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Encyclopedia > Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. Centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, the movement impacted urban centers throughout the United States. Across the cultural spectrum (literature, drama, music, visual art, dance) and also in the realm of social thought (sociology, historiography, philosophy), artists and intellectuals found new ways to explore the historical experiences of black America and the contemporary experiences of black life in the urban North. Challenging white paternalism and racism, African-American artists and intellectuals rejected merely imitating the styles of Europeans and white Americans and instead celebrated black dignity and creativity. Asserting their freedom to express themselves on their own terms as artists and intellectuals, they explored their identities as black Americans, celebrating the black culture that had emerged out of slavery and their cultural ties to Africa. The New Negro: An Interpretation is a book edited by Alain Locke in 1925, about race in America. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (September 13, 1886 – June 9, 1954) was an African American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


The Harlem Renaissance had a profound impact not only on African-American culture but also on the cultures of the African diaspora as a whole. Afro-Caribbean artists and intellectuals from the British West Indies were part of the movement. Moreover, many French-speaking black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance. The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Historians disagree as to when the Harlem Renaissance began and ended. It is unofficially recognized to have spanned from about 1919 until the early or mid 1930s, although its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, is placed between 1924 (the year that Opportunity magazine hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance) and 1929 (the year of the stock market crash and then resulting Great Depression). Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A stock market or (equity market) is a private or public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives of company stock at an agreed price; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

The Harlem Renaissance grew out of the changes that had taken place in the black community since the abolition of slavery, and which had been accelerated as a consequence of the First World War and the great social and cultural change taking place in America in the early 20th century under the influence of industrialization and the emergence of a new mass culture. Contributing factors that led to the rise of the Harlem Renaissance included the great migration of African Americans to the northern cities and the First World War. Factors leading to the decline of this era include the Great Depression. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The Harlem Renaissance reflected social and intellectual transformations in the African-American community that had taken place since the late 19th century. Until the end of the Civil War, the vast majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. Immediately after the end of slavery, the emancipated African Americans began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. The failure of Reconstruction resulted in the establishment of a white supremacist regime of Jim Crow in the South, which through Jim Crow laws and through lynching denied African Americans civil and political rights, and undergirded their economic exploitation as share croppers and laborers. As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans increasingly migrated North. Most of the participants in the African-American literary movement descended from a generation that had lived through the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the American Civil War, and often their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Many participants in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the Great Migration out of the South into the black neighborhoods of the North and Midwest regions of the United States, where African-American sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were Africans and people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who had come to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem, New York City. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Development of African American Community in Harlem

By the turn of the twentieth century, the African American community had established a middle class, especially in the cities. Harlem, in New York City, became a center of this expanding black middle class. In the nineteenth century, the district had been built as an exclusive suburb for the white middle class and upper middle class, with stately houses, grand avenues and amenities such as the Polo Grounds and an opera house. During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late nineteenth century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the native white middle-class. Harlem became a black neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor. The Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities like Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, and New York City. The Polo Grounds was the name given to four different stadiums in Manhattan, New York City used by baseballs New York Giants from 1883 until 1957, New York Metropolitans from 1883 until 1885, the New York Yankees from 1912 until 1922, and by the New York Mets in their...


The Great Migration greatly expanded black communities, creating a greater market for black culture and Jazz and Blues, the black music of the South, came to the North with the migrants and was played in the nightclubs and hotspots of Harlem. At the same time, whites were becoming increasingly fascinated by black culture. A number of white artists and patrons began to view blacks and black culture less condescendingly, and began to offer blacks access to "mainstream" publishers and art venues. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ...


Despite the increasing popularity of black culture in white circles, virulent white racism continued to impact African American communities even in the North. After the end of World War I, many African American soldiers (who fought in segregated units like the Harlem Hellfighters) came home to a nation that often did not respect their accomplishments. Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919. Harlem Hellfighters in action. ... Mass racial violence in the United States, often described using the term race riots, includes such disparate events as: attacks on Irish Catholics and other early immigrants in the 19th century massacres of black people in the period after Reconstruction. ... Red Summer is a term coined by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) describing the summer and autumn of 1919. ...


New Intellectual and Activist Movements Emerge

Despite the occurrence of racist mob violence even in the North, the relative political freedom there nonetheless allowed African-Americans to organize themselves politically and intellectually. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, during the so-called nadir of American race relations, the Northern black middle class began to set up and support a number of political movements. These movements, with a new political agenda advocating racial equality, struggled against the white racism which pervaded not only the Jim Crow regime of the South but also affected blacks in the North. Championing the agenda were the National Urban League and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), led by black historian and sociologist W.E.B. DuBois, struggled against racial segregation and lynchings. Du Bois rejected the accomodationist philosophy of Booker T. Washington. This more activist agenda, which celebrated black culture, was also reflected in the efforts of Jamaican-born black nationalist Marcus Garvey, whose populist Afrocentric Back to Africa movement inspired racial pride among working-class blacks in the United States in the 1920s. All these movements had their headquarters in New York City. African-Americans in Harlem also established and contributed to numerous magazines and newspapers, such as Crisis, edited by Du Bois for the NAACP, Opportunity, edited by sociologist Charles S. Johnson for the NUL, The Messenger, edited by socialists A. Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen, and Marcus Garvey's Negro World. The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... For the New York City neighborhood, see Jamaica, Queens. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement, originated in the United States in the nineteenth century, and encouraged those of African descent to return to the African homelands of their ancestors. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion . If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Several articles are related to this topic: The Messenger - A 2001 adventure game for the computer The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc - A movie directed by Luc Besson The Messenger, by Douglas Niles, a Dragonlance Icewall Trilogy novel The Messenger, by the band Casey Jones. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the United States. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ...


An Explosion of Culture in Harlem

African-American literature and arts had begun a steady development just before the turn of the century. In the performing arts, black musical theatre featured such accomplished artists as songwriter Bob Cole and composer J. Rosamond Johnson (brother of writer James Weldon Johnson). Jazz and blues music by legends such as Clyde Livingston, moved with black populations from the South and Midwest into the bars and cabarets of Harlem. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Robert Bob Cole (July 11, 1861–August 2, 1911), American composer, actor, playwright, and stage producer and director. ... 1933 photograph of J. Rosamond Johnson by Carl Van Vechten John Rosamond Johnson (1873–1954), most often referred to as J. Rosamond Johnson, was a composer and singer during the Harlem Renaissance. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ...


In literature, the poetry of Paul Laurence Dunbar and the fiction of Charles W. Chesnutt in the late 1890s were among the earliest works of African-Americans to receive national recognition. By the end of World War I the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay anticipated the literature that would follow in the 1920s by describing the reality of black life in America and the struggle for racial identity. Paul Laurence Dunbar Paul Laurence Dunbar (June 27, 1872 – February 9, 1906) was a seminal American poet of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Charles W. Chesnutt at the age of 40 Charles Waddell Chesnutt (June 20, 1858 – November 15, 1932) was an African American author and political activist best known for novels and short stories from Fayetteville, North Carolina. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


The first stage of what was later called the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. 1917 saw the premiere of Three Plays for a Negro Theatre. These plays, written by white playwright Ridgely Torrence, featured black actors conveying complex human emotions and yearnings, and thus rejected the stereotypes of the blackface and minstrel show traditions. James Weldon Johnson in 1917 called these premiere of these plays "the most important single event in the entire history of the Negro in the American Theatre."[1] Another landmark came in 1919, when Claude McKay published his militant sonnet If We Must Die. Although the poem never alludes to race, to black readers it sounded a note of defiance in the face of racism and the white racist violence of the nation-wide race riots and lynchings taking place at the time. By the end of the First World War, the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay was describing the reality of contemporary black life in America and the struggle for black cultural self-definition, anticipating the characteristics of the Harlem Renaissance. This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ...


In the early 1920s, a number of literary works signaled the new creative energy in African-American literature. Claude McKay's volume of poetry, Harlem Shadows (1922), became one of the first works by a black writer to be published by a mainstream, national publisher . Cane (1923), by Jean Toomer, was an experimental novel that combined poetry and prose in documenting the life of American blacks in the rural South and urban North. Confusion (1924), the first novel by writer and editor Jessie Fauset, depicted middle class life among black Americans from a woman's perspective. The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894–March 30, 1967) was a poet, novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Jessie Redmon Fausset (April 27, 1882 - April 20, 1961) was an African American editor, poet, essayist and novelist. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


With these early works as the foundation, three events between 1924 and 1926 launched the Harlem Renaissance. First, on 21 March 1924, Charles S. Johnson of the National Urban League hosted a dinner to recognize the new literary talent in the black community and to introduce the young writers to New York's white literary establishment. As a result of this dinner, the Survey Graphic, a magazine of social analysis and criticism that was interested in cultural pluralism, produced a Harlem issue in March 1925. Devoted to defining the aesthetic of black literature and art, the Harlem issue featured work by black writers and was edited by black philosopher and literary scholar Alain Locke. Later that year Locke expanded the special issue into an anthology, The New Negro. The second event was the publication of Nigger Heaven (1926) by white novelist Carl Van Vechten. The book was a spectacularly popular exposé of Harlem life. Although the book offended some members of the black community, its coverage of both the elite and the baser sides of Harlem helped create a Negro vogue that drew thousands of sophisticated New Yorkers, black and white, to Harlem's exotic and exciting nightlife and stimulated a national market for African-American literature and music. Finally, in the Autumn of 1926 a group of young black writers produced their own literary magazine, Fire!! With Fire!! a new generation of young writers and artists, including Langston Hughes, Wallace Thurman, and Zora Neale Hurston, emerged as an alternative group within the Renaissance. For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion . If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... This article is about the state. ... The Survey Graphic was a magazine written for the black culture during the Harlem Renaissance of the 20s and 30s in upper Manhattan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fire!! is an African American literary magazine published in 1926 during the Harlem Renaissance. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Wallace Henry Thurman (1902-1934) was an African American novelist during the Harlem Renaissance. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ...


The Apollo Theater

While the Savoy Ballroom, on Lenox Avenue, was a renowned venue for swing dancing, and jazz and was immortalized in a popular song of the era, Stompin' At The Savoy, the Apollo Theater has been the most lasting legacy of the Harlem Renaissance. Opened on 125th Street on 26 January 1934, in a former burlesque house, it has remained a symbol of African-American culture. As one of the most famous clubs for popular music in the United States, many figures from the Harlem Renaissance found a venue for their talents and a start to their careers. The Savoy Ballroom located in Harlem, New York City, was a medium sized ballroom for music and public dancing that was in operation from 1926 to 1958. ... Lenox Avenue / Malcolm X Boulevard is the primary north-south route through Harlem in the upper portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Swing is a group of related street dances, that evolved from Lindy Hop. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Christmas shopping on 125th Street 125th Street is a two-way street that runs east-west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, considered the Main Street of Harlem; It is also called Martin Luther King, Jr. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Burlesque (disambiguation). ...


The careers of Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald and James Brown, and later Michael Jackson and Lauryn Hill, were launched at the Apollo. Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7, 1915 – July 17, 1959) was an American jazz singer and songwriter. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... James Brown, known variously as: Soul Brother Number One, the Godfather of Soul, Mr. ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Lauryn Noel Hill (born May 25, 1975) is an American singer, rapper, musician, record producer and film actress. ...


The club fell into a decline in the 1960s but was revived in 1983 through city, state, and federal grant money. It is now operated by a non-profit organization, the Apollo Theater Foundation Inc., and reportedly draws 1.3 million visitors annually. It is the home of Showtime at the Apollo, a nationally syndicated variety show showcasing new talent. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Its Showtime at the Apollo (now simply Showtime at the Apollo) is a syndicated music television show, first broadcast in 1987, and produced by Apollo. ... A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ...


End of an Era

A number of factors contributed to the decline of the Harlem Renaissance by the mid-1930s. The Great Depression of the 1930s increased the economic pressure on all sectors of life. Organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Urban League, which had actively promoted the Renaissance in the 1920s, shifted their interests to economic and social issues in the 1930s. Many influential black writers and literary promoters, including Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Charles S. Johnson, and W.E.B. DuBois, left New York City in the early 1930s, most relocating to France. Finally, the Harlem Riot of 1935—set off in part by the growing economic hardship of the Depression and mounting tension between the black community and the white shop-owners in Harlem who profited from that community—shattered the notion of Harlem as the Mecca of the New Negro. In spite of these problems the Renaissance did not disappear overnight. Almost one-third of the books published during the Renaissance appeared after 1929. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion . If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Characteristics and Themes

Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt racial pride that came to be represented in the idea of the New Negro who through intellect, the production of literature, art, and music could challenge the pervading racism and stereotypes of that era to promote progressive or socialist politics, and racial and social integration. The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race. The phrase New Negro was in use long before the Harlem Renaissance. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Social integration is a term used in sociology and several other social sciences. ...


There would be no uniting form singularly characterizing the art that emerged out of the Harlem Renaissance. Rather, it encompassed a wide variety of cultural elements and styles, including a Pan-Africanist perspective, "high-culture" and the "low-culture or low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature like modernism, and in poetry, for example, the new form of jazz poetry. This duality would eventually result in a number of African American artists of the Harlem Renaissance coming into conflict with conservatives in the black intelligentsia who would take issue with certain depictions of black life in whatever medium of the arts. Some common themes that were represented in the Harlem Renaissance were the influence of the experience of slavery and the African-American folk traditions that emerged from it on black identity, the effects of institutional racism, the dilemmas inherent in performing and writing for elite white audiences, and the question of how to convey the experience of modern black life in the urban North. Pan-Africanism literally means all Africanism. It is a sociopolitical world-view, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify and uplift blacks on the African continent and in the African diaspora as part of a global African community. As originally conceived by Trinidadian Henry Sylvester Williams, pan-Africanism... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Jazz poetry can be defined as poetry that demonstrates jazz-like rhythm or the feel of improvisation, from an article by Pittsburg State University faculty. ...


The Harlem Renaissance was one of primarily African American involvement and an interpersonal support system of black patrons, black owned businesses and publications. However, it also depended on the patronage of white Americans, such as Carl Van Vechten and Charlotte Osgood Mason, who provided various forms of assistance, opening doors which otherwise would have remained closed to the publicizing of their work outside of the black American community. This support often took the form of patronage or publication. Then, there were those whites interested in so-called "primitive" cultures, as many whites viewed black American culture at that time, and wanted to see this "primitivism" in the work coming out of the Harlem Renaissance. Other interpersonal dealings between whites and blacks can be categorized as exploitative because of the desire to capitalize on the "fad", and "fascination" of the African American being in "vogue". This vogue of the African American would extend to Broadway, as in Porgy and Bess, and into music where in many instances white band leaders would defy racist attitude to include the best and the brightest African American stars of music and song. Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Primitive - A band from St. ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ...


For blacks, their art was a way to prove their humanity and demand for equality. For a number of whites, preconceived prejudices were challenged and overcome. Corresponding with the Harlem Renaissance was the beginning of mainstream publishing. Many authors began to publish novels, magazines and newspapers during this time. Publishers began to attract a great amount of attention from the nation at large. Some famous authors during this time included Jean Toomer, Jessie Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson and Alain Locke and Eric D. Walrond as well as Langston Hughes. The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894–March 30, 1967) was a poet, novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Jessie Redmon Fausset (April 27, 1882 - April 20, 1961) was an African American editor, poet, essayist and novelist. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Eric Derwent Walrond (December 18, 1898 - 1966) was an African-American Harlem Renaissance writer, who made a lasting contribution to literature; his work still being in print today as a classic of its era. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ...


The Harlem Renaissance would help lay the foundation of the Civil Rights Movement. Moreover, many black artists coming into their own creativity after this literary movement would take inspiration from it. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


No common literary style, artistic style or political ideology defined the Harlem Renaissance. What united participants was their sense of taking part in a common endeavor and their commitment to giving artistic expression to the African-American experience. Some common themes existed, such as an interest in the roots of the 20th-century African-American experience in Africa and the American South, and a strong sense of racial pride and desire for social and political equality. But the most characteristic aspect of the Harlem Renaissance was the diversity of its expression. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Look up diversity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The diverse literary expression of the Harlem Renaissance ranged from Langston Hughes's weaving of the rhythms of African-American music into his poems of ghetto life, as in The Weary Blues (1926), to Claude McKay's use of the sonnet form as the vehicle for his impassioned poems attacking racial violence, as in If We Must Die (1919). McKay also presented glimpses of the glamour and the grit of Harlem life in the above-mentioned Harlem Shadows. Countee Cullen used both African and European images to explore the African roots of black American life. In the poem Heritage (1925), for example, Cullen discusses being both a Christian and an African, yet not belonging fully to either tradition. Quicksand (1928), by novelist Nella Larsen, offered a powerful psychological study of an African American woman's loss of identity. Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Countee Cullen, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946) was an African-American Romantic poet and an active participant in the Harlem Renaissance. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nella Larsen in 1928 Nella Larsen (April 13, 1891 – March 30, 1964) was a Mulatto novelist of the Harlem Renaissance who wrote two novels and a few short stories. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...


Diversity and experimentation also flourished in the performing arts and were reflected in the blues singing of Bessie Smith and in jazz music. Jazz ranged from the marriage of blues and ragtime by pianist Jelly Roll Morton to the instrumentation of bandleader Louis Armstrong and the orchestration of composer Duke Ellington. In the visual arts, Aaron Douglas adopted a deliberately "primitive" style and incorporated African images in his paintings and illustrations Look up diversity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Morton in the 1920s Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton September 20, 1890 - July 10, 1941) was an American virtuoso pianist, bandleader and composer who some call the first true composer of jazz music. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Power Plant, Harlem by Aaron Douglas in oil, 1939. ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ...


However, the Renaissance was more than a literary or artistic movement, it possessed a certain sociological development—particularly through a new racial consciousness—through racial integration, as seen the Back to Africa movement led by Marcus Garvey. However, W.E.B DuBois's notion of "twoness", first introduced in The Souls of Black Folk (1903), explored a divided awareness of one's identity which provided a unique critique of the social ramifications of this racial consciousness. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... William Edward Burghardt DuBois (February 23, 1868 - August 27, 1963) was an African-American civil rights leader and scholar. ... The title page of the second edition The Souls of Black Folk is a well-known work of African-American literature by activist W.E.B. Du Bois. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Impact of the Harlem Renaissance

A New Black Identity

Langston Hughes, novelist and poet, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936

The Harlem Renaissance was successful in that it brought the Black experience clearly within the corpus of American cultural history. Not only through an explosion of culture, but on a sociological level, the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance is that it redefined how America, and the world, viewed the African-American population. The migration of southern Blacks to the north changed the image of the African-American from rural, undereducated peasants to one of urban, cosmopolitan sophistication. This new identity lead to a greater social consciousness, and African-Americans became players on the world stage, expanding intellectual and social contacts internationally. Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


The progress—both symbolic and real—during this period, became a point of reference from which the African-American community gained a spirit of self-determination that provided a growing sense of both Black urbanity and Black militancy as well as a foundation for the community to build upon for the Civil Rights struggles in the 1950s and 1960s. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


The urban setting of rapidly developing Harlem provided a venue for African-Americans of all backgrounds to appreciate the variety of Black life and culture. Through this expression, the Harlem Renaissance encouraged the new appreciation of folk roots and culture. For instance, folk materials and spirituals provided a rich source for the artistic and intellectual imagination and it freed the Blacks from the establishment of past condition. Through sharing in these cultural experiences, a consciousness sprung forth in the form of a united racial identity.


Criticism of the Movement

Many critics point out that the Harlem Renaissance could not escape its history and culture in its attempt to create a new one, or sufficiently separate itself from the foundational elements of White, European culture. Often Harlem intellectuals, while proclaiming a new racial consciousness, resorted to mimicry of their White counterparts by adopting their clothing, sophisticated manners and etiquette. This abandonment of the authentic culture of their African roots was seen as hypocritical, and intellectuals who engaged in such mimicry earned the epithet "dicky niggers" from disillusioned blacks. This could be seen as a reason by which the artistic and cultural products of the Harlem Renaissance did not overcome the presence of White-American values, and did not reject these values. In this regard, the creation of the "New Negro" as the Harlem intellectuals sought, was considered a failure. HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race. ...


The Harlem Renaissance appealed to a mixed audience. The literature appealed to the African-American middle class and to whites. Magazines such as The Crisis, a monthly journal of the NAACP, and Opportunity, an official publication of the National Urban League, employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes. As important as these literary outlets were, however, the Renaissance relied heavily on white publishing houses and white-owned magazines. In fact, a major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to push open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. W.E.B. DuBois did not oppose the relationship between black writers and white publishers, but he was critical of works such as Claude McKay's bestselling novel Home to Harlem (1928) for appealing to the "prurient demand[s]" of white readers and publishers for portrayals of black "licentiousness."[citation needed] Langston Hughes spoke for most of the writers and artists when he wrote in his essay The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (1926) that black art intend to express themselves freely, no matter what the black public or white public thought. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


African American musicians and other performers also played to mixed audiences. Harlem's cabarets and clubs attracted both Harlem residents and white New Yorkers seeking out Harlem nightlife. Harlem's famous Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington performed, carried this to an extreme, by providing black entertainment for exclusively white audiences. Ultimately, the more successful black musicians and entertainers who appealed to a mainstream audience moved their performances downtown. For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ...


Certain aspects of the Harlem Renaissance were accepted without question, without debate, and without scrutiny. One of these was the future of the "New Negro." Artists and intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance echoed the American progressivism in its faith in democratic reform, in its belief in art and literature as agents of change, and in its almost uncritical belief in itself and its future. This progressivist worldview rendered Black intellectuals—just as their White counterparts— totally unprepared for the rude shock of the Great Depression, and the Harlem Renaissance ended abruptly because of naive assumptions about the centrality of culture, unrelated to economic and social realities. For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


However, what emerges as a chief criticism of the Harlem Renaissance is that while African-American culture became absorbed into the mainstream American culture, a strange separation emerged of the Black community from American culture. As African-Americans with roots in this country dating to beginning of the North American slave trade in the early 17th Century, their worldview is distinctly native. Blacks, unlike other immigrants, had no immediate past, history and culture to celebrate as they were separated by generations from their roots in Africa. But the positive implications of American nativity have never been fully appreciated by them. It seems too simple: the Afro-American's history and culture is American, more completely so than most other ethnic groups within the United States. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article is about the radio show. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


Influence on Culture Today

The Harlem Renaissance changed forever the dynamics of African-American arts and literature in the United States. The writers that followed in the 1930s and 1940s found that publishers and the public were more open to African-American literature than they had been at the beginning of the century. Furthermore, the existence of the body of African-American literature from the period inspired writers such as Ralph Ellison and Richard Wright to pursue literary careers in the late 1930s and the 1940s, even if they defined themselves against the various ideologies and literary practices of the Renaissance. The outpouring of African-American literature of the 1980s and 1990s by such writers as Alice Walker and Toni Morrison also had its roots in the writing of the Harlem Renaissance. The influence of the Harlem Renaissance themes and the richness of African-American culture has also been expressed through new media, as is seen in the films of director Spike Lee. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... African-American literature is literature written by, usually about, and sometimes specifically for African-Americans. ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... For other persons named Richard Wright, see Richard Wright (disambiguation). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ...


The influence of the Harlem Renaissance was not confined to the United States. Writers Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen, actor and musician Paul Robeson, dancer Josephine Baker, and others traveled to Europe and attained a popularity abroad that rivaled or surpassed what they achieved in the United States. The founders of the Négritude movement in the French Caribbean traced their ideas directly to the influence of Hughes and McKay. South African writer Peter Abrahams cited his youthful discovery of the anthology The New Negro as the event that turned him toward a career as a writer. For thousands of blacks around the world, the Harlem Renaissance was proof that whites did not hold a monopoly on literature and culture. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Countee Cullen, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946) was an African-American Romantic poet and an active participant in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... For the first female director of Public Health, see Sara Josephine Baker. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... The term French Caribbean varies in meaning with its usage and frame of reference. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Peter Abrahams (born March 3, 1919) is a South African novelist. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Notable Figures and their Works

Novels

Sherwood Anderson in 1933. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jessie Redmon Fausset (April 27, 1882 - April 20, 1961) was an African American editor, poet, essayist and novelist. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolph Fisher (1897 - 1934) was an African-American writer His first published work, City of Refuge, appeared in Atlantic Monthly of February 1925. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nella Larsen in 1928 Nella Larsen (April 13, 1891 – March 30, 1964) was a Mulatto novelist of the Harlem Renaissance who wrote two novels and a few short stories. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George S. Schuyler photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 George S. Schuyler (1895-1977), an African American writer known for his conservative views, was born in 1895 in Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.. In 1912, Schuyler dropped out of school to join the US Army and soon rose to... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wallace Henry Thurman (1902-1934) was an African American novelist during the Harlem Renaissance. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894–March 30, 1967) was a poet, novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric Derwent Walrond (December 18, 1898 - August 8, 1966) was an African-American Harlem Renaissance writer, who made a lasting contribution to literature; his work still being in print today as a classic of its era. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893, Atlanta, Georgia - March 21, 1955, New York, New York) was a spokesman for blacks in the United States for almost a quarter of a century and executive secretary (1931–55) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Drama

Charles Sidney Gilpin (November 20, 1878 - May 6, 1930) worked as an apprentice in the Richmond Planet print shop before finding his career in theater and becoming one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... James Hubert Blake (February 7, 1887 – February 12, 1983), was a composer, lyricist, and pianist of ragtime, jazz, and popular music. ... Noble Sissle (born July 10, 1889 in Indianapolis, Indiana, died December 17, 1975 in Tampa, Florida) was an American jazz composer, lyricist, bandleader, singer and playwright. ... Angelina Weld Grimke (February 27, 1880 – June 10, 1958) was a prominent journalist and poet. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Eulalie Spence (June 11, 1894 - March 7, 1981) was a black, female writer, teacher, actress and playwright from the British West Indies during the Harlem Renaissance. ... Richard Bruce Nugent (also known as Richard Bruce and Bruce Nugent) (July 2, 1906 - May 27, 1987) was a gay[1] writer and painter in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Georgia Blanche Douglas Camp Johnson better known as Georgia Douglas Johnson (September 10, 1877-1966) was an American Black poet. ...

Poetry

Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Jessie Redmon Fauset (April 27, 1882 – April 30, 1961) was an African American editor, poet, essayist and novelist. ... Countee Cullen, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946) was an African-American Romantic poet and an active participant in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Arna Bontemps, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1938 Arna Wendell Bontemps (October 13, 1902 - June 4, 1973) was an American poet and a noted member of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Richard Bruce Nugent (also known as Richard Bruce and Bruce Nugent) (July 2, 1906 - May 27, 1987) was a gay[1] writer and painter in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Alice Dunbar-Nelson (July 19, 1875 - September 18, 1935) was an African American poet, journalist and political activist. ... Angelina Weld Grimke (February 27, 1880 – June 10, 1958) was a prominent journalist and poet. ... Annie Bethel Scales Bannister better known as Anne Spencer (1882-1975) was an American Black poet and active participant in the New Negro Movement. ... Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894–March 30, 1967) was a poet, novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Sterling Allen Brown (May 1, 1901 – January 13, 1989) was an African American teacher, and writer on folklore, of poetry and of literary criticism. ... Gwendolyn B. Bennett (July 8, 1902–1981) was an African American writer who contributed greatly to the Harlem Renaissance. ... Helen Johnson, who was better known as Helene Johnson (1906-1995) was an African American poet during the Harlem Renaissance. ...

Leading Intellectuals

W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Charles S. Johnson This article is about the sociologist and university president. ... Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893, Atlanta, Georgia - March 21, 1955, New York, New York) was a spokesman for blacks in the United States for almost a quarter of a century and executive secretary (1931–55) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. ... Mary White Ovington Mary White Ovington (born April 11, 1865 in Brooklyn, New York - died July 15, 1951) a suffragette, socialist, unitarian, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP. Her parents, members of the Unitarian Church were supporters of womens rights and had been involved in anti-slavery movement. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the United States. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Schomburg, Arturo Alfonso, a self-described Afroborinqueño (Black Puerto Rican), was born January 24, 1874, of María Josefa a freeborn Black midwife from St. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ...

Visual artists

Self-portrait, 1977; This is typical in terms of color and style in its flattened and abstracted treatment of realistic subject matter. ... Charles Alston (November 28, 1907 _ April 27, 1977) was a teacher and artist. ... Augusta Savage née Augusta Christine Fells (born February 29, 1892 in Green Cove Springs, Florida; died March 26, 1962 in New York City) was an African American sculptor associated with the Harlem Renaissance. ... Power Plant, Harlem by Aaron Douglas in oil, 1939. ... Archibald John Motley, Junior (September 2, 1891, New Orleans, Louisiana – January 16, 1981, Chicago, Illinois) was an American painter. ... Lois Mailou Jones (November 3, 1905 – June 9, 1998) was an African American Harlem Renaissance painter. ... Palmer C. Hayden (January 15, 1890 – February 18, 1973) was an American painter who depicted African American life. ... Romare Bearden, in his army uniform, a photograph taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Romare Bearden, (September 2, 1911, in Charlotte, North Carolina—March 11, 1988 in New York, New York) was an African-American artist and writer. ... Sargent Claude Johnson was one of the first Californian African-American artists to achieve a national reputation. ...

Popular entertainment

African American Portal

Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... Black Swan Records was a United States record label in the 1920s; it was the first to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For a rent party (sometimes called a house party or house-rent party), tenants hire a musician or band to play for a party and pass the hat to raise money to pay their rent. ...

Musicians/Composers

Nora Douglas Holt (1885 or 1890 – January 25, 1974) was an American singer, composer and music critic, who was born in Kansas and was the first African American to receive a masters degree in in the United States. ... Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7, 1915 – July 17, 1959) was an American jazz singer and songwriter. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... William Count Basie (August 21, 1904 – April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... James Hubert Blake (February 7, 1887 – February 12, 1983), was a composer, lyricist, and pianist of ragtime, jazz, and popular music. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Fats Waller (born Thomas Wright Waller on May 21, 1904, died December 15, 1943) was an American jazz pianist, organist, composer and comedic entertainer. ... James Price Johnson (February 1, 1894 - November 17, 1955) was a pianist and composer. ... Noble Sissle (born July 10, 1889 in Indianapolis, Indiana, died December 17, 1975 in Tampa, Florida) was an American jazz composer, lyricist, bandleader, singer and playwright. ... Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ... Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. ... For the first female director of Public Health, see Sara Josephine Baker. ... Mamie Smith on the sleeve of volume 1 of the Complete Recorded Works reissue collection Mamie Smith (May 26, 1883 - September 16, 1946) was a vaudeville singer, dancer, pianist and actress, and appeared in several motion pictures late in her career. ... Ivie Anderson (sometimes Ivy) (January 16, 1904 - September 28, 1949) was a jazz performer and singer, best known as performing with Duke Ellingtons band between 1931 and 1942. ... Roland Hayes (3 June 1887–1 January 1977) is considered the first African American male concert artist to receive wide international acclaim as well as at home. ... Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993),[1] was an American contralto, perhaps best remembered for her performance on Easter Sunday, 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. // Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Ethel Waters (October 31, 1896–September 1, 1977) was an Oscar-nominated American blues vocalist and actress. ... Bert Williams (November 12, 1875 – March 4, 1922) was the pre-eminent Black entertainer of his era and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. ... Alfonzo Lonnie Johnson (February 8, 1894 – June 6, 1970) was a pioneering blues and jazz singer/guitarist born in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Victoria Spivey (died 1976) was an American female blues singer. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... McKinneys Cotton Pickers were an United States jazz band founded in 1926 by William McKinney, who expanded his Synco Septet to ten pieces. ... Cab Calloway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1933 Cab Calloway (December 25, 1907–November 18, 1994) was a famous American jazz singer and bandleader. ... There have been several people of note called Ted Lewis. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ...

See also

The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... For the film, see The Roaring Twenties. ... The phrase New Negro was in use long before the Harlem Renaissance. ... Niggerati is another term for the black intelligentsia. ...

References

  1. ^ The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, Norton, New York, 1997, p. 931

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Bibliography

  • Amos, Shawn, compiler. Rhapsodies in Black: Words and Music of the Harlem Renaissance. Los Angeles: Rhino Records, 2000. 4 Compact Discs.
  • Andrews, William L.; Foster, Frances S.; Harris, Trudier eds. The Concise Oxford Companion To African American Literature. New York: Oxford Press, 2001. ISBN 1-4028-9296-9
  • Bean, Annemarie. A Sourcebook on African-American Performance: Plays, People, Movements. London: Routledge, 1999; pp. vii + 360.
  • Greaves, William' documentary From These Roots.
  • Hicklin, Fannie Ella Frazier. 'The American Negro Playwright, 1920-1964.' Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Speech, University of Wisconsin, 1965. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms 65-6217.
  • Huggins, Nathan. Harlem Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. ISBN 0-19-501665-3
  • Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. New York: Knopf, 1940.
  • Hutchinson, George. The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White. New York: Belknap Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-37263-8
  • Lewis, David Levering, ed. The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader. New York: Viking Penguin, 1995. ISBN 0-14-017036-7
  • Lewis, David Levering. When Harlem Was in Vogue. New York: Penguin, 1997. ISBN 0-14-026334-9
  • Ostrom, Hans. A Langston Hughes Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Ostrom, Hans and J. David Macey, eds. The Greenwood Encylclopedia of African American Literature. 5 volumes. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005.
  • Patton, Venetria K. and Maureen Honey, eds. Double-Take: A Revisionist Harlem Renaissance Anthology. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
  • Powell, Richard and David A. Bailey, editors. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. Berkeley: U. of California Press, 1997.
  • Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2 volumes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 and 1988.
  • Soto, Michael, ed. Teaching The Harlem Renaissance. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.
  • Tracy, Steven C. Langston Hughes and the Blues. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
  • Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930. New York: Pantheon Books, 1995. ISBN 0-679-75889-5
  • Wintz, Cary D. Black Culture and the Harlem Renaissance. Houston: Rice University Press, 1988.
  • Wintz, Cary D. Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2007
William Greaves (born August 23, 1929 in New York City) is a documentary filmmaker and is considered the first Black Canadian filmmaker. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Viking Press is an American publishing company currently owned by Penguin Books. ... Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... This is a list of museums about, or otherwise focused on African Americans. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... Black theology is theology from the perspective of the African diaspora - any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional homelands. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... For the Nas song called Black Republican, see Hip Hop Is Dead. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African-American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Not to be confused with National Panhellenic Conference. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... Part of the History of baseball in the United States series. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Notable African-Americans or Black Americans // List of African American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders List of African American abolitionists List... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American history redirects here. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... For other uses of NSA, see NSA (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USAF redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Union Jack. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay...

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Harlem Renaissance - MSN Encarta (1714 words)
Harlem Renaissance, an African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.
The Harlem Renaissance emerged amid social and intellectual upheaval in the African American community in the early 20th century.
In fact, a major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to push open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy.
PAL: Harlem Renaissance: A Brief Introduction (1886 words)
Harlem Renaissance (HR) is the name given to the period from the end of World War I and through the middle of the 1930s Depression, during which a group of talented African-American writers produced a sizable body of literature in the four prominent genres of poetry, fiction, drama, and essay.
Harlem Renaissance: An Assessment from Huggins, Nathan I. Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem Renaissance's legacy is limited by the character of the Renaissance.
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