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Encyclopedia > Harmonic minor scale
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In music, a scale is a set of musical notes in order by pitch, either ascending or descending. Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music MusicNovatory: the science of music encyclopedia The Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Distionary, with definitions, pronunciations, examples... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music MusicNovatory: the science of music encyclopedia The Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Distionary, with definitions, pronunciations, examples... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ...


A scale is contrasted with a musical mode in one of two ways: Jump to: navigation, search In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ...

  • as a pattern of notes or pitches regardless of tonic or other notes' importance, as opposed to a scale with a tonic and possible frame
  • as an ordered collection of notes or pitches, as opposed to a series of intervals, which is a musical mode.

Each note in a scale is referred to as a scale degree. Though the scales from musical traditions around the world are often quite different, the pitches of the notes in any given scale are usually related by mathematical rules. In logic see Kripke semantics In popular music a modal frame (Van der Merwe 1989) is one of a number of types permeating and unifying African, European, and American song (Middleton 1990, p. ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... In music theory, an interval is the distance in pitch between two notes, the lower and higher members of the interval. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... A musical scale is a discrete set of pitches used in making or describing music. ...


Scales may be described according to the intervals they contain, for example In music theory, an interval is the distance in pitch between two notes, the lower and higher members of the interval. ...

or by the number of different pitch classes they contain: The adjective tonal can refer to: tonality in music a tonal language the opposite of Nagual, in the specific context of Carlos Castaneda, the tonal is what makes the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... The chromatic scale is any musical scale that contains more than one consecutive half-step (in other words two adjacent pairs of scale degrees or members which are separated by a semitone). ... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... In music and music theory a pitch class contains all notes that have the same name; for example, all Es, no matter which octave they are in, are in the same pitch class. ...

Scales are often abstracted from performance or composition, though they are often used precompositionally to guide or limit a composition. One or more scales may be used in a composition, such as in Claude Debussy's L'Isle Joyeuse. In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... In music a hexatonic scale is a scale (music) with six (hexa) degrees. ... In music a heptatonic scale is a scale (music) with seven (hepta) degrees. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Music (archaeology) be merged into this article or section. ... Modernism in music is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, political advocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... In music, a diminished scale is a scale in which the notes of the scale ascend in alternating intervals of a whole step and a half step. ... A street musician with accordion in Bremen A performance comprises an event in which generally one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for the benefit of another group of people (the viewer or viewers, or audience). ... Musical composition is: an original piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A musical composition A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance... In music, precompositional decisions are those decisions which a composer decides upon before or while beginning to create a composition. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LIsle Joyeuse is an extended solo piano piece by Claude Debussy composed in 1904. ...


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x264, 8 KB)Whole tone, lydian, and major scales File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Contents


Scales in Western music

Scales in traditional Western music generally consist of seven notes, made up of a root note and six other scale degrees whose pitches lie between the root and the root's first octave. Notes in the commonly used scales (see just below) are separated by whole and half step intervals of tones and semitones (the harmonic minor scale including a three-semitone interval; the pentatonic including two of these). Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... This article will be merged with Italian musical terms at some point in the near future. ... In music theory, an interval is the distance in pitch between two notes, the lower and higher members of the interval. ...


There are a number of different types of scales used commonly in Western music, including:

Synthetic scales: In music theory, the major scale (or major mode) is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... The chromatic scale is any musical scale that contains more than one consecutive half-step (in other words two adjacent pairs of scale degrees or members which are separated by a semitone). ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In music, a whole tone scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbors by the interval of a whole step. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ...

Jump to: navigation, search In music, a diminished scale is a scale in which the notes of the scale ascend in alternating intervals of a whole step and a half step. ... In music, an altered scale is a scale in which all of the notes of the scale except the tonic have been flattened (lowered in pitch) by an interval of a half step from a major scale. ... The Spanish scale (also called the Jewish scale, Ahava Rabboh or Freygish) is commonly used in Hebrew prayers and in Spanish music. ... In music, the Arabic scale is arrived at by either: Raising the seventh of the Jewish scale Raising the seventh and third of the Phrygian mode Lowering the sixth and second of a major scale Series of intervals: H -3 H W H -3 H H = Half step W = Whole... Jump to: navigation, search Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ...

Scale degrees

A scale degree is a numeric position of a note within a scale ordered by increasing pitch. The simplest system is to name each degree after its numerical position in the scale, for example: the first, the fourth. Because intervals are inclusive, a fifth describes a note which is four notes after the tonic. In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... In music theory, an interval is the distance in pitch between two notes, the lower and higher members of the interval. ...


Major scales have seven notes which are named, in order: tonic, supertonic, mediant, subdominant, dominant, submediant, leading-tone (or leading-note). Also commonly used is the "movable do" solfege naming convention in which each scale degree is given a syllable. In the major scale, the solfege syllables are: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti (or Si), Do (or Ut). The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which is resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being an lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ... Solfege table in an Irish classroom Do re mi Do Re Mi is also the name of a song by Nirvana. ...


On the Origin of Scales

A current viewpoint indicates tonal scales and tonality arise from overtones and can be found at http://www.greenwych.ca/natbasis.htm and also in the 2004 book: "On the Origin of Music" by Bob Fink (Greenwich Publ., Canada). The theory is called the "trio theory," claiming that influence from the most audible overtones of the three most nearly universal intervals (found across time & cultures), namely, a tone's octave, 4th and 5th, when placed within the range of that octave, will evolve into the most widespread of scales: Pentatonic, major & minor (depending how many of the audible overtones are so placed). The unequal audibile strengths of the overtones determine the role & power of each note in a scale (tonic, dominant or subdominant) -- i.e., tonality and tonal scales.


Non-Western scales

In traditional Western music, scale degrees are most often separated by equally tempered tones or semitones, creating at most, twelve pitches. Many other musical traditions employ scales that include other intervals or a different number of pitches. In the middle eastern Hejaz scale, there are some intervals of three semitones. Gamelan music uses a small variety of scales including Pélog and Sléndro, none including equally tempered intervals. Ragas in Indian classical music often employ intervals smaller than a semitone (Callow & Sheperd, 1972; Jhairazbhoy & Stone, 1963). Arab music maqams may use quarter tone intervals (Zonis, 1973). In both ragas and maqams, the distance between a note and an inflection (e.g., shruti) of that same note may be less than a semitone. Jump to: navigation, search A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophone(s), drums, and gongs. ... Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. ... Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (Anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... The origins of Indian classical music (marga), the classical music of India, can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula. ... In Arab music a maqam [sic] (plural maqamat) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ... Shruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ...


Microtonal scales

The term microtonal music usually refers to music with roots in traditional Western music that employs non-standard scales or scale intervals. The composer Harry Partch made custom musical instruments to play compositions that employed a 43-note scale system, and the American jazz vibraphonist Emil Richards experimented with such scales in his 'Microtonal Blues Band' in the 1970s. John Cage, the American experimental composer also created works for prepared piano which use varied, sometimes random, scales. Microtonal scales are also used in traditional Indian Raga music, which has a variety of modes which are used not only as modes or scales but also as defining elements of the song, or raga. Microtonal music is music using microtones -- intervals of less than a semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer. ... A musical instrument is a device that has been constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Luigi Waites plays a vibraphone, July 29, 1999 The vibraphone, sometimes called the vibraharp or simply the vibes, is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Emil Richards is a percussionist who plays a variety of different percussive instruments. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... John Cage John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer and writer. ... Jump to: navigation, search A prepared piano is a piano that has had its sound altered by placing objects (preparations) between or on the strings or on the hammers or dampers. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (Anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... Jump to: navigation, search A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (Anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ...


Jazz and blues

Through the introduction of blue notes, jazz and blues employ scale intervals smaller than a semitone. See also: jazz scales. The blue note is an interval that is technically neither major or minor but 'in-between', giving it a characteristic flavour. For instance, in the key of E, the blue note would be either, a note between g and g# or a note moving between both. In blues a pentatonic scale is often used. In jazz many different modes and scales are used, often within the same piece of music. Chromatic scales are common, especially in modern jazz. In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see blues (disambiguation) Blues is a vocal and instrumental music form which emerged in the African-American community of the United States. ... One important aspect of jazz is its use of many complementary scales and the modification of these scales by the introduction of blue notes. ... The term interval is used in the following contexts: cricket mathematics music time This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Major is the name most commonly given to the military rank equivalent to NATO rank code OF-3. ... The term minor (from Latin smaller, lesser) has several meanings: Minor is a legal term for a young person, see Minor (law). ... The word key has several uses: Look up Key on Wiktionary, the free dictionary // Instrument or Tool A key (instrument) comprises a moving part of a musical instrument. ... G is the seventh letter in the Roman alphabet. ... G is the seventh letter in the Roman alphabet. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ...


Chords

The notes in a chord are usually a subset of a particular scale, in the common practice period being built upward by thirds from a particular scale degree. Thus in a C major scale: CDEFGAB, a chord built on C is the notes CEG. In music and music theory, a chord (from the Middle English cord, short for accord) is three or more different notes or pitches sounding simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, over a period of time. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... In music, see the following intervals: Major third Minor third The mediant, and the chord built on the mediant, is often called simply the third, as it is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ...


Psychoacoustical scales

The bark scale and the mel scale are two psychoacoustical scales. The Bark scale is a psychoacoustical scale. ... Jump to: navigation, search The mel scale, proposed by Stevens, Volkman and Newman in 1937 is a perceptual scale of pitches judged by listeners to be equal in distance one from another. ... Jump to: navigation, search Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ...


Source

  • Burns, Edward M. (1999). "Intervals, Scales, and Tuning", The Psychology of Music second edition. Deutsch, Diana, ed. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0122135644.
  • Zonis, E. (1973). Classical Persian music: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

External links

  • http://www.skytopia.com/project/scale.html
  • http://home.austin.rr.com/jmjensen/musicTheory.html
  • http://www.greenwych.ca/natbasis.htm (Evolution of Scales)
  • http://www.greenwych.ca/cycl-5-2.htm (7-Note Solution -- why history & archaeologists turns up so many 5 and 7 note scales)
  • http://www.greenwych.ca/fl-compl.htm (Oldest known "Neanderthal flute" plays do-re-mi-fa scalenotes.)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Minor scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1080 words)
Sometimes the natural minor scale is equated with the Aeolian mode, but a key characteristic of music in the minor mode in the common practice period of Western music is the use of the leading tone, a half step below the tonic.
Minor modes use the same set of key signatures as major modes; whichever signature corresponds to the step pattern of the natural minor scale is considered the key signature for that minor mode.
The major diatonic scale is simply a transposition of the natural minor scale, and the harmonic major scale is an inverted form of the harmonic minor scale, so all of these workhorse scales of the diatonic system possess such a circle of thirds.
Scale Studies (631 words)
Pictured below, is the C harmonic minor scale with the root on the third fret of the fifth string.
In that lesson we learned the notes of the C harmonic scale, built a i minor chord (read "one minor") from the first mode of that scale (C harmonic minor 1), and jammed to a i minor, iim7b5 (read "2 minor 7 flat 5"), V7 (read "five 7") progression.
Highlighted, are the notes that comprise a G7 chord which is the chord based on the 5th degree of the C harmonic minor scale.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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