, Missouri, and the Truman Farm Home in Grandview, Missouri. ... Grandview is a city located in Jackson County, Missouri. ... Lamar is a city located in Barton County, Missouri. ... Entrance to the Museum and Library, April 2007 (Robert E. Nylund) Kofi Annan speaking at the Museum and Library. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ... Official log of Harry Trumans March 12 to April 10, 1950 visit to Key West (from Truman Library)[1] The Truman Annex is a neighborhood in Old Town, Key West, Florida that was the winter White House for President Harry S. Truman during its days as part of the... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Florida County Monroe Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Morgan McPherson Area  - City  7. ...

Truman's middle initial

Truman did not have a middle name, only a middle initial. In his autobiography, Truman stated, "I was named for . . . Harrison Young. I was given the diminutive Harry and, so that I could have two initials in my given name, the letter S was added. My Grandfather Truman's name was Anderson Shippe [sometimes also spelled 'Shipp'][149] Truman and my Grandfather Young's name was Solomon Young, so I received the S for both of them." He once joked that the S was a name, not an initial, and it should not have a period, but official documents and his presidential library all use a period.[4] Furthermore, the Harry S. Truman Library has numerous examples of the signature written at various times throughout Truman's lifetime where his own use of a period after the S is conspicuous. The Associated Press Stylebook has called for a period after the S since the early 1960s, when Truman indicated he had no preference.[150] However, the use of a period after his middle initial is not universal, and the official White House biography does not use it.[151] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Entrance to the Museum and Library, April 2007 (Robert E. Nylund) Kofi Annan speaking at the Museum and Library. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Truman's bare initial caused an unusual slip when he first became president and had to take the oath of office. At a meeting in the Cabinet Room, Chief Justice Harlan Stone began reading the oath by saying "I, Harry Shipp Truman, . . ." Truman responded: "I, Harry S. Truman, . . ."[152] Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office after the death of John F. Kennedy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ...


Notes

  1. ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 717. ISBN 0-671-86920-5. 
  2. ^ McCullough, p. 24, 37
  3. ^ McCullough, p. 37
  4. ^ a b Use of the Period After the "S" in Harry S. Truman's Name. Harry S. Truman's Library and Museum. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  5. ^ Birthplace of Harry S. Truman. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Oshinsky, David M. (2004). "Harry Truman", in Alan Brinkley and Davis Dyer: The American Presidency. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 365–380. ISBN 0-618-38273-9. 
  7. ^ McCullough, p. 38
  8. ^ Ferrell, Robert Hugh (1996). Harry S. Truman: A Life. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 87. ISBN 0826210503. 
  9. ^ Drugstore Clerk at 14 His First Job. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  10. ^ McCullough, p. 105.
  11. ^ Harry Truman joins Battery B of the Missouri National Guard. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  12. ^ Chronological Record of the 129th Field Artillery 1917-1919 - the Truman Library
  13. ^ McCullough, p. 105-110.
  14. ^ Gilwee, William J. Capt. Harry Truman Artilleryman and Future President - at the Doughboy Center
  15. ^ Oral History Interview with Ted Marks - at the Truman Library
  16. ^ a b c d Hanlon, Michael E. (2000). Capt. Harry Truman, Artilleryman and Future President. Doughboy Center: The Story of the American Expeditionary Forces. Worldwar1.com Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  17. ^ Ferrell, p. 87
  18. ^ a b (Truman 1973, p. 429)
  19. ^ Hamby, Alonzo L. (1995). Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195045467. 
  20. ^ Harry S. Truman 1947 Diary. Truman Library (July 21, 1947). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  21. ^ Foxman, Abraham H. (July 18, 2003). Harry Truman, My Flawed Hero. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  22. ^ Dana, Rebecca; Carlson, Peter. "Harry Truman's Forgotten Diary", The Washington Post, July 11, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  23. ^ Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948). Ourdocuments.gov (1948). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  24. ^ Savage, Sean J. (1991). Roosevelt: The Party Leader, 1932–1945. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 65. ISBN 0813117550. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  25. ^ McCullough, p. 232
  26. ^ McCullough, p. 230
  27. ^ The Pendergast Machine. Kansas City Police Officers Memorial - History. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  28. ^ Harry S. Truman Papers: Papers as Presiding Judge of the Jackson County (Missouri) Court - Partial Biographical Sketch 1920–1950. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  29. ^ Harry S Truman (1884–1972) Masonic Record. The Masonic Presidents Tour. Masonic Library and Museum. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  30. ^ McCullough, page 252
  31. ^ "The Wonderful Wastebasket" (March 24, 1952). Time: 3. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  32. ^ Haydock, Michael D. (2000). American History: Harry Truman and the 1948 U.S. Presidential Election. American History Magazine via Historynet.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  33. ^ The New York Times June 24, 1941; qtd in "Anniversary Remembrance," Time, July 2, 1951; reproduced as "Anniversary Remembrance," time.com.
  34. ^ McCullough, p. 262
  35. ^ Donovan, Robert J. (1996). Conflict and Crisis: The Presidency of Harry Truman, 1945–1948. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 36. ISBN 0-8262-1066-X.  (Publisher's description of the book, retrieved August 2, 2007.)
  36. ^ Fleming, Thomas (2002). The New Dealers' War: F.D.R. And the War within World War II. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465024653. 
  37. ^ a b "Truman on Time Magazine Covers". Time. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  38. ^ McCullough, page 293.
  39. ^ McCullough, page 295
  40. ^ Ferrell, p. 167
  41. ^ Newman, Mark (June 2004). "Civil Rights and Human Rights". Reviews in American History 32 (2): 247–254. 
  42. ^ Harry S. Truman, 34th Vice President (1945). U.S. Senate (January 8, 1973). Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  43. ^ A Little Touch of Harry. Time (January 8, 1973). Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  44. ^ Indiana Governor Henry Frederick Schricker (1883–1966). Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  45. ^ Eleanor and Harry: The Correspondence of Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  46. ^ McCullough, p. 348
  47. ^ Carter, Kit; Robert Mueller. "The Army Air Forces in World War II". Office of Air Force History, Washington, D.C. 1973: 685. 
  48. ^ The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Atomicarchive.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  49. ^ "The answer reached the President at five minutes past four that afternoon, Tuesday, August 14. Japan had surrendered." McCullough, p. 461.
  50. ^ Atomic Bomb Chronology: 1945–1946. Tokyo Physicians for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. "H. Truman told Y. Stalin about A-bomb experiment. Stalin was already informed by spy of Trinity but never revealed it."
  51. ^ Interview Transcripts: The Potsdam Conference. The American Experience. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-07-26. "Truman approached Stalin at the Potsdam conference and very carefully said to Stalin that he had this new weapon."
  52. ^ Truman, Harry S. (1955). Year of Decisions. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 416. ISBN 156852062X. “Stalin hoped we would make 'good use of it against the Japanese.'” 
  53. ^ McNulty, Bryan. The great atomic bomb debate. Perspectives. Ohio University. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  54. ^ "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb: Gar Alperovitz and the H-Net Debate". Hiroshima: Was it Necessary?. Doug-long.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  55. ^ a b c Grubin, David. "The American Experience: Truman", PBS, 1997. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  56. ^ a b “Word Has Just Been Received”: Truman Speaks on the Railroad Strike: 1948–1952. History Matters. George Mason University. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  57. ^ Holsti, Ole (1996). Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 214. ISBN 978-0-472-06619-3. 
  58. ^ "Taft-Hartley: How It Works and How It Has Worked". Time (October 19, 1959). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  59. ^ President Truman Addresses Congress on Proposed Health Program, Washington, D.C., Harry S. Truman Library and Museum
  60. ^ Binning, William C.; Larry E. Esterly and Paul A. Sracic (1999). Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 417. ISBN 0813117550. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. 
  61. ^ The Art of the Possible. "Time" (June 6, 1949). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  62. ^ George Lenczowski, (1990), '’American Presidents and the Middle East’’, p.27
  63. ^ Harry S Truman, Memoirs 2, p153
  64. ^ George Lenczowski, p.27
  65. ^ The Bombing of the King David Hotel. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  66. ^ in Lenczowski, p.28, cite, Harry S Truman, Memoirs 2, p158
  67. ^ Margaret Truman, Harry S. Truman, p420.
  68. ^ Displaced Persons. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2007-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  69. ^ McCullough, pp. 614–620
  70. ^ Clifford, Clark; Richard Holbrooke (1991). Counsel to the President. New York: Random House. ISBN 0394569954. 
  71. ^ George Lenczowski, p.25
  72. ^ Walter Millis, ed. Forrestal Diaries, p322
  73. ^ Lenczowski, p.26
  74. ^ Truman, Harry (1948-05-14). Memo recognizing the state of Israel. Truman Presidential Museum & Library. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  75. ^ Lenczowski, p27
  76. ^ Truman, Memoirs 2, p 140
  77. ^ Thus William E. Eddy, F.D.R Meets Ibn Saud New York: American Friends of the Middle East, 1954),p57; Evan M. Wilson, Decision on Palestine, p58; Millis, ed. Forestall Diaries, p322; Emmanuel Neumann, “Abba Hillel Silver, History Maker,” American Zionist, February 5, 1953; and John S. Badeau, The Middle East Remembered (Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1983), p115
  78. ^ Eddie, FDR Meets Ibn Saud, p37. The four envoys were William A. Eddy, minister to Saudi Arabia; S. Pinkney Tuck, minister to Egypt; George Wadsworth, minister to Syria and Lebanon; and Lowell C. Pinkerton, general counsel in Jerusalem
  79. ^ Giangreco, D. M.; Robert E. Griffin (1988). The Airlift Begins: Airbridge to Berlin—The Berlin Crisis of 1948, its Origins and Aftermath. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  80. ^ LaFeber, Walter (1993). America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1980, 7th, New York: McGraw-Hill. 
  81. ^ McCullough, p. 741.
  82. ^ a b Hess, Jerry N. (November 21, 1972). Oral History Interviews with Karl R. Bendetsen: General Counsel, Department of the Army, 1949; Assistant Secretary of the Army, 1950–52; Under Secretary of the Army, 1952. Oral Archives. Truman Presidential Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g Blair, Clay (2003). The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950–1953. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1591140757. 
  84. ^ a b c d Krulak, Victor H. (Lt. Gen.) (1999). First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557504644. 
  85. ^ Lane, Peter J., Steel for Bodies: Ammunition Readiness During the Korean War, Master's Thesis: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (2003)
  86. ^ "The greatest upset in American political history: Harry Truman and the 1948 election" . White House Studies 2006 (Winter). 
  87. ^ Burnes, Brian (2003). Harry S. Truman: His Life and Times. Kansas City, MO: Kansas City Star Books, 137. ISBN 0974000930. 
  88. ^ McCullough, p. 640.
  89. ^ Truman's Democratic Convention Acceptance Speech. Presidential Links. PBS (1948). Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  90. ^ Chapter 12: The President Intervenes. Center of Military History. US Army. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  91. ^ Executive Order 9981, Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, Harry S Truman. Federal Register (1948). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  92. ^ Desegregation of the Armed Forces. Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  93. ^ McCullough, p. 654
  94. ^ McCullough, p. 657
  95. ^ McCullough, p. 701
  96. ^ Curran, Jeanne; Takata, Susan R. (2002). Getting a Sample Isn't Always Easy. Dear Habermas. California State University - Dominguez Hills. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. "(E)lection polls have found, that the use of telephone surveys doesn't include lots of people who don't have telephones. That can lead to disastrous results, as it did in the Dewey-Truman election in 1948."
  97. ^ Bennett, Stephen Earl. Restoration of Confidence: Polling’s Comeback from 1948. Public Opinion Pros. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. "Roper finished polling in September, Crossley’s last poll was October 18, and Gallup stopped polling after October 28."
  98. ^ Strout, Richard L.. Oral History Interview with Richard L. Strout. Truman Presidential Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. "Roper quit polling on September the ninth."
  99. ^ The Story Behind "Dewey Defeats Truman". Historybuff.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  100. ^ U.S. Constitution: Twenty-Fifth Amendment. FindLaw. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. Until the ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a mid-term vacancy in the office of vice president.
  101. ^ Taiwan Status: From Grotius to WTO. Geocities. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  102. ^ a b c Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195043618. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  103. ^ Tanenhaus, Sam (1998). Whittaker Chambers. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0375751459. 
  104. ^ a b "McCarthyism" v. "Trumanism". Time (August 27, 1951). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  105. ^ Telegram, Joseph McCarthy to Harry S. Truman, February 11, 1950, with Truman's draft reply; McCarthy, Joseph; General File; PSF; Truman Papers. Truman Presidential Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  106. ^ Aziz, Qutubuddin. Quaid-i-Millat's visit to the United States - The foundation of friendship and economic co-operation. Truman Library & Museum. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  107. ^ Truman Library Photographs. Truman Library & Museum. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  108. ^ Appleman, Roy E. (1992). South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (June–November 1950). Washington, DC: Center of Military History, US Army. ISBN 0-16-035958-9. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  109. ^ Memorandum of Information for the Secretary - Blockade of Korea. Truman Presidential Library—Archives (July 6, 1950). Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  110. ^ Kepley, David R. (1988). The Collapse of the Middle Way: Senate Republicans and the Bipartisan Foreign Policy, 1948–1952. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313257841. 
  111. ^ Summers, Harry G. (1996). The Korean War: A Fresh Perspective. Rt66.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  112. ^ Matray, James I. (1979). "Truman's Plan for Victory: National Self-determination and the Thirty-eighth Parallel Decision in Korea". Journal of American History 66 (2): 314–333. 
  113. ^ Strout, Lawrence N. (1999). "Covering McCarthyism: How the Christian Science Monitor Handled Joseph R. McCarthy, 1950–1954". Journal of Political and Military Sociology 2001 (Summer): 41. 
  114. ^ U.S. Military Korean War Statistics. Korean-war.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  115. ^ David, Paul T. (1954). Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952 Vol. 1. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 33–40. 
  116. ^ Comparing Past Presidential Performance. Public Opinion Archives. Roper Center (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  117. ^ Duiker, William J. (1994). U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.  (Untitled review (PDF) of this book by Christopher Jesperson, Journal of Conflict Studies, Fall 1995. Retrieved August 4, 2007.)
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  120. ^ McCullough
  121. ^ Higgs, Robert (March 1, 2004). Truman's Attempt to Seize the Steel Industry. The Freeman. The Independent Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  122. ^ Smaltz, Donald C. (July 1998). "Independent Counsel: A View from Inside". The Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 86, No. 6. 
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  127. ^ Boyer, Paul (1994). By the Bomb's Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 103. ISBN 9780807844809. 
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  131. ^ Civil rights movement, Virginia Center for Digital History
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  133. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (1983). Eisenhower: 1890–1952. New York: Simon & Schuster, 515. ISBN 0671440691. “Journalist Arthur Krock was told by a third party that in 1951 Truman privately offered the top spot on the Democratic ticket to Dwight D. Eisenhower, but Eisenhower, who turned out to be a Republican, supposedly declined. Truman and Eisenhower both denied the story” 
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  141. ^ Martin, Joseph William (1960). My First Fifty Years in Politics as Told to Robert J. Donovan. New York: McGraw-Hill, 249. 
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  143. ^ McCullough, p. 983
  144. ^ Biographical sketch of Mrs. Harry S. Truman. Truman Presidential Library. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  145. ^ CHAIRMAN’S FOREWORD. Moynihan Library. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  146. ^ Giving Them More Hell. Time (December 3, 1973). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  147. ^ Our History: A Living Memorial. Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  148. ^ TRUMAN FELLOWSHIP.
  149. ^ McCullough, p. 19
  150. ^ Goldstein, Norm (2003). Associated Press Stylebook 2003. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 256. ISBN 046500489X. 
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  152. ^ McCullough, p. 347

David Gaub McCullough (mə-kŭlə) (born July 7, 1933) is an American historian and bestselling author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert H. Ferrell is an American historian and author of several books on Harry S. Truman. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Wadsworth (1894–March 5, 1958) was a United States diplomat, specializing in the Middle East. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times Book Review is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Main article: Bibliography of Harry S. Truman
  • Bernstein, Barton J. (ed.) (1966). The Truman Administration: A Documentary History, First edition, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-060-90120-9. 
  • Bernstein, Barton J. (ed.) (1970). Politics and Policies of the Truman Administration, Second edition, Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-06328-3. 
  • Ferrell, Robert H. (ed.) (1983). Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910–1959. Appleton, Crofts Century. ISBN 0-390-18229-X. 
  • Ferrell, Robert H. (ed.) (1980). Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-826-21119-4. 
  • Merrill, Dennis (ed.) (1969). Documentary History of the Truman Presidency. ISBN 1-556-55580-6.  (35 volumes)
  • Miller, Merle (1974). Plain Speaking: An Oral Biography of Harry S. Truman. Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN 0-399-11261-8. 
  • Neal, Steve; Remini, Robert V. (eds.) (2003). Miracle of '48: Harry Truman's Major Campaign Speeches & Selected Whistle-Stops. 
  • Truman, Margaret (1973). Harry S. Truman. William Morrow and Co. 

Bibliography of Harry S. Truman is a selective list of scholarly works about Harry S. Truman, the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953). ... Robert H. Ferrell is an American historian and author of several books on Harry S. Truman. ... Mary Margaret Truman–Daniel (born February 17, 1924 in Independence, Missouri) is an American writer and the author of biographies, books on the White House and several best-selling mystery novels. ...

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ...

United States Senate
Preceded by
Roscoe C. Patterson
Senator from Missouri (Class 1)
1935 – 1945
Served alongside: Bennett Champ Clark, Forrest C. Donnell
Succeeded by
Frank P. Briggs
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry A. Wallace
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1945 – April 12, 1945
Succeeded by
Alben W. Barkley
Preceded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
Succeeded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Party political offices
Preceded by
Henry A. Wallace
Democratic Party vice presidential candidate
1944
Succeeded by
Alben W. Barkley
Preceded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1948
Succeeded by
Adlai Stevenson
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Herbert Hoover
Oldest U.S. President still living
October 20, 1964 – December 26, 1972
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Persondata
NAME Truman, Harry S.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION thirty-third President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH May 8, 1884
PLACE OF BIRTH Lamar, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH December 26, 1972
PLACE OF DEATH Kansas City, Missouri

The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Image File history File linksMetadata FDR_in_1933. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1890 - September 9, 1967) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Woodin, 1933, Time Woodins signature, as used on American currency William Hartman Woodin (1868–1934) was a U.S. industrialist. ... Henry Morgenthau Jr. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Homer Stille Cummings (1870 - 1956) was a U.S. political figure. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Frank Murphy (footballer). ... Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iona Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who is most famous as the primary American judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... House Resolution 368, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, March 2 1982 Robert Caro, The Path to Power James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Claude Augustus Swanson (March 31, 1862–July 7, 1939) was an American politician. ... Charles Edison (August 3, 1890–July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Claude Raymond Wickard (1893-1967), born in Indiana, Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1940 to 1945. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1867 births | 1943 deaths ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelts closest advisors. ... Jesse Holman Jones Jesse Holman Jones (also known as Jesse H. Jones) (April 5, 1874 – June 1, 1956) was a Houston, Texas politician and entrepreneur. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... Frances Coralie Perkins (born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 – May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The 1948 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia from July 12 to July 14, and resulted in the nomination of President Harry Truman for President and of Alben Barkley for Vice President. ... U.S. Senator, born in Brown, West Virginia. ... Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... GOP redirects here. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Herbert Emery Hitchcock (August 22, 1867 - February 17, 1958) was a United States Senator from South Dakota. ... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... Joseph William Martin, Jr (November 3, 1884 - March 6, 1968) was an American politician from North Attleborough, Massachusetts. ... Edward Martin (September 18, 1879–March 19, 1967) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. ... Leverett A. Saltonstall (September 1, 1892 – June 17, 1979) was an American politician who served as Governor of Massachusetts (1939 - 1945) and as a United States Senator (1945 - 1967). ... Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 - March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943. ... Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884–April 18, 1951) was a Republican Senator from the state of Michigan who participated in the creation of the United Nations. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ... Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 - March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Fielding Lewis Wright (May 16, 1895 – May 4, 1956) was a Democratic politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi from 1944 to 1946, then as Governor after the incumbent, Thomas L. Bailey, died in office in 1946. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1948 was a political party that ran former Vice President Henry A. Wallace of Iowa for president and U.S. Senator Glen H. Taylor of Idaho for vice president in 1948. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Glen Hearst Taylor (April 12, 1904 - April 28, 1984) was a United States Senator from Idaho and the vice presidential candidate on the Progressive Party ticket in the 1948 election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lamar is a city located in Barton County, Missouri. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


 
 

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