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Encyclopedia > Harry Harlow
Dr. Harry Harlow

Born October 31, 1906(1906-10-31)
Flag of the United States Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.
Died December 6, 1981 (aged 75)

Harry Frederick Harlow (October 31, 1905December 6, 1981) was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-deprivation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in the early stages of primate development. He conducted most of his research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he worked for a time with humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fairfield is a city in Jefferson County, Iowa. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... A psychologist is a scientist or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ...


Some of Harlow's experiments involved rearing infant macaques in isolation chambers that prevented them from having any contact with other monkeys or human beings. The monkeys were left alone for up to 24 months, and emerged severely disturbed.[1] Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ...


The experiments were controversial, with some researchers citing them as factors in the rise of the animal liberation movement. William Mason, who worked with Harlow, told writer Deborah Blum that Harlow "kept this going to the point where it was clear to many people that the work was really violating ordinary sensibilities, that anybody with respect for life or people would find this offensive. It's as if he sat down and said, 'I'm only going to be around another ten years. What I'd like to do, then, is leave a great big mess behind.' If that was his aim, he did a perfect job."[2] For the concept, see Animal rights The animal liberation movement or animal rights movement, sometimes called the animal personhood movement and animal advocacy movement, is the global movement of activists, academics, lawyers, campaigns, and organized groups who oppose the use of non-human animals in research, as food, as clothing... Deborah Blum (born October 19, 1954) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author. ...

Contents

Education and career

Born Harry Israel on Halloween night, he changed his name to Harry Harlow in 1930. He earned his B.A. and Ph.D. from Stanford University, and did his research primarily at the University of Wisconsin-Madison where he worked for a time with humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow. This article is about the holiday. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ...


Early papers

  • The effect of large cortical lesions on learned behavior in monkeys. Science. 1950.
  • Retention of delayed responses and proficiency in oddity problems by monkeys with preoccipital ablations. Am J Psychol. 1951.
  • Discrimination learning by normal and brain operated monkeys. J Genet Psychol. 1952.
  • Incentive size, food deprivation, and food preference. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1953.
  • Effect of cortical implantation of radioactive cobalt on learned behavior of rhesus monkeys. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1955.
  • The effects of repeated doses of total-body x radiation on motivation and learning in rhesus monkeys. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1956.

today is the day


Surrogate mother experiment

Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Agra, India. These macaques are the most common monkeys used in biomedical research.
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Agra, India. These macaques are the most common monkeys used in biomedical research.
See also: Love (scientific views)

In a well-known series of experiments conducted between 1963 and 1968, Harlow removed baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers, and offered them a choice between two surrogate "mothers," one made of terrycloth, the other of wire. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Throughout history, predominantly, philosophy and religion have speculated the most into the phenomena of love. ...


In the first group, the terrycloth mother provided no food, while the wire mother did, in the form of an attached baby bottle containing milk. In the second group, the terrycloth mother provided food; the wire mother did not. It was found that the young monkeys clung to the terrycloth mother whether it provided them with food or not, and that the young monkeys chose the wire surrogate only when it provided food. Terry cloth. ...


Whenever a frightening stimulus was brought into the cage the monkeys ran to the cloth mother for protection and comfort, no matter which mother provided them with food. This response decreased as the monkeys grew older.


When the monkeys were placed in an unfamiliar room with their cloth surrogates, they clung to it until they felt secure enough to explore. Once they began to explore, they would occasionally return to the cloth mother for comfort. Monkeys placed in an unfamiliar room without their cloth mothers acted very differently. They would freeze in fear and cry, crouch down, or suck their thumbs. Some of the monkeys would even run from object to object, apparently searching for the cloth mother as they cried and screamed. Monkeys placed in this situation with their wire mothers exhibited the same behavior as the monkeys with no mother.


Once the monkeys reached an age where they could eat solid foods, they were separated from their cloth mothers for three days. When they were reunited with their mothers they clung to them and did not venture off to explore as they had in previous situations. Harlow claimed from this that the need for contact comfort was stronger than the need to explore.


The study found that monkeys who were raised with either a wire mother or a cloth mother gained weight at the same rate. However, the monkeys that had only a wire mother had trouble digesting the milk and suffered from diarrhea more frequently. Harlow interpreted this to mean that not having contact comfort was psychologically stressful to the monkeys. Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause...


Critics of Harlow's claims have observed that clinging is a matter of survival in young rhesus monkeys, but not in humans, and have suggested that his conclusions, when applied to humans, overestimated the importance of contact comfort and underestimated the importance of nursing. [3]


Harlow first reported the results of these experiments in "The nature of love," the title of his address to the sixty-sixth Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C., August 31, 1958. The studies were motivated by John Bowlby's World Health Organization-sponsored study and report, "Maternal Care and Mental Health" in 1950, in which Bowlby reviewed previous surveys of the effects of institutionalization on child development such as René Spitz's[4] and conducted his own surveys on children raised in a variety of settings. In 1953, his colleague, James Robertson, produced a short and controversial documentary film titled A Two-Year-Old Goes to Hospital demonstrating the almost immediate effects of maternal separation. Bowlby's report, coupled with Robertson's film, demonstrated the importance of the primary caregiver in human and non-human primate development. John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... René Árpád Spitz (1887, Vienna - November 11, 1974, Denver) was an American psychoanalyst of Hungarian origin. ...


Partial and total isolation of infant monkeys

A rhesus monkey infant in one of Harlow's isolation chambers. The photograph was taken when the chamber door was raised for the first time after six months of total isolation.[5]

From around 1960 onwards, Harlow and his students began publishing their observations on the effects of partial and total social isolation. Partial isolation involved raising monkeys in bare wire cages that allowed them to see, smell, and hear other monkeys, but provided no opportunity for physical contact. Total social isolation involved rearing monkeys in isolation chambers that precluded any and all contact with other monkeys. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (488x697, 270 KB) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer who took the photograph or the agency employing the photographer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (488x697, 270 KB) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer who took the photograph or the agency employing the photographer. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ...


Harlow et al reported that partial isolation resulted in various abnormalities such as blank staring, stereotyped repetitive circling in their cages, and self-mutilation. These monkeys were then observed in various settings. Some of the monkeys remained in solitary confinement for 15 years.[6]


In the total isolation experiments baby monkeys would be left alone for three, six, 12, or 24[7][8] months of "total social deprivation." The experiments produced monkeys that were severely psychologically disturbed. Harlow wrote:

No monkey has died during isolation. When initially removed from total social isolation, however, they usually go into a state of emotional shock, characterized by ... autistic self-clutching and rocking. One of six monkeys isolated for 3 months refused to eat after release and died 5 days later. The autopsy report attributed death to emotional anorexia. ... The effects of 6 months of total social isolation were so devastating and debilitating that we had assumed initially that 12 months of isolation would not produce any additional decrement. This assumption proved to be false; 12 months of isolation almost obliterated the animals socially ...[1]

Harlow tried to reintegrate the monkeys who had been isolated for six months by placing them with monkeys who had been reared normally.[9][10] The rehabilitation attempts met with limited success. Harlow wrote that total social isolation for the first six months of life produced "severe deficits in virtually every aspect of social behavior."[11] Isolates exposed to monkeys the same age who were reared normally "achieved only limited recovery of simple social responses."[11] Some monkey mothers reared in isolation exhibited "acceptable maternal behavior when forced to accept infant contact over a period of months, but showed no further recovery."[11] Isolates given to surrogate mothers developed "crude interactive patterns among themselves."[11] Opposed to this, when six-month isolates were exposed to younger, three-month-old monkeys, they achieved "essentially complete social recovery for all situations tested."[12] The findings were confirmed by other researchers, who found no difference between peer-therapy recipients and mother-reared infants, but found that artificial surrogates had very little effect.[13]


Pit of despair

Main article: Pit of despair
Harlow's pit of despair.

Harlow was well known for refusing to use euphemisms and instead chose deliberately outrageous terms for the experimental apparatus he devised, including a forced mating device he called a "rape rack," tormenting surrogate mother devices he called "iron maidens," and in about 1971, an isolation chamber he called the "pit of despair" developed by him and a student, Steven Suomi, now director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Comparative Ethology Laboratory, at the National Institutes of Health. Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pitofdespair-Harlow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pitofdespair-Harlow. ... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Various torture instruments. ... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ...


In the latter of these devices, alternatively called the "well of despair," baby monkeys were left alone in darkness for up to six weeks or repetitively separated from their peers and isolated in the chamber. These procedures quickly produced monkeys that were severely psychologically disturbed and declared to be valuable models of human depression.[14]


Harlow tried to rehabilitate monkeys that had been subjected to varying degrees of isolation using various forms of therapy. "In our study of psychopathology, we began as sadists trying to produce abnormality. Today we are psychiatrists trying to achieve normality and equanimity." (p.458)[15]


See also

For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 monkeys kept in small wire cages inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland, by Dr. Edward Taub, who was researching regeneration of severed nerves with a grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH). ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center...

Notes

Animal testing

Main articles
Alternatives to animal testing
Animal testing
Animal testing on invertebrates
Animal testing on frogs
Animal testing on non-human primates
Animal testing on rabbits
Animal testing on rodents
History of animal testing
History of model organisms
For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Most scientists and governments say they agree that animal testing should cause as little suffering as possible, and that alternatives to animal testing need to be developed. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used for animal experimentation. ... Frogs have been used in animal tests throughout the history of biomedical science. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... A white Wistar lab rat. ... One of Pavlov’s dogs with a saliva-catch container and tube surgically implanted in his muzzle. ... This history of model organisms began with the idea that certain organisms can be studied and used to gain knowledge of other organisms or as a control (ideal) for other organisms of the same species. ...

Issues
Biomedical Research
Animal rights
Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act
Animal welfare
Great Ape research ban
International trade in primates
Biomedical Research involves thorough investigation of any matter related to the domain of living or biological Systems. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ...

Controversial experiments
Britches
Cambridge University primates
Pit of despair
Silver Spring monkeys
Unnecessary Fuss
Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV. [1] Cambridge University primate experiments are licensed by the British government for the purpose of research into brain function. ... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 monkeys kept in small wire cages inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland, by Dr. Edward Taub, who was researching regeneration of severed nerves with a grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH). ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center...

Companies
Charles River Laboratories, Inc.
Covance · Harlan
Huntingdon Life Sciences
UK lab animal suppliers
Nafovanny
Charles River Laboratories, Inc. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... Harlan is an international company that supplies animals and other services for experimentation. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... The animal liberation movement in the UK has historically been a prominent one compared to the rest of the world. ... Nafovannys maternity clinic. ...

Groups/campaigns
Americans for Medical Progress
AALAS · AAAS
Foundation For Biomedical Research
Boyd Group · BUAV
Physicians Committee
Primate Freedom Project
Pro-Test · SPEAK
Research Defence Society
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty
Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) is a charity that aims to protect and advocate for societys investment in medical research. ... The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), a 501(c)3 nonprofit membership association, was formed in 1950 as a forum for the exchange of information and expertise in the care and use of laboratory animals. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... The Foundation for Biomedical Research is a American lobby group. ... The Boyd Group is a British based, independent think tank considering issues relating to animal experimentation. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Pro-Test is a British group that promotes and supports animal testing in medical research. ... SPEAK, the Voice for the Animals is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. Its current focus is opposition to a new animal testing center being built by Oxford University. ... The Research Defence Society is a British lobby group reportedly funded by the pharmaceutical industry and universities. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ...

Writers/activists
Colin Blakemore · Carl Cohen
Simon Festing · Tipu Aziz
Colin Blakemore is a neurobiologist specialising in vision. ... Carl Cohen is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. He is co-author of The Animal Rights Debate (Rowman and Littlefield, 2001), a point-counterpoint volume with Prof. ... Simon Festing is the executive director of the Research Defence Society (RDS), [1] a British lobby group funded by the pharamaceutical industry and universities. ... Professor Tipu Aziz Tipu Aziz is a professor of neurosurgery at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, and a lecturer at Magdalen College, Oxford and the Imperial College London medical school. ...

Categories
Animal testing
Animal rights
Animal welfare

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  1. ^ a b Harlow HF, Dodsworth RO, Harlow MK. "Total social isolation in monkeys," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965.
  2. ^ Blum, Deborah. The Monkey Wars. Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 96.
  3. ^ Mason, W.A. Early social deprivation in the nonhuman primates: Implications for human behavior. 70-101; in Glass, D.C. (ed.) Environmental Influences. New York: Rockefeller University and Russell Sage Foundation, 1968. Excerpt in Stevens, M.L. Maternal Deprivation Experiments in Psychology: A Critique of Animal Models. 11; The American Anti-Vivisection Society. 1986.
  4. ^ Spitz, R. A., & Wolf, K. M. Anaclitic depression: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. II. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child,(2),313-342. 1946.
  5. ^ Stephens, M.L. Maternal Deprivation Experiments in Psychology: A Critique of Animal Models. AAVS, NAVS, NEAVS, 1986, p. 17.
  6. ^ A variation of this housing method, using cages with solid sides as opposed to wire mesh, but retaining the one-cage, one-monkey scheme, remains a common housing practice in primate laboratories today. (Reinhardt V, Liss C, Stevens C. "Social Housing of Previously Single-Caged Macaques: What are the options and the Risks?" Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Animal Welfare 4: 307-328. 1995.)
  7. ^ Harlow, H.F. Development of affection in primates. Pp. 157-166 in: Roots of Behavior (E.L. Bliss, ed.). New York: Harper. 1962.
  8. ^ Harlow, H.F. Early social deprivation and later behavior in the monkey. Pp. 154-173 in: Unfinished tasks in the behavioral sciences (A.Abrams, H.H. Gurner & J.E.P. Tomal, eds.) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 1964.
  9. ^ Suomi, S. J., Leroy, H. A. "In memoriam: Harry F. Harlow (1902-1981). Amer. J. Prim. 2: 319-342.
  10. ^ 1976 Suomi SJ, Delizio R, Harlow HF. "Social rehabilitation of separation-induced depressive disorders in monkeys."
  11. ^ a b c d Harlow, Harry F. and Suomi, Stephen J. (1971). "Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 68(7):1534-1538.
  12. ^ Harlow, Harry F. and Suomi, Stephen J. (1971). "Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 68(7):1534-1538; Suomi, Stephen J; Harlow, Harry F; McKinney, William T. (1972) "Monkey Psychiatrists", American Journal of Psychiatry 128:927-932.
  13. ^ Cummins, Mark S. and Suomi, Stephen J. (1976) "Long-term effects of social rehabilitation in rhesus monkeys", Primates 17(1):43-51.
  14. ^ Suomi, JS. "Experimental production of depressive behavior in young monkeys." Doctoral thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1971.
  15. ^ Harlow, H.F., Harlow, M.K., Suomi, S.J. From thought to therapy: lessons from a primate laboratory. 538-549; Americam Scientist. vol. 59. no. 5. September-October; 1971.

Deborah Blum (born October 19, 1954) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author. ...

Further reading

  • Blum, Deborah. The Monkey Wars. Oxford University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-19-510109-X
  • Blum, Deborah. Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection. Perseus Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-7382-0278-9
  • Blum, Deborah. The Inventor of the Cloth Mother An article about Harry Harlow.
  • Reinhardt, V.; Liss, C. and Stevens, C. (1995) Social Housing of Previously Single-caged Macaques: What are the Options and the Risks?, Animal Welfare 4(4):307-328.
  • Slater, Lauren. Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century. W.W. Norton & Company, 2004, ISBN 0-393-05095-5
  • The Nature of Love (1958) - Harry Harlow, American Psychologist, 13, 573-685
  • Harry Harlow: Monkey Love Experiments - Adoption History
  • Harry Harlow - A Science Odyssey: People and Experiments
  • The early days: Harlow and 50 years of cruelty
  • Harlow et al. "Total social isolation in monkeys." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965 July; 54(1): 90–97.
  • Film footage of Harry Harlow - demonstrates his wire mother and cloth mother experiment

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harry Harlow - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (887 words)
Harry Harlow (1905–1981) was an American psychologist best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers.
Harlow's interpretation - which is still prevalent today - was that the preference for the terrycloth mother demonstrated the importance of affection and emotional nurturance in mother-child relationships.
Harlow's lab was known as "Goon Park" because of its location at 600 N. Park St. (a hastily written "6" often resembled a "G"), hence the title of the biography by Deborah Blum: Love At Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection.
Harlow - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (489 words)
Harlow is a local government district and new town in Essex, United Kingdom.
It was developed around the market town of Harlow, and the villages of Great Parndon, Latton, Little Parndon and Netteswell from a masterplan drawn up in 1947 by Sir Frederick Gibberd [1].
Harlow has a population of 80,000, although this may increase significantly if plans to expand into the green belt go ahead.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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