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Encyclopedia > Harold Holt
The Right Honourable
 Harold Edward Holt
 CH


17th Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1966
In office
26 January 1966 – 19 December 1967
Preceded by Robert Menzies
Succeeded by John McEwen
Constituency Higgins (Victoria)

Born 5 August 1908 (1908-08-05)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Died 17 December 1967 (aged 59)
Point Nepean, Victoria
Political party Liberal

Harold Edward Holt, CH (5 August 1908 – 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. His term as Prime Minister dramatically ended in December of the following year when he disappeared while swimming at Cheviot Beach near Portsea and was presumed drowned. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... Harold Holt This work is copyrighted. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 26, 1966. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Sir John McEwen (March 29, 1900 - November 20, 1980), Australian politician and 18th Prime Minister of Australia, was born at Chiltern, Victoria, where his father was a pharmacist. ... The Division of Higgins is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... VIC redirects here. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Point Nepean marks the northern entrance to Port Phillip Bay Victoria, Australia. ... VIC redirects here. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Missing persons redirects here. ... Cheviot Beach is a beach near Point Nepean in Victoria, Australia. ... Portsea is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


Holt spent 32 years in Parliament, including many years as a senior Cabinet Minister, but was Prime Minister for only 22 months. This necessarily limited his personal and political impact, especially when compared to his immediate predecessor Robert Menzies, who was PM for a total of 18 years. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ...


Today, Holt is mainly remembered for the sensational circumstances of his death, for his controversial role in expanding Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War and for his famous "All the way with LBJ" quote. In the opinion of his biographer Tom Frame, this has tended to obscure the many achievements of Holt's long and distinguished political career. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... LBJ redirects here. ... The Right Reverend Associate Professor Tom Frame (b. ...

Contents

Early life

Harold Holt in the 1930s

Harold Holt was the elder of two children of Thomas and Olive (Williams) Holt. He was born in the Sydney suburb of Stanmore on 5 August 1908. He and his brother Cliff (Clifford Thomas Holt, b. 1910) spent their early life in Sydney and attended three different schools in Sydney and Adelaide between 1913 and 1919. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Stanmore Stanmore Stanmore Stanmore Public School Stanmore is a suburb in the inner-west of Sydney, in New South Wales, Australia. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1920 Thomas Holt enrolled his sons at the prestigious Wesley College in Melbourne, where the future Prime Minister Robert Menzies had been a star pupil. By this time Thomas Holt had left teaching and moved into theatrical and artist management in partnership with the noted entrepreneur Hugh D. Macintosh, owner of the Tivoli theatre circuit. For several years in the early 1930s he was based in London. Wesley College is an independent, co-educational, day school, located at St Kilda Road, Glen Waverley, Elsternwick & Clunes, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... The Tivoli Circuit was a successful and popular Australian entertainment circuit which flourished from 1893 and the 1950s. ...


Harold Holt's parents divorced in 1918. His mother died in 1924, when he was sixteen, and he did not attend her funeral. A lack of parental affection, his parents' divorce and his mother's early death instilled deep feelings of loneliness and insecurity in the young Holt. This drove him to seek approval and acclaim through personal endeavour and career achievement, and fuelled his eagerness to please others and his need to be liked. A formative event was his singing performance at his school's annual Speech Night in December 1926 — none of his family were present, and the sense of loneliness he felt that night remained with him throughout his life.[citation needed]


Holt won a scholarship to Queen's College at the University of Melbourne and began his law degree in 1927. He excelled in many areas of university life — he won College 'Blues' for cricket and Australian rules football, as well as the College Oratory and Essay Prize. He was a member of the Melbourne Inter-University Debating team and the United Australia Organization 'A' Grade debating team, and was president of both the Sports and Social Club and the Law Students' Society. Queens College Queens College is a residential College affiliated with the University of Melbourne providing accommodation to 218 students who are attending the University of Melbourne, RMIT University and Monash Universitys Victorian College of Pharmacy. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of...


While at university, Holt met Zara Kate Dickens, and they soon became lovers, but split up in 1934 and Zara travelled overseas. In London she met Captain James Fell, a British Army officer, and they married later in March 1935. Her first son Nicholas was born in 1937, followed by twin boys Sam and Andrew, born in 1939. By this time, however, she had renewed her relationship with Holt and her marriage to Fell ended soon after the twins' birth. Tom Frame's biography reveals that Holt was the twins' biological father. Zara and Fell subsequently divorced and she eventually married Holt in 1946. He adopted the three boys. Although they remained married until Holt's death in 1967, Zara's memoirs confirmed longstanding rumours that Holt had a number of extramarital affairs. Dame Zara Bate (March 10, 1909 - June 14, 1989) was an Australian fashion designer and wife of former Prime Minister Harold Holt. ...


Holt graduated as a Bachelor of Laws in 1930. He was admitted to the Victorian Bar in November 1932 and served his articles with the Melbourne firm of Fink, Best & Miller, but the Depression meant that he was unable to find work as a barrister. His father (then based in London) wanted him to further his studies in England, but the worsening economy also made this impossible. The Victorian Bar is the name of the bar association of Australia. ... An articled clerk is an apprentice in a professional firm in the United Kingdom and former British dependencies. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Early political career

Holt was drawn to politics in the early 1930s and joined the Prahran branch of the United Australia Party (UAP) in around 1933. In 1934 he unsuccessfully contested the federal seat of Yarra for the UAP, running against James Scullin. In March 1935, he unsuccessfully contested the Victorian state seat of Clifton Hill. Holt stood again for Fawkner in 1935 and this time social connections enabled him to gain preselection as the UAP candidate and he was elected to the House of Representatives in a by-election on 17 August 1935, becoming, at age 27, one of Australia's youngest-ever MPs. Prahran (pronounced prah-RAN) is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The United Australia Party or UAP was an Australian political party that was the political successor to the Nationalist Party of Australia. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on September 15, 1934. ... The Division of Yarra was a former Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. ... James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876 – January 28, 1953), Australian Labor politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


From this point on Holt dedicated himself single-mindedly to a career in politics, and he reportedly had few outside interests, apart from his well-known passion for sport and the sea. He was a 'workaholic', typically working up to 16 hours a day and subsisting on 4-5 hours sleep each night.


In 1939, Holt's mentor Robert Menzies became Prime Minister after the sudden death of the incumbent Joseph Lyons and the short-term caretaker ministry of Sir Earle Page. Holt's energy, dedication and ability earned him rapid promotion and in April 1939 he was appointed Minister without Portfolio assisting the Minister for Supply and Development. In October 1939 he became Minister in charge of Scientific and Industrial Research, and during November-December 1939 he was Acting Minister for Air and Civil Aviation. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Joseph Aloysius Lyons (15 September 1879 – 7 April 1939), Australian politician, tenth Prime Minister of Australia. ... Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page GCMG, CH (August 8, 1880–December 20, 1961), Australian politician, was the eleventh Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In May 1940, without resigning his seat, Holt joined the 2nd Australian Imperial Force as a gunner, but a few months later three Cabinet ministers and several of Australia's top military staff were killed in an air crash in Canberra. Menzies recalled Holt from the Army, appointing him Minister without Portfolio assisting the Minister for Trade and Customs, and his recall earned him the ironic nickname "Gunner Holt." A Second AIF recruiting poster The Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act (1903), neither the part-time Militia nor full-time the Permanent Military Force (PMF) could serve outside Australia... The Canberra air disaster of 1940 was a plane crash that took place at Canberra, the capital of Australia, on 13 August 1940, during World War II. Three members of the Australian Cabinet, Air Minister James Fairbairn, Information Minister Sir Henry Gullett and Army Minister Brigadier Geoffrey Street, were killed... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


In October 1940 Holt was elevated to Cabinet, becoming Minister for Labour and National Service, and one of his most significant achievements in this portfolio was the introduction of the Child Endowment Act, passed in April 1941.


In August 1941, a front-bench revolt forced Menzies to resign as Prime Minister. He was replaced by the Country Party leader Arthur Fadden. Holt was among those who withdrew their support, although he never revealed his reasons for doing so. In October 1941, the UAP was ousted by a no-confidence vote, the ALP leader John Curtin was invited to form a new government, and Menzies resigned as UAP leader. By 1944 the UAP had effectively disintegrated and in 1945 Menzies formally established a new political party, the Liberal Party of Australia, and forging an enduring coalition with the Country Party. Holt was one of the first members to join the Liberal Party's Prahran branch. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Sir Arthur William Fadden GCMG (April 13, 1895–April 21, 1973), Australian politician and 13th Prime Minister of Australia, born at Ingham, Queensland, the son of a Presbyterian police officer. ... ALP redirects here. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ...


Ministerial career in the 1950s

Portrait of Harold Holt in 1953

After eight years in opposition, the Coalition won the federal election of December 1949 and Menzies began his record term as Prime Minister. Holt was appointed to the prestigious positions of Minister for Labour and National Service (1949-1958) and Minister for Immigration (1949-1956), by which time he was being touted in the press as a "certain successor to Menzies and a potential Prime Minister". In Immigration, Holt continued and expanded the massive immigration program initiated by his ALP predecessor, Arthur Calwell, and he displayed a more flexible and caring attitude than Calwell, who was a strong advocate of the White Australia Policy. Federal elections were held in Australia on December 10, 1949. ... In the Government of Australia, the Minister for Immigration is responsible for overseeing the Department of Immigration. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...


Holt excelled in the Labour portfolio and he has been described as one of the best Labour ministers since Federation. Although the conditions were ripe for industrial unrest – Communist influence in the union movement was then at its peak, and the right-wing faction in Cabinet was openly agitating for a showdown with the unions – the combination of strong economic growth and Holt's enlightened approach to industrial relations saw the number of working hours lost to strikes fall dramatically, from over two million in 1949 to just 439,000 in 1958.


Holt fostered greater collaboration between the government, the courts, employers and trade unions. He enjoyed good relationships with union leaders like Albert Monk, President of the ACTU, and Jim Healy, leader of the radical Waterside Workers' Federation and he gained a reputation for tolerance, restraint and a willingness to compromise, although his controversial decision to use troops to take control of cargo facilities during a waterside dispute in Bowen, Queensland in September 1953 provoked bitter criticism. The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) is the peak national body representing workers in Australia. ... The Maritime Union of Australia covers waterside workers, seamen, port workers, professional divers, and office workers associated with Australian ports. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Holt's personal profile and political standing grew through the 1950s. He served on numerous committees and overseas delegations, he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1953, and in 1954 he was named one of Australia's six best-dressed men. In 1956 he was elected Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party and became Leader of the House, and from this point on he was generally acknowledged as Menzies' heir apparent. This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... The office of Leader of the House in the Government of Australia exists in order for the management of government business, involving the order in which Government issues are to be dealt with, which Government members will speak, tactical matters in reaction to impediments to such management; negotiates with the...


In December 1958, following the retirement of Arthur Fadden, Holt was appointed Treasurer. He delivered his first Budget in August 1959 and his achievements included major reforms to the banking system (originated by Fadden) – including the establishment of the Reserve Bank of Australia – and the planning and preparation for the introduction of decimal currency. Sir Arthur William Fadden GCMG (April 13, 1895–April 21, 1973), Australian politician and 13th Prime Minister of Australia, born at Ingham, Queensland, the son of a Presbyterian police officer. ... Look up Treasurer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 to operate as Australias central bank and banknote issuing authority. ... Decimal currency is the term used to describe any currency for which the ratio between the basic unit of currency and its sub-unit is a power of 10. ...


However, in November 1960, Holt brought down a mini-budget in an attempt to slow consumption, control inflation and reduce the deficit, but it triggered the worst credit squeeze since 1945. The economy was driven into recession – the stock market slumped, private investment, housing activity and motor vehicle sales fell, unemployment rose to almost 2 percent (the highest rate since the Depression) and several major companies collapsed. A credit squeeze occurs in a debt-based monetary system when interest rates rise and new debt money is difficult to access without a high credit rating. ...


Holt's blunder nearly derailed his own career, and it brought the Coalition dangerously close to losing the 1961 election, which they won with a precarious one-seat majority (the seat, Moreton, was won by Jim Killen). Holt was roundly criticised, his public profile was damaged, and he later described 1960-61 as "my most difficult year in public life". But Holt's political stock, like the economy, soon recovered. Federal elections were held in Australia on December 9, 1961. ... The Division of Moreton is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


He continued as federal Treasurer and Minister for the Army until January 1966, when Menzies finally retired as Prime Minister and Holt was elected leader, thus becoming Prime Minister. By this time he had been an MP for almost thirty-one years – the longest wait of any non-caretaker Australian Prime Minister.


Holt as Prime Minister

Holt was sworn in as Prime Minister on Australia Day, 26 January 1966. His original Cabinet included: Anniversary Day redirects here. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • John McEwen (CP) Deputy Prime Minister, leader of the Country Party, Minister for Trade and Industry
  • William McMahon (LP), Treasurer
  • Paul Hasluck (LP), Minister for External Affairs
  • Allen Fairhall (LP), Minister for Defence
  • Charles Adermann (CP) Minister for Primary Industry
  • Charles Barnes (CP), Minister for Territories
  • David Fairbairn (LP), Minister for National Development
  • Senator John Gorton (LP), Minister for Works and Minister in Charge of Commonwealth Activities in Education and Research
  • Senator Denham Henty (LP), Minister for Supply
  • Alan Hulme (LP), Postmaster-General
  • Les Bury (LP), Minister for Labour
  • Malcolm Fraser (LP), Minister for the Army

Holt's short term in office meant that he had a limited personal and political impact as Prime Minister, and he is mainly remembered for the unusual circumstances of his disappearance and presumed death. This has tended to obscure the major events and political trends of his term in office, especially his role in maintaining and expanding Australia's military commitment to the Vietnam War. Sir John McEwen (March 29, 1900 - November 20, 1980), Australian politician and 18th Prime Minister of Australia, was born at Chiltern, Victoria, where his father was a pharmacist. ... Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ... Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck (1 April 1905 - 9 January 1993), Australian historian, public servant and politician, and 17th Governor-General of Australia, was born in Fremantle, Western Australia, into a family of Salvationists, whose values he retained throughout his career. ... Sir Allen Fairhall KBE (24 November 1909 – 3 December 2006 ) was an Australian politician and Member of the Parliament of Australia for the Division of Paterson from 1949 to 1984. ... Charles Adermann (August 3, 1896 - May 9, 1979) was a federal politician who was 1st elected in 1949. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Leslie Harry Ernest Bury CMG (25 February 1913 – 7 September 1986) was an Australian politician. ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In terms of national politics, the most significant aspect of Holt's tenure as Prime Minister is that it marked the beginning of an unprecedented period of internal turmoil for the Liberals and a rapid decline in the party's electoral fortunes. For twenty-two years, from its founding in 1944 to his retirement in 1966, the Liberal Party of Australia had had only one leader – Robert Menzies. After his retirement, the party had three leaders in the six years between 1966 and 1972; in December 1972 the Coalition's 23-year hold on power ended with a resounding electoral loss to the ALP under Gough Whitlam. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...


The transfer of power from Menzies to Holt in February 1966 was unproblematic, and at the federal election later that year the electorate overwhelmingly endorsed Holt, re-electing the Holt-McEwen Coalition government with 56% of the two party preferred vote. As of 2007, this stands as the greatest winning margin at a federal election in Australian political history. But behind the scenes, Menzies' retirement had left a power vacuum in the party, and internal divisions soon emerged. Menzies' dominance over the party, and the fact that Holt's succession had been established for many years, meant that a secure second rank of leadership had not developed. Holt's disappearance at the end of 1967 forced the party to choose a "wild card" successor from the Senate after the leading contender, deputy Liberal leader William McMahon, was unexpectedly eliminated from the contest by their Coalition partners, the Country Party. Federal elections were held in Australia on November 26, 1966. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ... There have been several groups known as the Country Party. ...


The political historian James Jupp says that, in domestic policy, Holt identified with the reformist wing of Victorian Liberalism. In one of his most notable achievements, he began the process of breaking down the White Australia Policy, by ending the distinction between Asian and European migrants and by permitting skilled Asians to settle with their families. He also established the Australian Council for the Arts (later the Australia Council), which began the tradition of federal government support for Australian arts and artists, an initiative that was considerably expanded by Holt's successor John Gorton. James Jupp (1932 - ) is a British-Australian political scientist and author. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... The Australia Council for the Arts (commonly called the Australia Council) is the Australian Governments arts council. ... Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In constitutional terms, an important events of Holt's time as Prime Minister was the 1967 referendum in which an overwhelming majority of Australians voted in favour of giving the Commonwealth power to legislate specifically for indigenous Australians and in favour of Aborigines being included in the national census. (Redirected from 1967 referendum) The referendum of the 27th May 1967 approved an amendment to the Australian constitution allowing the state greater freedom to legislate for the rights of Aborigines. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group...


In economics, Holt's tenure began with the introduction of Australia's new system of decimal currency, introduced on 14 February 1966. Although all the preparatory work for the changeover had been done while Menzies was Prime Minister, Holt had particular responsibility as Treasurer for currency matters, and he was highly involved in both the decision to change, and its implementation. In 1967 his government made the historic decision not to depreciate the Australian dollar in line with Britain's depreciation of the pound sterling, a custom that Australia had previously always followed, but this decision created increasing dissent within the Coalition, particularly in the Country Party, which saw the move as a threat to Australia's balance of payments and felt that it would lead to increased production costs for primary industry. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... GBP redirects here. ...


Holt and Vietnam

Prime Minister Harold Holt with US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara at The Pentagon in July 1966.
Prime Minister Harold Holt with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House in October 1966.

During Holt's term in office, the Vietnam War was the dominant foreign policy issue. The Holt government significantly increased its military involvement in the conflict and Holt was a strong advocate of US policy in the region. Holt also forged a close relationship with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson — he visited Washington in mid-1966 and Johnson visited Australia in October that year, the first time a serving American president had visited Australia. For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... This article is about the United States military building. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2849 pixels, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Er wurde 1935 für die United Australia Party in das Repräsentantenhaus gewählt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2849 pixels, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Er wurde 1935 für die United Australia Party in das Repräsentantenhaus gewählt. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ...


Whilst Holt stated that his friendship with Johnson was reflected in the strong relationship between Australia and the USA, former Australian diplomat and foreign affairs expert Alan Renouf was more cynical in his assessment of the situation. In the chapter on Vietnam in The Frightened Country, his 1979 book on Australian foreign policy, Renouf bluntly suggests that Holt was in effect "seduced" by Johnson, and he notes that the Holt government was criticized for not doing enough and was repeatedly pressured by the Johnson administration to increase its troop commitment in Vietnam. Alan Renouf was a prominent Australian Government official during the 1970s. ...


On taking office, Holt declared that Australia had no intention of increasing its commitment to the Vietnam War, but a month later, in March 1966, he announced that Australia would treble its troop commitment to 4,500, including 1,500 National Service conscripts, creating a single independent Australian task force based at Nui Dat. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ...


Two months later, in May, Holt announced the death of the first National Service conscript in Vietnam, Private Errol Wayne Noack, aged 21. Just before his disappearance, Holt approved a further increase in troop numbers, committing a third battalion to the conflict — a decision that was subsequently reversed by his successor, John Gorton. Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


On a visit to the USA in late June, 1966, Holt gave a speech in Washington in the presence of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Reported in The Australian on 1 July 1966, Holt's speech concluded with a remark which has come to be seen as encapsulating his unquestioning support for Johnson, for America's Vietnam policy and for continued Australian military involvement in the conflict: The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

"You have in us not merely an understanding friend but one staunch in the belief of the need for our presence in Vietnam.
"We are not there because of our friendship, we are there because, like you, we believe it is right to be there and, like you, we shall stay there as long as it seems necessary to achieve the purposes of the South Vietnamese Government and the purposes that we join in formulating and progressing together.
"And so, sir, in the lonelier and perhaps even more disheartening moments which come to any national leader, I hope there will be a corner of your mind and heart which takes cheer from the fact that you have an admiring friend, a staunch friend that will be all the way with LBJ."

Following his visit to Washington, Holt went on to London and in a speech there given on 7 July he was sharply critical of the UK, France and other US allies that had refused to commit troops to the Vietnam conflict. is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 20 October 1966, President Johnson arrived in Australia at Holt's invitation for a three-day state visit, the first to Australia by a serving U.S. President. The tour marked the first major anti-war demonstrations staged in Australia. In Sydney, protesters lay down in front of the car carrying Johnson and the Premier of New South Wales, Robert Askin (prompting Askin's notorious order to "Run over the bastards"). In Melbourne, a crowd estimated at 750,000 turned out to welcome Johnson, although a vocal anti-war contingent demonstrated against the visit by throwing paint bombs at Johnson's car and chanting "LBJ, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?". is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... List of Premiers of New South Wales Before the 1890s there was no formal party system in New South Wales. ... The Honourable Sir Robert William Askin, GCMG, (Born Sydney, April 4, 1907; Died September 9, 1981. ...


In December, Australia signed an agreement with the United States that would allow the U.S. to establish a communications facility at Pine Gap in the Northern Territory. On 20 December 1966, Holt announced that Australia's military force in Vietnam was to be increased again to 6,300 troops, plus an additional twelve tanks, two minesweepers and eight bombers. Pine Gap is just west of Alice Springs, near the geographic center of Australia. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


1966 general election

Holt fought his first and only general election as Prime Minister on 26 November 1966, focusing his campaign on the issue of Vietnam and the supposed Communist threat in Asia. Labor leader Arthur Calwell bitterly opposed Australia's part in the war and promised that Australian troops would be brought home if Labor won office, and opposition to overseas service by Australian conscripts had long been part of ALP policy. Federal elections were held in Australia on November 26, 1966. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ...


Holt faced real electoral challenges. Although domestic opposition to the war was beginning to build, Australia's involvement in Vietnam still enjoyed majority popular support. The Coalition scored a stunning victory over the ALP, winning many former ALP seats and sweeping back into power with (at the time) the largest parliamentary majority since Federation. The Liberal Party increased its numbers from 52 to 61, and the Country Party from 20 to 21, with Labor dropping from 51 to 41 seats, and one Independent. Among the new members elected was future federal Treasurer Phillip Lynch. This article is about federal states. ... Sir Phillip Lynch (27 July 1933 - June 19, 1984) was Treasurer and Minister for Finance of Australia under Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. ...


1967

In early 1967, Arthur Calwell retired as ALP leader and Gough Whitlam succeeded him. Whitlam proved a far more effective opponent, both in the media and in parliament, and Labor soon began to recover from its losses and gain ground, with Whitlam repeatedly besting Holt in Parliament. By this time the long-suppressed tensions between the Coalition partners over economic and trade policies were also beginning to emerge. Throughout his reign as Liberal leader, Menzies had enforced strict party discipline but, once he was gone, dissension began to surface. Some Liberals soon became dissatisfied by what they saw as Holt's weak leadership. Alan Reid asserts that Holt was being increasingly criticized within the party in the months before his death, that he was perceived as being "vague, imprecise and evasive" and "nice to the point that his essential decency was viewed as weakness". Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...

Holt during a visit to US president Lyndon B. Johnson June 1st, 1967

Holt's popularity and political standing was damaged by his mishandling of a series of controversies during 1967. In April, the new ABC current affairs program This Day Tonight ran a story which was critical of the government's decision not to reappoint the ABC Chairman Sir James Darling; Holt responded rashly, questioning the impartiality of the ABC and implying political bias on the part of journalist Mike Willesee (whose father Donald Willesee was an ALP Senator and future Whitlam government minister) and his statement drew strong protests from both Willessee and the Australian Journalists' Association. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... LBJ redirects here. ... This Day Tonight is a long running ABC (Australia) current affairs program of the of late 1960s early 1970s which was rivived in the mid 1980s as the 7. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... James Ralph Darling, 1930 Sir James Darling was Head Master of Geelong Church of England Grammar School from 1930 until 1961. ... Michael Willesee (Born June 29, 1942) is an Australian television presenter. ... Donald Robert Willesee (14 April 1916 - 9 September 2003) Australian Labor politician, was a member of the Australian Senate for 25 years from 1950 to 1975 representing Western Australia, a Cabinet minister in the Whitlam government, the portfolio being minister for foreign affairs. ... The Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance (The Alliance) is the Australian trade union and professional organisation which covers the media, entertainment, sports and arts industries. ...


In May, increasing pressure in the media and within the Liberal Party forced Holt to announce a parliamentary debate on the question of a second inquiry into the 1964 sinking of HMAS Voyager to be held on 16 May. The debate included the maiden speech by NSW Liberal MP Edward St John QC, who used the opportunity to criticize the government's attitude to new evidence about the disaster. Defying parliamentary convention, an enraged Holt made a serious blunder by interrupting St John's speech and this gaffe seriously undermined his support in the Liberal Party and further embarrassed the government. A few days later, Holt announced a new Royal Commission into the disaster. The Melbourne-Voyager collision, also referred to as the Melbourne-Voyager incident or simply the Voyager incident, was a collision between two warships of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN); aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne and destroyer HMAS Voyager. ... The second HMAS Voyager (D-04) was a Daring class destroyer laid down by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Limited at Sydney in New South Wales on 10 October 1949, launched on 1 May 1952 by Dame Pattie Menzies, wife of the Prime Minister, and commissioned on 12 February... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected representative in such bodies as the House of Commons or the United States House of Representatives. ...


In October the government became embroiled in another embarrassing controversy over the alleged misuse of VIP aircraft, which came to a head when John Gorton (Government Leader in the Senate) tabled documents which showed that Holt had unintentionally misled Parliament in his earlier answers on the matter. Support for his leadership was further eroded by his refusal to sack the Minister for Air Peter Howson in order to defuse the scandal, fueling criticism within the party that Holt was weak and lacked Menzies' ruthlessness. Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In November the government suffered a serious setback in the Senate elections, winning just 43.3 per cent of the vote against Labor's 47 per cent; the Liberals also lost the seats of Corio and Dawson to Labor. Within the party (Alan Reid says) the reversal was blamed on Holt's mishandling of the VIP planes scandal. In December, days before Holt disappeared, the Chief Government Whip Dudley Erwin decided to meet with Holt and confront him about growing unrest in the party. According to Alan Reid, Erwin had no concerns about policy – his anxiety was entirely focussed on Holt's leadership style, his parliamentary performance and his public image. Half-senate elections were held in Australia on November 25, 1967. ... The Division of Corio is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... The Division of Dawson is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. ...


The notes Erwin made for his planned meeting with Holt (which he evidently provided to Reid) indicate that he and others were worried that Holt was too susceptible to traps set for him by the ALP over issues like the VIP jets scandal, and that he had repeatedly let himself become the target of Opposition "harassment" instead of letting his ministers take the heat on controversial issues.


Disappearance

Harold Holt collecting snorkelling paraphernalia from his car at Portsea, Victoria, 1966.

On the morning of Sunday 17 December 1967, Holt and some friends drove down from Melbourne to see the British lone yachtsman Alec Rose sail through Port Phillip Heads in his boat Lively Lady to complete this leg of his solo circumnavigation of the globe, which started and ended in England. Around noon, the party drove to one of Holt's favourite swimming and snorkeling spots, Cheviot Beach on Point Nepean near Portsea, on the eastern arm of Port Phillip Bay. Holt decided to go swimming, although the surf was heavy, and Cheviot Beach was notorious for its strong currents and dangerous rip tides. Image File history File links Harold_Holt_at_car_boot. ... Image File history File links Harold_Holt_at_car_boot. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Alec Rose (13 July 1908 - 11 January 1991) was a nursery owner and fruit merchant in England who had a passion for amateur single-handed sailing, for which he was ultimately knighted. ... Cheviot Beach is a beach near Point Nepean in Victoria, Australia. ... Point Nepean marks the northern entrance to Port Phillip Bay Victoria, Australia. ... Portsea is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Landsat 7 composite imagery of the bay. ... A rip current is a strong flow of water returning seaward from the shore. ...


Apparently seeking to impress his friends, and ignoring pleas not to go in, Holt plunged into the surf and quickly disappeared from view. Fearing the worst, his friends raised the alert, and within a short time the beach and the water off shore was being combed by a large contingent of police, Navy divers and volunteers. This quickly escalated into one of the largest search operations in Australian history, but no trace of Holt could be found, and two days later, on 19 December 1967, the government made an official announcement that Holt was presumed dead. The Governor-General sent for the Country Party leader and Coalition Deputy Prime Minister John McEwen, and he was sworn in as caretaker Prime Minister while the Liberals elected a new leader. Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Death in absentia describes a legal finding of death if a person has been missing for more than a certain period of time. ... Sir John McEwen (March 29, 1900 - November 20, 1980), Australian politician and 18th Prime Minister of Australia, was born at Chiltern, Victoria, where his father was a pharmacist. ...


Holt was a strong swimmer and an experienced skindiver, with what Tom Frame describes as "incredible powers of endurance underwater". However, his health was evidently far from perfect at the time of his death — he had collapsed in Parliament earlier in the year, apparently suffering from a "vitamin deficiency", and this raised fears among some senior Liberals that he might have a heart condition.


In September 1967 Holt had suffered a recurrence of an old shoulder injury, which reportedly caused him agonising pain and forced him to take strong painkillers. He ignored recent advice from his doctor not to play tennis or swim until the shoulder healed, and it is likely that this injury would have severely reduced his ability to stay afloat in the heavy seas and strong currents at Cheviot Beach on the day he disappeared. Tom Frame also records that Holt had already got into trouble twice while skindiving earlier in 1967. On the first occasion, while snorkeling at Portsea in May, he got into severe difficulties due to a leaking snorkel and had to be pulled from the water by friends, gasping for breath, blue in the face and vomiting seawater.

The Age reporting on Holt's disappearance December 18 1967

A memorial service was held at St Paul's Anglican Cathedral in Melbourne on 22 December, and it was attended by scores of dignitaries including President Johnson, Charles, Prince of Wales and many Asian leaders, including Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, President of South Vietnam and Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea. It was also one of the first events to be transmitted from Australia to other countries via satellite. Image File history File links Holtage. ... Image File history File links Holtage. ... St Pauls Cathedral, Melbourne, is the metropolitical and cathedral church of the Anglican Diocese of Melbourne, Victoria. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... President Nguyá»…n Văn Thiệu Nguyá»…n Văn Thiệu  , (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... This is a Korean name; the family name is Park Park Chung-hee (November 14, 1917 – October 26, 1979) was a former ROK Army general and the leader of the Republic of Korea from 1961 to 1979. ... The President is head of state of South Korea. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ...


There were many rumours surrounding Holt's death, such as that he had committed suicide or faked his own death in order to run away with his mistress. The mystery became the subject of numerous urban myths in Australia, including outlandish but persistent stories that he had been kidnapped by a Russian or Chinese submarine, or that he had been abducted by a UFO. Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O...


In 1983, British journalist Anthony Grey published a book in which he claimed that Holt had been an agent for the People's Republic of China and had been picked up by a Chinese submarine off Portsea and taken to China.[1]


Journalist Ray Martin made a documentary, "Who Killed Harold Holt?", shown in November 2007 which suggests Holt may have committed suicide. The Bulletin magazine featured a story supporting the suicide theory. In support of the view, The Bulletin quoted fellow cabinet minister Doug Anthony who spoke about Holt's depression shortly before his death.[2] The suggestion of suicide is rejected by his son, Sam, his biographer, Tom Frame, and former prime minister and Cabinet colleague at the time, Malcolm Fraser.[3] Ray Martin (born 20 December 1944, in Richmond, New South Wales) is a well known Australian Television Journalist. ... Who Killed Harold Holt? was a television special which explored the disappearance of former Australian Prime Minister, Harold Holt. ... The Bulletin is an Australian weekly magazine, which has been published in Sydney since 1880. ... Rt Hon Doug Anthony John Douglas Anthony, AC, CH (born 31 December 1929), Australian politician, was born in Murwillumbah in northern New South Wales. ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ...


Most likely, however, Holt was caught in the strong undertow off the beach, which was known for its treacherous currents, and he was swept out to sea. A rip current is a strong flow of water returning seaward from the shore. ...


No official federal government enquiry was conducted, on the grounds that it would have been a waste of time and money. Neither was an inquest held at the time because Victorian law did not provide any mechanism for reporting presumed or suspected deaths to the Victorian Coroner. However, the Commonwealth and Victoria Police compiled a 108 page report into the disappearance, including statements from all eye witnesses and details of the search operation.[4]


The law in Victoria was changed in 1985, and in 2003 the Victoria Police Missing Persons Unit formally reopened 161 pre-1985 cases where drowning was suspected but no body was found. Holt's son Nicholas Holt said that after thirty-seven years there were few surviving witnesses and no new evidence would be presented. On 2 September 2005, the Coroner's finding was that Holt had drowned in accidental circumstances on 17 December 1967.[5] Victoria Police is the primary law enforcement agency of Victoria, Australia. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


After Holt's death, his widow Zara was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE), becoming Dame Zara Holt. She later married for a third time, to a Liberal party colleague of Holt's, Jeff Bate. Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand... Dame Zara Bate DBE (10 March 1909 - 14 June 1989) was an Australian fashion designer, celebrity, and wife of Prime Minister Harold Holt. ... Henry Jefferson Percival (Jeff) Bate (born 5 March 1906 in Tilba Tilba, died 15 April 1984 in Canberra) was an Australian politician. ...


Leadership crisis

Main article: John Gorton

Holt's disappearance triggered a leadership crisis in the Liberal Party which briefly raised the possibility of a split in the Coalition. On the morning of 18 December, Country Party leader John McEwen publicly declared that neither he nor his Country Party colleagues would serve in a Coalition if the deputy Liberal leader William McMahon were elected as Liberal leader. McEwen refused to give his reasons, saying only that McMahon knew what they were. In the interim, on 19 December McEwen was sworn in as Prime Minister on the understanding that his commission would continue only until such time as the Liberals could elect a new leader. With McMahon unexpectedly eliminated from the contest, Senator John Gorton was elected Liberal leader on 9 January 1968, and was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 January, replacing McEwen. Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There have been several groups known as the Country Party. ... Sir John McEwen (March 29, 1900 - November 20, 1980), Australian politician and 18th Prime Minister of Australia, was born at Chiltern, Victoria, where his father was a pharmacist. ... Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ... Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Memorials

Bust of Harold Holt by sculptor Victor Greenhalgh located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

In 1968 the newly commissioned United States Navy Knox class destroyer escort USS Harold E. Holt (FF-1074) was named in his honour. It was launched by Holt's widow Zara at the Todd Shipyards in Los Angeles on 3 May 1969, and was the first American warship to bear the name of a foreign leader. USN redirects here. ... Four Knox-class frigates steaming alongside USS Badger (FF-1071). ... USS Harold E. Holt (FF-1074) was a Knox class frigate named after Harold Holt. ... Todd Shipyards is a shipyard company that has been in business since 1916. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


In 1969 a plaque commemorating Holt was bolted to the seafloor off Cheviot Beach after a memorial ceremony. It bears the inscription:

In memory of Harold Holt, Prime Minister of Australia, who loved the sea and disappeared hereabouts on 17 December 1967.

Other memorials include: December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

Holt is most famously commemorated by the Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre,[6] a swimming pool complex in the Melbourne suburb of Glen Iris. The complex was already under construction at the time of Holt's presumed drowning, and since he was Malvern's local member it was named in his memory, although the irony of commemorating him with a swimming pool has been the source of much amusement to Australians.[7] Holt is a suburb in the Canberra district of Belconnen. ... Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt is located on the North West coast of Australia, 6 kms (3 miles) north of the town of Exmouth, Western Australia. ... The Division of Holt is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Cooks Cottage in the Fitzroy Gardens. ... Wesley College is an independent, co-educational, day school, located at St Kilda Road, Glen Waverley, Elsternwick & Clunes, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Glen Iris (postcode 3146) is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. ...


By way of a folk memorial, he is recalled in the Australian vernacular expression 'do a Harold Holt' (or 'do the Harry'), rhyming slang for 'do a bolt' meaning 'to disappear suddenly and without explanation', although this is usually employed in the context of disappearance from a social gathering rather than a case of presumed death.[8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cockney rhyming slang is a form of English slang which originated in the East End of London. ...


Popular culture

The circumstances surrounding Holt's disappearance will be dramatised in a 2008 docu-drama The Prime Minister is Missing, in which Holt will be portrayed by Normie Rowe.[9] Normie Rowe AM (born Norman John Rowe on 1 February 1947 in Melbourne, Australia) was the preeminent male solo star of Australian pop music in the 1960s. ...


Bill Bryson dedicates a chapter of his book Down Under (published in the US as In a Sunburned Country) to Holt's disappearance. Down Under is a 2000 travelogue book about Australia written by best-selling travel writer Bill Bryson. ...


See also

The First Holt Ministry was the forty-second Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 21st January 1966 to 14th December 1966. ... The Second Holt Ministry was the forty-third Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 14th December 1966 to 19th December 1967. ... Death in absentia describes a legal finding of death if a person has been missing for more than a certain period of time. ... This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Grey, Anthony. The Prime Minister Was a Spy (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1983)
  2. ^ "Sex, lies & suicide", The Bulletin, 13 November 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.  Norington, Brad. "Holt 'may have killed himself'", The Australian, 14 November 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  3. ^ "Frame, Fraser reject Holt suicide claim", Sydney Morning Herald, 13 November 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.  Dunn, Mark. "Harold Holt son rejects suicide theory", Herald Sun, November 15 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  4. ^ Report by the Commonwealth and Victoria Police on Disappearance of the Prime Minister The Right Honourable Harold Holt, C.H. M.P. Cheviot Beach, Portsea, Victoria, Sunday 17 December 1967, National Archives of Australia
  5. ^ "Coroner rules Holt conspiracy theories 'fanciful'", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2 September 2005. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  6. ^ History of the Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre
  7. ^ Bryson, Bill. In a Sunburned Country (Broadway Books, New York, 2000) ISBN 0-7679-0385-4
  8. ^ Belinsky, Natalya. Australian Slang Accessed 7 January 2008
  9. ^ Rudra, Natasha: Captured: Holt's fatal love of the sea, Cooma-Monaro Express, October 31, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References and further reading

  • Frame, Tom (2005). The Life and Death of Harold Holt. Allen & Unwin / National Archives of Australia. ISBN 1 74114 672 0. 
  • Griffen-Foley, Bridget (2003). Party Games: Australian Politician and the Media from War to Dismissal. Text Publishing, Melbourne. ISBN 1 8770 0864 8. 
  • Inglis, Kenneth S. (1983). This Is The ABC. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522842585. 
  • Jupp, James (1982). Party Politics in Australia 1966-81. George Allen & Unwin, Sydney. 
  • Reid, Alan (1969). The Power Struggle. Shakespeare Head Press, Sydney. 
  • Reid, Alan (1971). The Gorton Experiment: The Fall of John Gorton. Shakespeare Head Press, Sydney. 
  • Renouf, Alan (1979). The Frightened Country. Macmillan Australia, Melbourne. ISBN 0333252489. 

External links

  • Harold Holt – Australia's Prime Ministers / National Archives of Australia
  • Harold Holt and LBJ -You Tube Video Documentary
Political offices
New title Minister for Labour and National Service
1940 – 1941
Succeeded by
Eddie Ward
Preceded by
Herbert Collett
Minister in charge of Scientific and Industrial Research
1940 – 1941
Succeeded by
John Dedman
Preceded by
Arthur Calwell
Minister for Immigration
1949 – 1956
Succeeded by
Athol Townley
Preceded by
Ted Holloway
Minister for Labour and National Service
1949 – 1958
Succeeded by
William McMahon
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Fadden
Treasurer of Australia
1958 – 1966
Preceded by
Robert Menzies
Prime Minister of Australia
1966 – 1967
Succeeded by
John McEwen
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
George Maxwell
Member for Fawkner
1935 – 1949
Succeeded by
William Bourke
New division Member for Higgins
1949 – 1967
Succeeded by
John Gorton
Party political offices
Preceded by
Robert Menzies
Leader of the Liberal Party
1966 – 1967
Succeeded by
John Gorton

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harold Holt: (1037 words)
Holt’s body was never found, fuelling many theories regarding his disappearance, ranging from suicide to abduction by a Chinese submarine.
Whatever it was, Harold Holt on 17 December 1967 died an accidental death.
Harold Holt disappeared more than 35 years ago, but a bit oddly, a new inquiry by the Victorian coroner was recently opened.
Harold Holt (566 words)
Harold Edward Holt (August 5, 1908 - December 19, 1967) was the 17th Prime Minister of Australia and Robert Menzies' successor as Prime Minister of Australia, inheriting the position when Menzies retired in 1966.
Holt married widow Zara Fell in 1946, adopting her three small children.
Holt's accidental death resulted in a notable memorial being constructed - a swimming pool in suburban Melbourne named the Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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