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Encyclopedia > Harold Kroto
Harold Kroto

Sir Harold Walter Kroto, FRS (born 7 October 1939) is an English chemist and one of the winners of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (733x1024, 67 KB) Sir Harold Kroto By: sneezypb Source: [1] from [2] License: CC-BY-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (733x1024, 67 KB) Sir Harold Kroto By: sneezypb Source: [1] from [2] License: CC-BY-2. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


He is currently on faculty at Florida State University, which he joined in 2004, and prior to that he spent a large part of his working career at the University of Sussex, where he holds an emeritus professorship. Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[6] is a public research university located in Tallahassee, the capital city of Florida. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ...

Contents

Early life

He was born, christened Harold Krotoschiner in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England with his unusual name being of Silesian origin. His father's family came from Bojanowo, Poland, and his mother's from Berlin, Germany. OS Grid Reference: TF460098 Lat/Lon: 52°39′N 0°09′W Population: 20,200 (2001 Census) Dwellings: 9,145 (2001 Census) Formal status: Town Administration County: Cambridgeshire Region: East Anglia Nation: England Post Office and Telephone Post town: Wisbech Postcode: PE13, PE14 Dialling Code: 01945 Wisbech (IPA /wɪzb... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article is about the Polish dialect. ... Market (Rynek) of Bojanowo SzkoÅ‚a Rolnicza Brewery (Browar) of Bojanowo Bojanowo (German: Bojanowo, Schmücken) is a city in the Powiat Rawicki, Poland. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Both his parents were born in Berlin but came to Great Britain in the 1930s as refugees from the Nazis because his father was Jewish.


He was raised in Bolton, Lancashire, England, where he attended Bolton School, where he was a contemporary of the highly acclaimed actor Sir Ian McKellen. In 1955 the family name was shortened to Kroto. Bolton is a large town in the north-west of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Bolton School is a public school (independent school) situated in the town of Bolton, Greater Manchester in the North-West of England. ... Sir Ian McKellen takes a day out at Universal Studios, Hollywood, April 2000. ...


As a child, he became fascinated by a Meccano set. Kroto credits Meccano — amongst other things — with developing skills useful in scientific research [1]. He was raised Jewish, but the religion never made any sense to him. Meccano is a model construction kit comprising re-usable metal strips, plates, angle girders, wheels axles and gears, with nuts and bolts to connect the pieces. ... Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. ...


He now claims to have four "religions": humanism, atheism, amnesty-internationalism and humourism. He developed an interest in chemistry, physics, and mathematics in secondary school, and because his sixth form chemistry teacher (Harry Heaney - who subsequently became a University Professor) felt that the University of Sheffield had the best chemistry department in the United Kingdom, he went to Sheffield. Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... England, Wales, Northern Ireland The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems, is the term used to refer to the final two years of secondary schooling (when students are about sixteen to eighteen years of age), during which students normally prepare for their GCE A-level... Harry Heaney is an Emeritus Professor of Organic Chemistry at Loughborough University. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ...


In 1963 he married Margaret Henrietta Hunter, also a student at the University.


Early work

In 1961 he obtained a first class BSc honours degree in chemistry at the University of Sheffield, followed in 1964 by a PhD at the same institution. His doctoral research involved high-resolution electronic spectra of free radicals produced by flash photolysis (breaking of chemical bonds by light). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Flash photolysis is a pump-probe technique, where you excite with short pulse light sources like flash lamp, lasers of nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond pulse width. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Among other things such as making the first phosphaalkenes (compounds with carbon phosphorus double bonds), his doctoral studies included some unpublished research on carbon suboxide, O=C=C=C=O, and this led to a general interest in molecules containing chains of carbon atoms with numerous multiple bonds. He started his work with an interest in organic chemistry, but when he learned about spectroscopy it inclined him to quantum chemistry. Carbon suboxide, C3O2, is a colorless gas with a melting point of -107oC and a boiling point of 6. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ...


After postdoctoral research at the National Research Council in Canada and Bell Laboratories in the USA he began teaching and research at the University of Sussex in England in 1967. He became a full professor in 1985, and a Royal Society Research Professor from 1991 – 2001. Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ...


Subsequent work

In the 1970s he launched a research programme at Sussex to look for carbon chains in interstellar space. Earlier studies had detected the molecule cyanoacetylene, H-C≡C-C≡N. Kroto's group searched for spectral evidence of longer similar molecules such as cyanobutadiyne, H-C≡C-C≡C-C≡N and cyanohexatriyne, H-C≡C-C≡C-C≡C-C≡N, and found them from 1975–1978. General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Interstellar Space was one of the last albums recorded before the death of John Coltrane in 1967. ... Cyanoacetylene, chemical formula C3HN, is also known as 2-Propynenitrile. ... The polyynes are a group of organic compounds with alternating single and triple bonds, for example buta-1,3-diyne (diacetylene), C4H2. ... The polyynes are a group of organic compounds with alternating single and triple bonds, for example buta-1,3-diyne (diacetylene), C4H2. ...


Trying to explain them led to the discovery of the C60 molecule. (See buckminsterfullerene.) He heard of laser spectroscopy work being done by Richard Smalley and Robert Curl at Rice University in Texas. He suggested that they should use the Rice apparatus to simulate the carbon chemistry that occurs in the atmosphere of a carbon star. Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Fullerenes are molecules composed entirely of carbon, taking the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art, is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ...


The experiment carried out in September 1985 not only proved that carbon stars could produce the chains but revealed an amazing, serendipitous result - the existence of the C60 species. The three scientists carried out the work with graduate students Jim Heath (now a full Professor at Caltech), Sean O'Brien (now at Texas Instruments), and Yuan Liu (now at Oak Ridge). The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by Curl, Kroto and Smalley in 1996. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ...


In 1995 he jointly set up the Vega Science Trust a UK educational charity (see www.vega.org.uk) to create high quality science films including lectures, interviews with Nobel Laureates, discussion programmes, careers and teaching resources for TV and Internet Broadcast. Vega has produced some 100 plus programmes of which 50 have been broadcast on BBC TV in the late-night slots all programmes stream for freely from the Vega website which acts as .TV science channel. Viewing figures on terrestrial TV vary from 300,000 to 700,000. The website which is accessed by over 165 countries is designed by Harry Kroto and shows his other main interest - graphic design.


He presently carries out research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. A mite next to a gear chain produced using nanotechnology Nanotechnology as a collective term refers to technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...


Awards and Honours

Kroto was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1990, and was awarded a knighthood (becoming Sir Harold Kroto) in 1996. Later that year he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


His alma mater, the University of Sheffield, awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1995 at the undergraduate degree congregation. Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ...


In 2001, Kroto won the Royal Society's prestigious Michael Faraday Award. The award is given annually to a scientist who has done the most to further public communication of science, engineering or technology in the United Kingdom. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Michael Faraday Prize is a science award given anually by the Royal Society. ...


In 2002 he was elected as president of the Royal Society of Chemistry where he is a fellow and served until 2005 in what could be considered as one of the most successful tenures in history. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ...


On 29 November 2004, Kroto announced he was to return his honorary degree from the University of Exeter, in protest over the closure of their Department of Chemistry. November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Exeter is a leading red brick university. ...


He was awarded the 2004 Copley Medal of the Royal Society. The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


On 17 June 2005, the University of Surrey conferred an honorary doctorate on him at an undergraduate degree ceremony. [2] is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Surrey received its charter on September 9, 1966, and was at that time situated near Battersea Park in south-west London. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ...


Professor Kroto is a Distinguished Supporter of the British Humanist Association. The British Humanist Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes Humanism. ...


In 2005, the University of Sheffield established the Kroto Research Campus, housing the Kroto Research Institute and the Nanoscience and Technology Centre [3].


References

  1. ^ Kroto Nobel Prize autobiography
  2. ^ [1] University of Surrey Press Release
  3. ^ Kroto Research Campus, Sheffield

External links

  • Harry Kroto autobiography from Nobel foundation
  • Sir Harry Kroto FRS - Chemical architecture from the Royal Society
  • Harry Kroto homepage at the University of Sussex
  • Professor Harry Kroto
  • Vega Science Trust
  • Harry Kroto personal website
  • Florida State University page
  • University of Sheffield
  • Kroto Incubator
  • Kroto Research Campus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harold Kroto Summary (2728 words)
Harold Kroto was born on October 7, 1939, in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England to Heinz and Edith Kroto.
Sir Harold Walter Kroto KBE, FRS, Ph.D (born 7 October, 1939) is an English chemist and one of the winners of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Kroto was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1990, and was awarded a knighthood (becoming Sir Harold Kroto) in 1996.
Lemelson Center Invention Features: Sir Harold Kroto (1103 words)
Kroto also values collaboration, believing that competition is to be avoided as much as possible.
Kroto, Curl and Smalley continued their investigations of C60, trying to make it react with other compounds, including gases such as hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxygen or ammonia, finding that it was a slow-reacting compound.
Kroto's own enthusiasm for sharing the joy of scientific discovery comes across in his interactions with children of all ages and backgrounds, as does his belief of the importance of preserving our common scientific/ cultural heritage for future generations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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