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Encyclopedia > Harmonic

In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. For example, if the frequency is f, the harmonics have frequency 2f, 3f, 4f, etc. The harmonics have the property that they are all periodic at the signal frequency, and due to the properties of Fourier series, the sum of the signal and its harmonics is also periodic at that frequency. Harmonic usually refers to components of sound. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space or spacetime, transferring energy and momentum and sometimes angular momentum. ... FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ... The Fourier series is a mathematical tool used for analyzing periodic functions by decomposing such a function into a weighted sum of much simpler sinusoidal component functions sometimes referred to as normal Fourier modes, or simply modes for short. ...


Many oscillators, including the human voice, a bowed violin string, or a Cepheid variable star, are more or less periodic, and thus can be decomposed into harmonics. Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... The human voice consists of sound made by a human using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying and screaming. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... A Cepheid variable is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute stellar luminosity. ...


Most passive oscillators, such as a plucked guitar string or a struck drum head or struck bell, naturally oscillate at several frequencies known as overtones. When the oscillator is long and thin, such as a guitar string, a trumpet, or a chime, the overtones are still integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Hence, these devices can mimic the sound of singing and are often incorporated into music. Overtones whose frequency is not an integer multiple of the fundamental are called inharmonic and are often perceived as unpleasant. In music, inharmonic refers to the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamentals frequency. ...


The untrained human ear typically does not perceive harmonics as separate notes. Instead, they are perceived as the timbre of the tone. In a musical context, overtones that are not exactly integer multiples of the fundamental are known as inharmonics. Inharmonics that are not close to harmonics are known as partials. Bells have more clearly perceptible partials than most instruments. Antique singing bowls are well known for their unique quality of producing multiple harmonic overtones or multiphonics. In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... In music, inharmonic refers to the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamentals frequency. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Rin gong at Kiyomizu-dera, Kyoto Singing bowls (also known as Tibetan Prayer Bowls, Himalayan bowls or rin gongs in Japan) are type of musical instrument classified as a standing bell. ... Multiphonics are an extended technique in instrumental music in which a monophonic instrument (one which generally produces only one note at a time) is made to produce several notes at once. ...


The tight relation between overtones and harmonics in music often leads to their being used synonymously in a strictly musical context, but they are counted differently leading to some possible confusion. This chart demonstrates how they are counted: For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

1f 440 Hz fundamental frequency first harmonic
2f 880 Hz first overtone second harmonic
3f 1320 Hz second overtone third harmonic
4f 1760 Hz third overtone fourth harmonic

In many musical instruments, it is possible to play the upper harmonics without the fundamental note being present. In a simple case (e.g. recorder) this has the effect of making the note go up in pitch by an octave; but in more complex cases many other pitch variations are obtained. In some cases it also changes the timbre of the note. This is part of the normal method of obtaining higher notes in wind instruments, where it is called overblowing. The extended technique of playing multiphonics also produces harmonics. On string instruments it is possible to produce very pure sounding notes, called harmonics by string players, which have an eerie quality, as well as being high in pitch. Harmonics may be used to check at a unison the tuning of strings that are not tuned to the unison. For example, lightly fingering the node found half way down the highest string of a cello produces the same pitch as lightly fingering the node 1/3 of the way down the second highest string. For the human voice see Overtone singing, which uses harmonics. Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... A musical instrument is a device that has been constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... A wind instrument consists of a tube containing a column of air which is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set into the end of the tube. ... Overblowing is producing a different note in a wind instrument by forcing air harder. ... Cover of Henry Cowell: Piano Music, with Henry Cowell demonstrating the longitudinal sweeping string piano technique Extended technique is a term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox or improper techniques of singing, or of playing musical instruments. ... Multiphonics are an extended technique in instrumental music in which a monophonic instrument (one which generally produces only one note at a time) is made to produce several notes at once. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, a member of the violin family. ... Physical representation of first (O1) and second (O2) overtones. ...


Harmonics may be either used or considered as the basis of just intonation systems. Composer Arnold Dreyblatt is able to bring out different harmonics on the single string of his modified double bass by slightly altering his unique bowing technique halfway between hitting and bowing the strings. Composer Lawrence Ball uses harmonics to generate music electronically. In music, just intonation, also called rational intonation, is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. ... Arnold Dreyblatt (b. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... Lawrence Ball is a musician and composer who currently lives in North London. ...


The fundamental frequency is the reciprocal of the period of the periodic phenomenon. Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... The reciprocal function: y = 1/x. ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ...

This article contains material from the Federal Standard 1037C, which, as a work of the United States Government, is in the public domain. Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... A work of the United States government, as defined by United States copyright law, is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that persons official duties. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Harmonics on stringed instruments

playing a harmonic on a string (click to enlarge)

The following table displays the stop points on a stringed instrument, such as the guitar, at which gentle touching of a string will force it into a harmonic mode when vibrated. Image File history File links Flageolette. ... Image File history File links Flageolette. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ...

harmonic stop note harmonic note cents reduced
cents
2 octave P8 1200.0 0.0
3 just perfect fifth P8 + P5 1902.0 702.0
4 just perfect fourth 2P8 2400.0 0.0
5 just major third 2P8 + just M3 2786.3 386.3
6 just minor third 2P8 + P5 3102.0 702.0
7 septimal minor third 2P8 + septimal m7 3368.8 968.8
8 septimal major second 3P8 3600.0 0.0
9 Pythagorean major second 3P8 + pyth M2 3803.9 203.9
10 just minor whole tone 3P8 + just M3 3986.3 386.3
11 greater unidecimal neutral second 3P8 + just M3 + GUN2 4151.3 551.3
12 lesser unidecimal neutral second 3P8 + P5 4302.0 702.0
13 tridecimal 2/3-tone 3P8 + P5 + T23T 4440.5 840.5
14 2/3-tone 3P8 + P5 + septimal m3 4568.8 968.8
15 septimal (or major) diatonic semitone 3P8 + P5 + just M3 4688.3 1088.3
16 just (or minor) diatonic semitone 4P8 4800.0 0.0

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Harmonic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (524 words)
In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.
For a sine wave, it is an integer multiple of the frequency of the wave.
Harmonics may be used as the basis of just intonation systems or considered as the basis of all just intonation systems.
Harmonic analysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (583 words)
Harmonic analysis is the branch of mathematics which studies the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves.
Harmonic analysis studies the properties of that duality and Fourier transform; and attempts to extend those features to different settings, for instance to the case of non-abelian Lie groups.
Harmonic analysis on tube domains is concerned with generalizing properties of Hardy spaces to higher dimensions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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