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Encyclopedia > Harold Godwinson
Harold II Godwinson
King of England (more...)
Reign 5 January14 October 1066
Coronation 6 January 1066
Predecessor Edward the Confessor
Successor Edgar Ætheling
Spouse Ealdgyth Swan-neck
Issue
Godwin
Edmund
Magnus
Gunhild
Gytha
Harold
Ulf
Full name
Harold Godwinson
Royal house House of Godwin
Father Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Mother Gytha Thorkelsdóttir
Born Circa 1022
Wessex, England
Died 14 October 1066
Battle, East Sussex
Burial Waltham Abbey, Waltham Abbey, England

Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. 1022October 14, 1066) was the last of the Anglo-Saxons to be crowned King of England - Edgar Ætheling (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was to be his successor after the Battle of Hastings, by the proclaimation of the Witan, but was not crowned. His reign was from January 5 to October 14, 1066. He was killed attempting to repel the Norman invaders, led by William the Conqueror, at the Battle of Hastings. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Ealdgyth Swan-neck, also known as Edith the Fair, was the mistress or common-law wife of King Harold II of England. ... Gytha of Wessex was one of several daughters of Ealdgyth Swan-neck by Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Gyda Torkelsdotter was the daughter of Torkel Styrbjörnsson. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Location within the British Isles Battle is a small town in East Sussex, England, about 5 miles (8 km) from Hastings, and the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold II to become William I. Battle Abbey takes its name from the town... Waltham Abbey in the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England was founded in 1030 and a building was constructed on the site by Harold Godwinson thirty years later. ... Waltham Abbey is a market town of about 20,400 people in the south west of the county of Essex, in the East of England region. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events Several Catharist heretics are killed in Toulouse. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Norman conquests in red. ... William I of England (c. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4...

Contents

Lineage

Harold's father was Godwin, the powerful Earl of Wessex believed to be a son to Wulfnoth Cild, Thegn of west Sussex. Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... The Earl of Wessex is an Earl in the English and later British nobility. ... Wulfnoth Cild Thegn of Sussex was the father of Earl Godwin and the grandfather of King Harold II of England. ... Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ...


Godwin married twice, both times to Danish women of high rank. His first wife was the Danish princess Thyra Sveinsdóttir, one of the daughters of Sweyn I, who was King of Denmark and Norway. His second wife was Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, whose brother or cousin Ulf Jarl was the son-in-law of Sweyn I and the father of Sweyn II. Gytha and Ulf were allegedly grandchildren to the legendary Swedish Viking Styrbjörn the Strong (a disinherited prince of Sweden) and great-grandchildren to Harold Bluetooth, King of Denmark and Norway. This second marriage resulted in the birth of several children, notably two sons, Harold and Tostig Godwinson (who played a prominent role in 1066) and a daughter Edith of Wessex (1020–75), who was Queen consort of Edward the Confessor. Many girls/women were in love with Harold because of his good looks and the way he charmed them. Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Gyda Torkelsdotter was the daughter of Torkel Styrbjörnsson. ... Ulf Jarl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Coin struck for Sweyn II of Denmark, ca. ... Styrbjörn the Strong (Styrbjörn Sterki) or Styrbjörn the Swedish Champion (Styrbjörn svía kappi) was according to the Norse sagas the son of the Swedish king Olof, and the nephew of Olofs co-ruler and successor Eric the Victorious. ... Harold Bluetooth Gormson (Danish Harald Blåtand, Norwegian Harald Blåtann) (ca 935- November 1, 986), sometimes Harold II, succeeded his father Gorm the Old as king of Denmark in 958 (or 959) and was king of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. ... Tostig Godwinson (1026? – September 25, 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold II of England, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. ... Edith of Wessex, (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ...


Powerful nobleman

When Godwin died in 1053, his son Harold took over. It was he, rather than Edward, who subjugated Wales in 1063 and negotiated with the rebellious Northumbrians in 1065. Consequently, shortly before his death, Edward named Harold as his successor even though he may already have promised the crown to a distant cousin, William, Duke of Normandy. He died on 4 January 1066 and was buried in the Abbey he had constructed at Westminster. is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ...


As a result of his sister's marriage to the king, Godwin's second son Harold was made Earl of East Anglia in 1045. Harold accompanied Godwin into exile in 1051, but helped him to regain his position a year later. When Godwin died in 1053, Harold succeeded him as Earl of Wessex (a province at that time covering the southernmost third of England). This made him the most powerful figure in England after the king. For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ...


In 1058 Harold also became Earl of Hereford, and replaced his late father as the focus of opposition to growing Norman influence in England under the restored English monarchy (1042–66) of Edward the Confessor, who had spent more than a quarter of a century in exile in Normandy. For other uses, see Hereford (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ...


He gained glory in a series of campaigns (1062–63) against the ruler of Gwynedd, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who had conquered all of Wales; this conflict ended with Gruffydd's defeat (and death at the hands of his own troops) in 1063. For the fictional Kingdom of Gwynedd in the Deryni series of novels, see Gwynedd (fictional). ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


In 1064, Harold was apparently shipwrecked in Ponthieu. There is much speculation about the reason for this, with Norman sources saying that his journey was to give William King Edward's offer of the throne. One explanation was that Harold was seeking the release of members of his family who had been held hostage since Godwin's exile in 1051. Another is that he was on his way for a meeting with allies. According to the Norman version, his vessel was blown off course, and he was held hostage by Count Guy of Ponthieu. Duke William arrived soon after and ordered Guy to turn Harold over to him. The source of much of this information can be found in the writings of William of Poitiers, whose veracity has been called into question. Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ... William of Pointers (c. ...


Harold then accompanied William to battle against William's enemy, Conan II, Duke of Brittany. While crossing into Brittany past the fortified abbey of Mont St Michel, Harold rescued two of William's soldiers, Baron Ian De La Goldfinch and Friar Paul Le Keen from the quicksand. They pursued Conan from Dol de Bretagne, then to Rennes, and finally to Dinan, where he surrendered the fortress' keys on the point of a lance. William presented Harold with weapons and arms, knighting him. The Bayeux Tapestry, and other Norman sources, then record that Harold swore an oath to William to support his claim to the English throne. Conan II of Rennes (died 1066) was duke of Brittany, from 1040 to his death. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Mont-Saint-Michel: sheep graze on the reclaimed pré-salé or salt meadow (2004) Mont Saint Michel is a small rocky islet, roughly one kilometer from the north coast of France at the mouth of the Couesnon River, near Avranches in Normandy, close to the border of Brittany. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dol-de-Bretagne is a commune of the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany, France. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... The Rue du Jerzual is a steep medieval street connecting Dinan to the river below. ...


By this time, William considered himself to be the successor of the childless Edward the Confessor, but the only sources we have for this are Norman ones from after the conquest, as the contemporary English sources such as the Anglo Saxon Chronicle are silent on the matter, referring to Edward's grand-nephew, Edgar Ætheling, son of Edward the Exile, as Ætheling, or princely heir. It is unlikely that King Edward had ever made such as an offer[citation needed], especially after the efforts of Harold to get the return of Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside from Hungary, in 1057. During his supposed captivity, William of Poitiers claims that William obtained from Harold an oath to support William as the future king of England. After Harold's death, the Normans were quick to point out that in accepting the crown of England, Harold had perjured himself of this oath. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ... EDGAR, the Electronic Data-Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system, performs automated collection, validation, indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions by companies and others who are required by law to file forms with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). Not all SEC filings by public companies are available... Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of Exile from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. ... Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of Exile from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The chronicler Orderic Vitalis wrote: "This Englishman was very tall and handsome, remarkable for his physical strength, his courage and eloquence, his ready jests and acts of valour. But what were these gifts to him without honour, which is the root of all good?". Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


In 1065 Harold supported Northumbrian rebels against his brother Tostig, due to unjust taxation instituted by Tostig, and replaced him with Morcar. This strengthened his acceptability as Edward's successor, but fatally divided his own family, driving Tostig into alliance with King Harald Hardrada ("Hard Reign") of Norway. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Tostig Godwinson (1026? – September 25, 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold II of England, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. ... Morcar, Earl of Northumbria (fl. ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardråde (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ...


Marriages and children

For some twenty years Harold was married mōre Danicō (in the Danish manner) to Ealdgyth Swan-neck (also known as Edith Swanneschals or Edith Swanneck) and had at least six children by her. The marriage was widely accepted by the laity, although Edith was considered Harold's mistress by the clergy. Their children were not treated as illegitimate. Among them was a daughter Gytha, later wife of the Russian prince Vladimir Monomachus, or Vladimir Monomakh. Through descendants of this Anglo-Russian marriage, Harold is thus the ancestor of later English kings. Ealdgyth Swan-neck, also known as Edith the Fair, was the mistress or common-law wife of King Harold II of England. ... Gytha of Wessex was one of several daughters of Ealdgyth Swan-neck by Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. ... Volodymyr Monomakh (Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Russian: Владимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was the ruler of Kievan Rus. ...


About January 1066, Harold married Aldith (or Aldgyth), daughter of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia, and widow of the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Aldith had two sons — possibly twins — named Harold and Ulf (born circa November 1066), both of whom survived into adulthood and probably ended their lives in exile. Ælfgar (died 1062) was the elder brother of Hereward (later known as The Wake) and son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia and Eldiva (Godiva). ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...


After her husband's death, the queen is said to have fled for refuge to her brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria but both men made their peace with the Conqueror initially before rebelling and losing their lands and lives. Aldith may have fled abroad (possibly with Harold's mother, Gytha, or with Harold's daughter, Gytha). Edwin (died 1070) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and nephew of Hereward. ... Morcar (or Morkere) (d. ...


Reign as king

When Edward the Confessor died in 1066, his great nephew and heir Edgar Ætheling was too young to become King. Edward the Confessor pointed towards Harold Godwinson, as he lay at his deathbed. This sign was taken, by the other present noblemen, to mean that Edward chose Harold as his successor, though some say it was merely a curse. On January 5, 1066, the Witenagemot (the assembly of the kingdom's leading notables) approved him for coronation, which took place the following day. It was the first coronation in Westminster Abbey. Although later Norman sources point to the suddenness of this coronation, it is possible that it took place whilst all the nobles of the land were present at Westminster for the feast of Epiphany and not because of any usurpation of the throne on Harold's part. St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


England was then invaded by both Harald Hardrada of Norway and William, Duke of Normandy, both of whom claimed the English crown. William claimed that he had been promised the English crown by Edward, and that Harold had sworn to support his claim after having been shipwrecked in Ponthieu. Harald Hardrada formed an alliance with Harold's rebellious brother Tostig. Harold offered his brother a third of the kingdom if he joined him, and Tostig asked what Harold would offer the king of Norway. "Six feet of ground or as much more as he needs, as he is taller than most men," was Harold's response according to Henry of Huntingdon. It is, however, unknown whether this conversation ever took place. Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardråde (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... William I of England (c. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ... For Earl Henry, father of two Scottish kings, see Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon Henry of Huntingdon (c. ...


Invading what is now Yorkshire in September 1066, Harald Hardrada and Tostig defeated the English earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford near York on (September 20). They were in turn defeated and slain by Harold's army five days later at the Battle of Stamford Bridge (September 25), Harold having led his army north on a forced march from London in four days and caught them by surprise. Before the battle a man bravely rode up to Harald Hardrada and Tostig and offered Tostig his earldom if he would but turn on Harald Hardrada. When Tostig asked what his brother Harold would be willing to give Harald Hardrada for his touble, the rider replied that he would be given seven feet of ground as he was taller than other men. Harald Hardrada was impressed with the rider and asked Tostig his name, Tostig replied that the rider was none other than Harold Godwinson. [1] Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Edwin (died 1070) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and nephew of Hereward. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Combatants Norwegians Anglo-Saxon English Commanders Harald Hardrada Tostig Morcar of Northumbria and his brother Edwin, Earl of Mercia Strength unknown, possibly 7000 unknown, probably of about equal size to the norwegians Casualties Unknown Unknown On September 20, 1066, King Harald III of Norway and Tostig, his English ally, fought... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England, the Þingalið Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de(Harald Hadrada)† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Around 7,500 Around 7,000 Casualties Unknown, around 7,000 Unknown, around 2,000 The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England took place on September 25, 1066, shortly... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The spot where Harold died, Battle Abbey

Harold now again forced his army to march 241 miles (386 kilometres) to intercept William, who had landed perhaps 7000 men in Sussex, southern England three days later on September 28. Harold established his army in hastily built earthworks near Hastings. The two armies clashed at the Battle of Hastings, near the present town of Battle close by Hastings on October 14, where after a hard fight Harold was killed and his forces routed. His brothers Gyrth and Leofwine were also killed in the battle. According to tradition, Harold was killed by an arrow in the eye, but it is unclear if the victim depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry is intended to be Harold, or whether indeed the tapestry's scene depicts that particular type of wound. Whether he did, indeed, die in this manner (a death associated in the Middle Ages with perjurers[citation needed]), or was killed by the sword, will never be known. Harold's first wife, Edith Swanneck, was called to identify the body (the face being destroyed), which she did by the tattoos pricked into his chest which read "Edith" and "England".[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 355 KB) Summary The site where King Harold I died. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 355 KB) Summary The site where King Harold I died. ... Sussex as a traditional county. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4... Location within the British Isles Battle is a small town in East Sussex, England, about 5 miles (8 km) from Hastings, and the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold II to become William I. Battle Abbey takes its name from the town... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gyrth Godwinson was a younger brother of Harold II of England and was killed in the Battle of Hastings. ... Leofwine Godwinson was a younger brother of Harold II of England and was killed in the Battle of Hastings. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ...

Tomb of King Harold II at Waltham Abbey, Essex

Harold's body was buried in a grave of stones overlooking the shore, and was only given a proper funeral years later in his church of Waltham Holy Cross in Essex, which he had refounded in 1060.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2115 × 1401 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tombe dHarold II à Waltham The tomb of Harold II at Waltham Abbey File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2115 × 1401 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tombe dHarold II à Waltham The tomb of Harold II at Waltham Abbey File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Waltham Abbey in the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England was founded in 1030 and a building was constructed on the site by Harold Godwinson thirty years later. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ...


Harold's strong association with Bosham and the discovery of an Anglo-Saxon coffin in the church in the 1950s has led some to speculate that King Harold was buried there. A request to exhume a grave in Bosham church was refused by the Diocese of Chichester in December 2004, the Chancellor ruling that the chances of establishing the identity of the body as that of Harold II were too slim to justify disturbing a burial place.[3] A prior exhumation had revealed the remains of a middle-aged man lacking one leg, a description which fits the fate of the king according to certain chroniclers. Bosham quay at sunset Bosham (pronounced Bozzum) is a small, coastal village and civil parish in the Chichester District of West Sussex, England, situated three miles (5km) west of Chichester on an inlet of Chichester Harbour. ... For the larger local government district, see Chichester (district). ...


Legacy and legend

Harold's daughter Gytha of Wessex married Vladimir Monomakh Grand Duke (Velikii Kniaz) of Kievan Rus' and is ancestor to dynasties of Galicia, Smolensk and Yaroslavl, whose scions include Modest Mussorgsky and Peter Kropotkin. Isabella of France (consort of Edward II) was also a direct descendant of Harold via Gytha, and thus the bloodline of Harold was re-introduced to the Royal Line. Subsequently, undocumented allegations that the Russian Orthodox Church has recently recognised Harold as a martyr have been made. Ulf, along with Morcar and two others, were released from prison by King William as he lay dying in 1087. He threw his lot in with Robert Curthose, who knighted him, and disappeared from history. Two of his elder half-brothers, Godwine and Magnus, made a number of attempts at invading England in 1068 and 1069 with the aid of Diarmait mac Mail na mBo. They raided Cornwall as late as 1082, but died in obscurity in Ireland. Gytha of Wessex was one of several daughters of Ealdgyth Swan-neck by Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. ... Volodymyr Monomakh (Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Russian: Владимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was the ruler of Kievan Rus. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... For other uses, see Galicia. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Morcar/Morkere (d. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Diarmait mac Mail na mBo (died 1072) was king of Leinster and a contender for the title of High King of Ireland. ...


A cult of hero-worship rose around Harold, and by the 12th century, legend says that Harold had indeed survived the battle, had spent two years in Winchester after the battle recovering from his wounds, and then traveled to Germany, where he spent years wandering as a pilgrim. As an old man, he supposedly returned to England, and lived as a hermit in a cave near Dover. As he lay dying, he confessed that although he went by the name of Christian, he had been born Harold Godwinson. Various versions of this story persisted throughout the Middle Ages, but have little basis in fact.Harold's wife was pregnant with a son when he died, whom she named "Harold" and he became a monk at Waltham Abbey and is said to have met Henry I, leading to the idea that Harold Godwinsson had survived, instead of Harold Haroldsson. Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ...


Literary interest in Harold revived in the 19th century, with the play Harold, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, in 1876; and the novel Last of the Saxon Kings, by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, in 1848. Rudyard Kipling wrote a story, The Tree of Justice (1910), describing how an old man who turns out to be Harold is brought before Henry I. E. A. Freeman wrote a serious history in History of the Norman Conquest of England (1870–79), in which Harold is seen as a great English hero. Fictional accounts based on the events surrounding Harold's struggle for and brief reign as king of England have been published, notably "The Interim King" by James McMilla and The Last English King by Julian Rathbone. Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (May 25, 1803 - January 18, 1873) was an English novelist, playwright, and politician. ... This article is about the British author. ... Henry I (c. ... Edward Augustus Freeman (August 2, 1823 - March 16, 1892) was an English historian. ...


The Times runs the obituary of "Harold of England" on the anniversary of his death. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


The one-act play A Choice of Kings by John Mortimer deals with his deception by William after his shipwreck. This article is about the writer. ...


On screen, Harold has been portrayed by Rex Reason in the film Lady Godiva of Coventry (1955), Patrick Newell in the comedy film Father Came Too! (1962), Michael Craig in a TV adaptation of A Choice of Kings in the ITV Play of the Week series (1966), Norman Chappell in an episode of the TV comedy series Carry On Laughing entitled "One in the Eye for Harold" (1975), and Jâms Thomas in an episode of the British educational TV series Historyonics entitled "1066" (2004). Rex Reason, actor, born in Berlin, Germany on November 20, 1928. ... Patrick Newell (March 27, 1932 - July 22, 1988) was a British actor known for his large size. ... Father Came Too! is a British comedy film first released in 1963. ... Michael Craig (born 27 January 1928 in Maharashtra, India) is an actor, best known for his work in film and television in both the United Kingdom and Australia. ... For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ... Carry on Laughing was a television sitcom produced for ATV which featured several stars of the famous Carry On comedy film series. ...


See also

  • House of Wessex family tree

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Sturluson, Snorri (1966). King Harald's Saga. Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books, 149. 
  2. ^ Hilliam, Paul (2005). William the Conqueror: First Norman King of England. New York City, New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 57. ISBN 1-4042-0166-1. 
  3. ^ In re Holy Trinity, Bosham [2004] Fam 124 — decision of the Chichester Consistory Court regarding opening King Harold's supposed grave.

Bibliography

  • Biography by P. Compton (1961); F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (3d ed. 1971).
  • Biography by Ian W. Walker: Harold: The Last Anglo-Saxon King. Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 1997. ISBN 0-7509-1388-6

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Harold Godwinson
  • Genealogy page — Reliability unknown
  • Profile of Harold Godwinson
  • Descendants of King Cerdic of Wessex chart
  • In the footsteps of King Harold A timeline of Harold Godwinson's life, includes information about places significant to Harold II's story.
  • King Harold II ca.1021-1066 Extensive and useful site, graphics-heavy, can be a little slow loading.
  • Geoff Boxell Harold Godwinson — the last king of the English The rise and fall of King Harold II.
  • Regia Anglorum Kingmakers — The Story of the House of Godwin
  • Steven Lowe The Godwins — A family of power
  • "Harold: this insane Englishman" Contemporary accounts of Harold's accession and the Norman invasion.
  • The Death of Harold Godwinson A commentary using the Bayeaux Tapestry as a primary source of information.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ...

Literature

  • A list of both fiction and non-fiction books relating to Harold Godwinson
Preceded by
Edward the Confessor
King of England
1066
Succeeded by
Edgar Ætheling (Proclaimed king by witan, never crowned)
Preceded by
Godwin
Earl of Wessex
1053–1066
Succeeded by
Merged in Crown
Preceded by
Ælfgar Leofricson
Earl of East Anglia
1052–1053
Succeeded by
Ælfgar Leofricson
Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Harold Godwinsson - Cunnan (869 words)
Harold sought glory in a series of campaigns, between 1062 and 1063 against the ruler of Gwynedd in Wales, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who had conquered all of Wales; this conflict ended with Gruffydd's defeat (and death at the hands of his own troops) in 1063.
Harold's wife, Edith of the Swan-neck, was called to identify the body, which she did by some private mark (the face being destroyed) known only to herself.
Harold did have one lasting effect on history: his illegitimate daughter, Gytha of Wessex, married Vladimir Monomakh, the Grand Duke of the Kievan Rus', and is ancestor to several Russian rulers.
Harold Godwinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1599 words)
Harold's mistress, Edith Swanneck, was called to identify the body (the face being destroyed), which she did by some private mark known only to herself.
Harold's strong association with Bosham and the discovery of a Saxon coffin in the church in the 1950s has led some to speculate that King Harold was buried here.
Harold's illegitimate daughter Gytha of Wessex married Vladimir Monomakh Grand Duke (Velikii Kniaz) of Kievan Rus' and is ancestor to dynasties of Galicia, Smolensk and Yaroslavl, whose scions include Modest Mussorgsky and Peter Kropotkin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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