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Encyclopedia > Harlem
The Apollo Theater on 125th Street; the Hotel Theresa is visible in the background.

Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major of black cultural and business center. After being associated for much of the twentieth century with black culture, but also crime and poverty, it is now experiencing a social and economic renaissance. The most common referent is Harlem, Manhattan, New York City and the adjacent Harlem River. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Apollo_Theater. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Apollo_Theater. ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Christmas shopping on 125th Street 125th Street is a two-way street that runs east-west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, considered the Main Street of Harlem; It is also called Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Hotel Theresa sits at the intersection of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Contents

Location and boundaries

The boundaries of Tyshawn Spenser n Zenda modern Harlem. Click to see in larger size; some landmarks are noted.

Harlem stretches from the East River to the Hudson River between 155th Street — where it meets Washington Heights — to a ragged border along the south. Central Harlem begins at 110th Street, at the northern boundary of Central Park; Spanish Harlem extends east Harlem's boundaries south to 96th Street, while in the west it begins north of Morningside Heights, which gives an irregular border west of Morningside Avenue. Harlem's boundaries have changed over the years; as Ralph Ellison observed: "Wherever Negroes live uptown is considered Harlem." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1816x2200, 957 KB) Summary Note: This file version is reduced in file size/dimensions from the original. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1816x2200, 957 KB) Summary Note: This file version is reduced in file size/dimensions from the original. ... Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in the northern reaches of the borough of Manhattan. ... 110th street is a street in Manhattan, New York City, New York. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ... 96th Street is a major two-way street in the Upper East Side and Upper West Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from the East River at the FDR Drive to the Henry Hudson Parkway at the Hudson River. ... This article is about the neighbourhood in New York City. ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1914[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ...


The neighborhood contains a number of smaller, cohesive districts. The following are some examples:

Saint Nicholas Avenue is a major New York City street. ... Hamilton Heights is a neighborhood in Northern Manhattan in New York City. ... Hamilton Grange National Memorial, at 287 Convent Avenue in New York City, preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, American statesman and first United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... 125th Street station at Broadway and 125th Street, one of Manhattanvilles primary landmarks Manhattanville is the part of Manhattan in New York City bordered on the south by Morningside Heights on the west by the Hudson river, on the east by Harlem and on the north by Hamilton Heights... Marcus Garvey Park is located in Harlem in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Entrance to Strivers Row alleyway, Walk Your Horses! The term Strivers Row refers to three rows of townhouses in western Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Sugar Hill is an neighborhood in the northern part of Harlem, Manhattan, New York City defined by 155th St. ... Astor Row is the name given to 130th Street between 5th Avenue and Lennox in Harlem, New York City. ... Street sign at Fifth Avenue and East 57th street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in New York City. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ...

History

New Netherland series
Colonies:
Fortresses:
The Patroon System

Rensselaerwyck
Colen Donck (Yonkers, New York)
Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Beverwyck was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was to become Albany, New York when the English took control of the colony in 1664. ... Kingston is a city in Ulster County, New York, United States. ... Several landmarks from two New York Worlds Fairs still stand in Flushing Meadows, including the US Steel Unisphere Flushing is a neighborhood within the borough of Queens in New York City, New York. ... Middleburgh is a village located in Schoharie County, New York. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Major Mark Park Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ... Afternoon by the Sea (Gravesend Bay), a pastel by William Merritt Chase, ca 1888 shows traditional catboats in the bay and the Navesink Highlands across Lower New York Bay. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Flatlands is a neighborhood in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... Midwood has a substantial population of Haredi Jews and Modern Orthodox Jews, many of whom live and worship in the side streets around Kings Highway Midwood is a neighborhood located in the south central part of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA, roughly halfway between Prospect Park and Coney... New Utrecht New Utrecht is a neighborhood in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... Bushwick is a neighborhood in the northeastern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Zwaanendael was a settlement established in 1631 by Dutch settlers in the area of present-day Lewes, Delaware. ... Old New Castle Courthouse. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ... Fort Nassau (North) was a Dutch fort constructed on an island in the Hudson River near present day Albany in 1614. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Fort Casimir was a Dutch settlement in New Netherland, located in what is now New Castle County, Delaware. ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ... A patroon was a proprietor of a tract of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland in North America. ... Rensselaerwyck is the name of a colonial estate that was located in what is now New York, USA. The estate was land purchased by Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a Dutch merchant and investor in the Dutch West India Company. ... Colen Donck was the title of a large Dutch-American owned estate of of 24,000 acres (a patroonship) originally owned by Adriaen van der Donck in New Netherland, located in present day New York City on the mainland north of Manhatten. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Directors-General of New Netherland:

Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (1620-1625)
Willem Verhulst (1625-26)
Peter Minuit (1626-33)
Wouter van Twiller (1633-38)
Willem Kieft (1638-47)
Peter Stuyvesant (1647-64)
This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland (Nieuw Nederland in Dutch) in North America. ... Cornelis Jacobsz May, sometimes spelled Mey or Meij was a Dutch explorer, captain and fur trader, and namesake of Cape May, Cape May County, and the city of Cape May, New Jersey, so named first in 1620. ... Willem Verhulst was the second director of the Dutch West India Company. ... Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (1589–August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. ... Wouter Van Twiller was an employee of the Dutch West India Company and the director-general of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1633 until 1638. ... Willem Kieft (1597-1647) was a Dutch merchant and director-general of New Netherland (of which New Amsterdam, later New York City, was the primary settlement), from 1638 until 1647. ... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ...

Influential people

Adriaen van der Donck
Kiliaen van Rensselaer
Brant van Slichtenhorst
Cornelis van Tienhoven
Portrait of Adriaen van der Donck Adriaen Cornelissen van der Donck (ca. ... Kiliaen Van Rensselaer (1585 - 1643) was a Dutch merchant who was heavily involved in the Colonial American trade market. ...

Councils

Council of twelve men
Council of eight men
A Council is a group of people who usually possess some powers of governance. ... The Council of Twelve Men was a group of 12 men chosen in 1641 by the residents of New Amsterdam to advise the Director-General of New Netherland at the time, Willem Kieft, on relations with the Native Americans due to the murder of Claes Swits. ... The Council of eight men was an early representational democracy in New Amsterdam. ...

Before the black migration

The first European settlement in what is now Harlem was by Hendrick de Forest and Dutch settlers in 1637.[1] The area was repeatedly savaged by Native Americans, leading many Dutch to abandon it.[1] The settlement was formalized in 1658 as Nieuw Haarlem (New Haarlem), after the Dutch city of Haarlem, under leadership of Peter Stuyvesant.[2] The Indian trail to Harlem's lush bottomland meadows was rebuilt by eleven black laborers on behalf of the Dutch West India Company,[3] and eventually developed into the Boston Post Road. In 1664, the English took control of the New Netherland colony and anglicized the name of the town to Harlem. On September 16, 1776, the Battle of Harlem Heights, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Harlem or Battle of Harlem Plain, was fought in western Harlem around the Hollow Way (now West 125th St.), with conflicts on Morningside Heights to the south and Harlem Heights to the north. Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... The Boston Post Road was a system of roads from New York City to Boston, Massachusetts, containing some of the first major highways in the United States. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Harlem Heights was a skirmish in the New York Campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... Morningside Heights is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City and is bound by the Upper West Side, Morningside Park, Harlem, and Riverside Park (some now consider it part of the Upper West Side). ...

In 1765, Harlem was a small agricultural town not far from New York City.

Harlem was "a synonym for elegant living through a good part of the nineteenth century."[4] In the early years of that century, Harlem remained a place of farms, such as James Roosevelt's, east of Fifth Avenue between 110th and 125th Streets. As late as 1820, the community had only 91 families, one church, one school, and one library.[4] Wealthy farmers, called "patroons,"[4] maintained country estates largely on the heights overlooking the Hudson River. Service connecting the suburb of Harlem with New York was by steamboat on the East River, an hour and a half's passage, sometimes interrupted when the river froze in winter, or else by stagecoach along the Boston Post Road, which descended from McGown's Pass (now in Central Park) and skirted the salt marshes around 110th Street, to pass through Harlem. An 1811 New York City planning commission opined that Harlem would not be developed for over a hundred years.[4] The New York and Harlem Railroad (now Metro North) was incorporated in 1831, to better link the city with the suburb, starting at a depot at East 23rd Street. It was extended 127 miles north to a railroad junction in Columbia County at Chatham, New York by 1851. In the years between about 1850 and 1870, the village of Harlem declined. Many large estates, including the Hamilton Grange of Alexander Hamilton, were auctioned off as the soil was depleted and crop yields fell. The land became occupied by Irish squatters, whose presence further depressed property values.[4] The impoverished village was taken over by the city of New York in 1873.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Smallharlem1765. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Smallharlem1765. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Street sign at Fifth Avenue and East 57th street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in New York City. ... The New York and Harlem Railroad (now the Metro-North Railroad Harlem Line) was one of the first railroads in the United States, and possibly the first street railway, running north from Lower Manhattan to and beyond Harlem. ... The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or, more commonly, Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service that is run and managed by an authority of New York State, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or, more simply, the MTA. Metro-North runs service between New York... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... 23rd Street runs from river to river across Manhattan, carrying two-way traffic. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1786 Seat Hudson Area  - Total  - Water 1,679 km² (648 mi²) 32 km² (13 mi²) 1. ... Chatham (village), New York, Village in New York, USA Chatham (town), New York, Town in New York, USA Chatham (town), Massachusetts, town in Massachusetts This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hamilton Grange National Memorial, at 287 Convent Avenue in New York City, preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, American statesman and first United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ...

125th Street station on the 7th Av. IRT Line

Recovery came when elevated railroads were extended to Harlem in 1880. With the construction of the els, urbanized development occurred very rapidly, with townhouses, apartments, and tenements springing up practically overnight. Developers anticipated that the planned Lexington Avenue subway would ease transportation to lower Manhattan, and feared that new housing regulations would be enacted in 1901, so they rushed to complete as many new buildings as possible before these came into force.[5] Early entrepreneurs had grandiose schemes for Harlem: Polo was actually played at the original Polo Grounds, later to become home of the New York Giants baseball team, and Oscar Hammerstein I opened the Harlem Opera House on East 125th Street in 1889. In 1893, Harlem Monthly Magazine wrote that "it is evident to the most superficial observer that the centre of fashion, wealth, culture, and intelligence, must, in the near future, be found in the ancient and honorable village of Harlem." However, the construction glut and a delay in the building of the subway led to a fall in real estate prices which attracted Eastern European Jews to Harlem in large numbers, reaching a peak of 150,000 in 1917. Presaging their later response to the arrival of black Harlemites, existing landowners tried to stop Jews from moving into the neighborhood. At least one rental sign declared “Keine Juden und Keine Hunde” (No Jews and no dogs).[6] They needn't have bothered; Jewish Harlem was an ephemeral entity, and by 1930, only 5,000 Jews remained. The area now known as Spanish Harlem became occupied by Italians. Italian Harlem is now gone as well, though traces lasted into the 1970s, in the area around Pleasant Avenue. In the early 20th century, Harlem was also home to a significant Irish population, and a large group of Finns.[2] Download high resolution version (1590x1193, 578 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1590x1193, 578 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 125th Street is a station of the IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line, located at 125th Street and Broadway. ... The Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line, also known as the IRT West Side Line, is one of the lines of the IRT division of the New York City Subway. ... Subway redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). ... A game of polo. ... The Polo Grounds was the name given to four different stadiums in New York City used by baseballs New York Giants from 1883 until 1957, New York Metropolitans from 1883 until 1885, the New York Yankees from 1912 until 1922, and by the New York Mets in their first... San Francisco Giants AAA Fresno Grizzlies AA Norwich Navigators A San Jose Giants Augusta GreenJackets Salem-Keizer Volcanoes R Arizona Giants Edit this box The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in San Francisco, California. ... This article is about the sport. ... Oscar Hammerstein I (8 May 1847-1 August 1919) was a theater impresario in New York City. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ...


The arrival of African Americans

Small groups of black people lived in Harlem as early as 1880, especially in the area around 125th Street and "Negro tenements" on West 130th Street. The mass migration of blacks into the area began in 1904, thanks to another real estate crash, the worsening of conditions for blacks elsewhere in the city, and the leadership of a black real estate entrepreneur named Phillip Payton, Jr. Harlem experienced another real estate bust in 1904-1905; after the collapse of the 1890s, new speculation and construction started up again in 1903 and the resulting glut of housing led to a crash in values that eclipsed the late-19th century slowdown.[5] Landlords could not find white renters for their properties, so Philip Payton stepped in to bring blacks. His company, the Afro-American Realty Company, was almost single-handedly responsible for migration of blacks from their previous neighborhoods,[7] the Tenderloin, San Juan Hill (now the site of Lincoln Center), and Hell's Kitchen in the west 40s and 50s.[8][9] The move to northern Manhattan was driven in part by fears that anti-black riots such as those that had occurred in the Tenderloin in 1900[10] and in San Juan Hill in 1905[4] might recur. In addition, a number of tenements that had been occupied by blacks in the west 30s were destroyed at this time to make way for the construction of the original Penn Station. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 852 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Marcus Garvey Park Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 852 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Marcus Garvey Park Metadata This... Marcus Garvey Park is located in Harlem in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Tenderloin was a neighborhood of the West Side of Manhattan north and east of Chelsea on the far West Side, which stretched south to West 14th Street and up to West 57th Street, from the mid 1800s to the 1920s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center. ... View from between 47th and 48th street on Ninth Avenue looking north toward Time Warner Center and Hearst Tower Hells Kitchen, also known as Clinton and Midtown West, is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City that includes roughly the area between 34th Street and 57th Street, from... Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as Penn Station) is the major intercity rail station and a major commuter rail hub in New York City. ...


In 1907, black churches began to move uptown. St. Philip's Episcopal Church, for one, purchased a block of buildings on West 135th Street to rent to members of its congregation.[11] During World War I, black laborers were actively recruited to leave the southern United States and work in northern factories, thinly staffed because of the war.[7] So many came that it "threaten[ed] the very existence of some of the leading industries of Georgia, Florida, Tennessee and Alabama."[12] Many came to Harlem. By 1920, central Harlem was predominantly black and by 1930, blacks lived as far south as Central Park, at 110th Street. The expansion was fueled primarily by an influx of blacks from the West Indies and the southern U.S. states, especially Virginia, South and North Carolina, and Georgia. As blacks moved in, white residents left; between 1920 and 1930, 118,792 white people left the neighborhood and 87,417 blacks arrived. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racially mixed inner-city neighborhoods to predominantly white suburbs and exurbs. ...


Between 1907 and 1915,[13] some white residents of Harlem resisted the neighborhood's change, especially once the swelling black population pressed west of Lenox Avenue, which served as an informal color line until the early 1920s.[7] Some made pacts not to sell to or rent to blacks.[14] Others tried to buy property and evict black tenants, but the Afro-American Realty Company retaliated by buying other property and evicting whites. They also attempted to convince banks to deny mortgages to black buyers, but soon gave up.[15] Lenox Avenue runs north-south in Upper Manhattan. ... Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ...

These buildings on West 135 Street were among the first in Harlem to be occupied entirely by blacks; in 1921, #135 became home to Young's Book Exchange, the first "Afrocentric" bookstore in Harlem.[11]

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2621 KB) Summary Buildings along West 135 Street in Harlem (New York City). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2621 KB) Summary Buildings along West 135 Street in Harlem (New York City). ...

"Ghettoization"

Employment among black New Yorkers fell as some traditionally black businesses, including domestic service and some types of manual labor, were taken over by other ethnic groups, or the industries in question left New York City altogether. The entertainment industry was a major employer in Harlem but relied on income from wealthier whites,[2] whose numbers dropped significantly after Harlemites rioted in 1935, and who stopped coming to Harlem almost altogether after a second round of riots in 1943. Many Harlemites found work in the military or in the Brooklyn shipyards during World War II,[16] but the neighborhood declined rapidly once the war ended. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


There was little investment in private homes or businesses in the neighborhood between 1911 and the 1990s. However, the unwillingness of landlords elsewhere in the city to rent to black tenants, together with a significant increase in the black population of New York, meant that rents in Harlem were for many years higher than rents elsewhere in the city, even as the housing stock decayed. In 1920, one-room apartments in central Harlem rented for $40 to whites or $100-$125 to blacks.[17] In the late 1920s, a typical white working class family in New York paid $6.67 per month per room, while blacks in Harlem paid $9.50 for the same space.[18] The worse the accommodations and more desperate the renter, the higher the rents would be.[19] This pattern would persist through the 1960s; in 1965, CERGE reported that a one room apartment in Harlem rented for $50-$74, while comparable apartments rented for $30-$49 in white slums.[20] The high rents encouraged some property speculators to engage in block busting, a practice whereby they would acquire a single property on a block and sell or rent it to blacks with great publicity. Other landowners would panic, and the speculators would then buy additional houses relatively cheaply.[21] These houses could then be rented profitably to blacks.[22] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with rental agreement. ... This article needs to be expanded. ...

One of the few condemned buildings that last in Harlem, photographed on May 14, 2005.

The high cost of space forced people to live in close quarters, and the population density of Harlem in these years was stunning — over 215,000 per square mile in the 1920s. By comparison, Manhattan as a whole had a population density under 70,000 per square mile in 2000.[23] The same forces that allowed landlords to charge more for Harlem space also enabled them to maintain it less, and many of the residential buildings in Harlem fell into disrepair. The 1960 census showed only 51% of housing in Harlem to be "sound," as opposed to 85% elsewhere in New York City.[24] In 1968, the New York City Buildings Department received 500 complaints daily of rats in Harlem buildings, falling plaster, lack of heat, and unsanitary plumbing.[4] Tenants were sometimes to blame; some would strip wiring and fixtures from their buildings to sell, throw garbage in hallways and airshafts, or otherwise deteriorate the properties which they lived in or visited.[25] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ...

Harlem has many townhouses, such as these in the Mount Morris Historic District.

Inadequate housing contributed to racial unrest and health problems. However, the lack of development also preserved buildings from the 1870-1910 building boom, and Harlem as a result has many of the finest original townhouses in New York. This includes work by many significant architects of the day, including McKim, Mead, and White, James Renwick, William Tuthill, Charles Buek, and Francis Kimball. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1179 × 1600 pixel, file size: 771 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Architecture in New York City... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1179 × 1600 pixel, file size: 771 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Architecture in New York City... McKim, Mead, and White was a prominent architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. ... James Alexander Renwick (died 1984) was a Canadian politician. ... An American architect best known for his work on Carnegie Hall. ... Charles Buek was a developer and architect in New York City in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Francis Hatch Kimball (1845-1919) was an American architect best known for his work on skyscrapers in lower Manhattan, including the still extant Corbin Building on John Street. ...


As the building stock decayed, landlords converted many buildings into "single room occupancies," or SROs, essentially private homeless shelters. In many cases, the income from these buildings could not support the fines and city taxes charged to their owners, or the houses suffered damage that would have been expensive to fix, and the buildings were abandoned. In the 1970s, this process accelerated to the point that Harlem, for the first time since before WWI, had a lower population density than the rest of Manhattan. Between 1970 and 1980, for example, Frederick Douglass Boulevard between 110th Street and 125th Street in central Harlem lost 42% of its population and 23% of its remaining housing stock.[26] By 1987, 65% of the buildings in Harlem were owned by the City of New York,[27][28] and many had become empty shells, convenient centers for drug dealing and other antisocial activity. The lack of habitable buildings and falling population reduced tax rolls and made the neighborhood even less attractive to residential and retail investment. The expression single room occupancy or, more commonly SRO, refers to a building that houses people in single rooms. ...

The doorframe of a brownstone designed by William Tuthill in the Mount Morris Historical District in Harlem.

Image File history File linksMetadata Mount_morris_doorframe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mount_morris_doorframe. ... An American architect best known for his work on Carnegie Hall. ...

Recent history

After years of false starts, Harlem began to see rapid gentrification in the late 1990s. This was driven by changing federal and city policies, including fierce crime-fighting and a concerted effort to develop the retail corridor on 125th Street. Starting in 1994, the Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone funneled money into new developments.[28] Finally, wealthier New Yorkers, having gentrified every other part of Manhattan and much of Brooklyn, had nowhere else to go. The number of housing units in Harlem increased 14% between 1990 and 2000[28] and the rate of increase has been much more rapid in recent years. Property values in Central Harlem increased nearly 300% during the 1990s, while the rest of the City saw only a 12% increase.[28] Even empty shells of buildings in the neighborhood were, as of 2007, routinely selling for nearly $1,000,000 each.[29] Former U.S. President Bill Clinton has rented office space at 55 West 125th Street since completing his second term in the White House in 2001.[30] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Culture and Environment

As a center of black life

In the 1920s, Harlem was the center of a flowering of black culture that became known as the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance was a time of amazing artistic production, but ironically, blacks were sometimes excluded from viewing what their peers were creating. Some jazz venues, including most famously the Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington played, were restricted to whites only. Others, including the Renaissance Ballroom and the Savoy Ballroom, were integrated. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 412 KB) Summary 125th Street in Harlem NYC, between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 412 KB) Summary 125th Street in Harlem NYC, between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Christmas shopping on 125th Street 125th Street is a two-way street that runs east-west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, considered the Main Street of Harlem; It is also called Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue, looking north toward the Metlife building from the Union Square Area Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries traffic north and south in Manhattan in New York City. ... Madison Avenue, looking north from 40th Street Madison Avenue is a north-south avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City that carries northbound one-way traffic. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... The Savoy Ballroom located in Harlem, New York City, was a medium sized ballroom for music and public dancing that was in operation from 1926 to 1958. ...


This period of Harlem's history has been highly romanticized since the 1920s, though it was the time when the neighborhood began to become a slum, and some of the storied traditions of the Harlem Renaissance were driven by poverty, crime, or other social ills. For example, in this period, Harlem became known for "rent parties," informal gatherings in which bootleg alcohol was served, and music played. Neighbors paid to attend, and thus enabled the host to make his or her monthly rent. Though picturesque, these parties were thrown out of necessity. Further, over a quarter of black households in Harlem made their monthly rent by taking in lodgers, who sometimes brought bad habits or even crime that disrupted the lives of respectable families. Urban reformers campaigned to eliminate the "lodger evil" but the problem got worse before it got better; in 1940, 40% of black families in Harlem were taking in lodgers.[31] A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


The high rents and poor maintenance that Harlem residents suffered through much of the 20th century was not merely the product of racism by white landlords; though precise statistics are not available, wealthier blacks purchased land in Harlem,[7] and even by 1920, a significant portion of the neighborhood was owned by blacks.[5][32] By the late 1960s, 60% of the businesses in Harlem responded to surveys reporting to be owned by blacks, and an overwhelming fraction of new businesses were black-owned after that time.[33]


In 1928, the first effort at housing reform was attempted in Harlem with the construction of the Paul Lawrence Dunbar Houses, backed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. These were intended to give people of modest means the opportunity to live in and, over time, purchase houses of their own. The Great Depression hit shortly after the buildings opened, and the experiment failed. They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects.[5] And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people.[24] Constructed in 1926, the Dunbar Apartments are a set of buildings in Harlem in New York City, built by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Harlem River Houses The Harlem River Houses are located at 151st street and Harlem River Drive and covers 9 acres. ...

Stately Harlem apartment buildings adjacent to Morningside Park.

The Apollo Theater opened on 125th Street on January 26, 1934, in a former burlesque house. The Savoy Ballroom, on Lenox Avenue, was a renowned venue for swing dancing, and was immortalized in a popular song of the era, Stompin' At The Savoy. In the 1920s and 1930s, between Lenox and Seventh avenues in central Harlem, over 125 entertainment places operated, including speakeasies, cellars, lounges, cafes, taverns, supper clubs, rib joints, theaters, dance halls, and bars and grills.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Harlem Metadata This file contains additional... Morningside Park is a New York City public park located at the east edge of Morningside Heights. ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Photograph of Sally Rand, 1934. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Swing Dancing The term swing dance is commonly used to refer either to a group of dances developing in response to swing music in the 1920s, 30s and 40s, or to lindy hop, a popular partner dance today. ...


Though Harlem musicians and writers are particularly well remembered, the community has also hosted numerous actors and theater companies, including the New Heritage Repertory Theater,[2] National Black Theater, Lafayette Players, Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro Theater, and the Rose McClendon Players.[35] In 1936, Orson Welles produced his famous black Macbeth at the Lafayette Theater in Harlem.[36] Grand theaters from the late 19th and early 20th centuries were torn down or converted to churches, and Harlem lacked any permanent performance space until the creation of the Gatehouse Theater in an old pumping station on 135th Street in 2006.[37] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ...


In the post-World War II era, Harlem ceased to be home to a majority of NYC's blacks,[38] but it remained the cultural and political capital of black New York, and possibly black America.[39][40] The character of the community changed in the years after the war, as middle class blacks left for the outer boroughs (primarily The Bronx, Queens and Brooklyn) and suburbs. The percentage of Harlem that was black peaked in 1950, at 98.2%.[41] Thereafter, Hispanics and, more recently, white residents have increased their share. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the New York City borough. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...

Church of Nazareth, 144th Street and Hamilton Terrace. The building is currently a burned-out shell.

Black Harlem has always been religious, and the area is home to over 400 churches.[42] Major sects represented include Baptists, Methodists (generally operating under the name African Methodist Episcopalian, or "AME"), Episcopalians, and Roman Catholic. The Nation of Islam and splinter Black Muslim groups maintain mosques in Harlem, and the Mormon church established a chapel at 128th Street in 2005. Many of the area's churches are "storefront churches", which operate out of an empty store, or a building's basement, or a converted brownstone townhouse. These smaller organizations may have congregations of 15 or 20 people, but there are hundreds of them.[43] Judaism, too, maintains a presence in Harlem, including The Old Broadway Synagogue, Temple Healing from Heaven, and Temple of Joy. There is also a non-mainstream synagogue of black Jews known as Commandment Keepers, based in a synagogue at 1 West 123rd Street. The Abyssinian Baptist Church has been a particularly potent organization, long influential because of its large congregation, and recently wealthy as a result of its extensive real estate holdings. Image File history File linksMetadata Church_of_the_nazareth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Church_of_the_nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the... The phrase black Muslim is a term used mostly in the United States. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God are a non-mainstream sect of Jews, founded in 1919 by Nigerian-born Rabbi Arthur Wentworth Matthew[1], who believe that people of Ethiopian descent represent one of the lost tribes of Israel. ... The Abyssinian Baptist Church is among the most famous of the many churches in Harlem, New York City. ...


Especially in the years before World War II, Harlem produced popular Christian "cult" leaders, including George Wilson Becton and Father Divine.[44] George Wilson Becton was the first of the colorful cult leaders in Harlem. ... Father Divine (c. ...


Since 1965, the community has been home to the Harlem Boys Choir, a famous touring choir and education program for young boys, most of whom are black. The Girls Choir of Harlem was founded in 1988. Manhattan's contribution to hip-hop stems largely from the artists who have Harlem roots, including Kurtis Blow and P. Diddy. Harlem is also the birthplace of popular hip-hop dances such as the Harlem shake, toe wap, and Chicken Noodle Soup. The Boys Choir of Harlem (also known as the Harlem Boys Choir) is a choir located in Harlem, New York City, United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hip hop (disambiguation). ... Curtis Kurtis Blow Walker, (born on August 9, 1959, in Harlem, New York) is one of the pioneer rappers in the recording industry, and hip hops first mainstream star. ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969)[1] is an American record producer, mogul, CEO, clothing designer, and a rapper. ... The Harlem shake, originally called the albee, became mainstream in 2001 when G-Dep featured the Harlem shake in his music video Special Delivery. ... Chicken Noodle Soup is a song by DJ Webstar and Young B. It has an associated dance as well. ...


Since the arrival of blacks in Harlem, the neighborhood has suffered from unemployment rates higher than the New York average (generally more than twice as high),[45] and high mortality rates as well. In both cases, the numbers for men have been consistently worse than the numbers for women. Unemployment and poverty in the neighborhood resisted private and governmental initiatives to ameliorate them. In the 1960s, uneducated blacks could find jobs more easily than educated ones could, confounding efforts to improve the lives of people who lived in the neighborhood through education.[46] Infant mortality was 124 per thousand in 1928 (twice the rate for whites).[47] By 1940, infant mortality in Harlem was 5% (one black infant in twenty would die), still much higher than white, and the death rate from disease generally was twice that of the rest of New York. Tuberculosis was the main killer, and four times as prevalent among Harlem blacks than among New York's white population.[47] A 1990 study reported that 15-year-old black women in Harlem had a 65% chance of surviving to age 65, about the same as women in India. Black men in Harlem, on the other hand, had a 37% chance of surviving to age 65, about the same as men in Angola.[48] Infectious diseases and diseases of the circulatory system were to blame, with a variety of contributing factors including the deep-fried foods traditional to the neighborhood, which may contribute to heart disease. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Harlem has one of the highest asthma rates in the United States. Increased risk of asthma may be brought about by high particulate matter from the diesel emissions of buses and trucks, which levels are higher in Harlem than elsewhere in New York City.[49] Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ...


Crime

Not surprisingly, as a neighborhood with a long history of marginalization and economic deprivation, Harlem has long been associated with crime.


In the 1920s, the Jewish and Italian mafia played a major role in running the whites-only nightclubs in the neighborhood and the speakeasies that catered to a white audience. Mobster Dutch Schultz controlled all liquor production and distribution in Harlem in the 1920s. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rather than compete with the established mobs, black gangsters concentrated on the "policy racket," also called the Numbers game, or "bolita" in Spanish Harlem. This was gambling scheme similar to a lottery that could be played, illegally, from countless locations around Harlem. According to Francis Ianni, "By 1925 there were thirty black policy banks in Harlem, several of them large enough to collect bets in an area of twenty city blocks and across three or four avenues."[50] The numbers game, or policy racket, is an illegal lottery played mostly in poor neighborhoods in U.S. cities, wherein the bettor attempts to pick three or four digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ...


By the early 1950s, the total money at play amounted to billions of dollars, and the police force had been thoroughly corrupted by bribes from numbers bosses.[51] These bosses became financial powerhouses, providing capital for loans for those who could not qualify for them from traditional financial institutions, and investing in legitimate businesses and real estate. Remarkably, one of the powerful early numbers bosses was a woman, Madame Stephanie St. Clair. Stephanie St. ...


The popularity of playing the numbers waned with the introduction of the New York State lottery, which has higher payouts and is legal, but the practice continues on a smaller scale among those who prefer the numbers tradition or who prefer to trust their local numbers bank over the state. Lotteries in the United States are run by individual states -- there is no national lottery in the U.S. Most states have amended or re-written their constitutions to allow for a legal lottery. ...


1940 statistics show about 100 murders per year in Harlem, "but rape is very rare."[31] By 1950, essentially all of the whites had left Harlem and by 1960, the black middle class had gone. At the same time, control of organized crime shifted from Jewish and Italian syndicates to local black, Puerto Rican, and Cuban groups that were somewhat less formally organized.[50] At the time of the 1964 riots, the drug addiction rate in Harlem was ten times higher than the New York City average, and twelve times higher than the United States as a whole. Of the 30,000 drug addicts then estimated to live in New York City, 15,000 to 20,000 lived in Harlem. Property crime was pervasive, and the murder rate was six times higher than New York's average. Half of the children in Harlem grew up with one parent, or none, and lack of supervision contributed to juvenile delinquency; between 1953 and 1962, the crime rate among young people increased throughout New York City, but was consistently 50% higher in Harlem than in New York City as a whole.[52]


Injecting heroin grew in popularity in Harlem through the 1950s and 1960s, though the use of this drug then leveled off. In the 1980s, use of crack cocaine became widespread, which produced collateral crime as addicts stole to finance their purchasing of additional drugs, and as dealers fought for the right to sell in particular regions, or over deals gone bad. A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive form of cocaine. ...


In 1981, 6,500 robberies were reported in Harlem. The number dropped to 4,800 in 1990, perhaps due to an increase in the number of police assigned to the neighborhood. Over the next ten years, with the end of the "crack wars" and with the initiation of aggressive policing under mayor Rudolph Giuliani, crime in Harlem plummeted. In 2000, 1,700 robberies were reported. There have been similar changes in all categories of crimes tracked by the New York City Police Department.[53] In the 32nd Precinct, for example, in Central Harlem, between 1993 and 2004, the murder rate dropped 68%, the rape rate dropped 70%, the robbery rate dropped 60%, burglary dropped 81%, and the total number of crime complaints dropped 62%.[54] The Crack Epidemic refers to a six year period between 1984 and 1990 in the United States during which there was a huge surge in the use of crack cocaine in major cities. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) was created in 1845 and currently is the largest municipal police force in the world with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ...


Politics and Activism in Harlem

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_UNIA.svg The red, black and green flag was created by the members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League at their convention held in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_UNIA.svg The red, black and green flag was created by the members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League at their convention held in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920. ... The UNIA flag. ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the...

1910 - 1945, as Harlem became the capital of black America

Soon after blacks began to move into Harlem, the community became known as "the spiritual home of the Negro protest movement."[55] The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist A. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine The Messenger starting in 1917. It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. W.E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did James Weldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Marcus Garvey in 1924 Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the U.S. // Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida. ... The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was a labor union in the United States organized by the predominantly African-American Pullman Porters. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... James Weldon Johnson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1932 James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, poet, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ...


The earliest activism by blacks to change the situation in Harlem itself grew out of the Great Depression, with the "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" movement.[44] This was the ultimately successful campaign to force retail shops on 125th Street to hire black employees. Boycotts were originally organized by the Citizens' League for Fair Play in June 1934 against Blumstein's Department Store on 125th Street. The store soon agreed to more fully integrate its staff. This success emboldened Harlem residents, and protests continued under other leadership, including that of preacher and later congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., seeking to change hiring practices at other stores, to effect the hiring of more black workers, or the hiring of members of particular protesting groups.[56] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rare spoken word album by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. ...


Communism gained a following in Harlem in the 1930s, and continued to play a role through the 1940s.[55] 1935 saw the first of Harlem's five riots. The incident started with a (false) rumor that a boy caught stealing from a store on 125th Street had been killed by the police. By the time it was over, 600 stores had been looted and three men were dead. The same year saw internationalism in Harlem politics, as Harlemites responded to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia by holding giant rallies, signing petitions and sending an appeal to the League of Nations.[57] Such internationalism continued intermittently, including broad demonstrations in favor of Egyptian president Nasser after the Suez invasion of 1956.[58] The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ...


The neighborhood enjoyed few benefits from the massive public works projects in New York under Robert Moses in the 1930s, and as a result had fewer parks and public recreational sites than other New York neighborhoods. Of the 255 playgrounds Moses built in New York City, he placed only one in Harlem.[59] Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 - July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County. ...


In 1937, the Harlem River Houses, America's first federally subsidized housing project, were opened. Other massive housing projects would follow, with tens of thousands of units constructed over the next twenty years.[60] Harlem River Houses The Harlem River Houses are located at 151st street and Harlem River Drive and covers 9 acres. ...


Black Harlemites took positions in the elected political infrastructure of New York starting in 1941 with the election of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. to the City Council. He was easily elected to Congress when a congressional district was placed in Harlem in 1944, leaving his City Council seat to be won by another black Harlemite, Benjamin J. Davis. Ironically, Harlem's political strength soon deteriorated, as Clayton Powell, Jr. spent his time in Washington or his vacation home in Puerto Rico, and Davis was jailed in 1951 for violations of the Smith Act.[61] Benjamin J. Ben Davis (September 8, 1903 - August 22, 1964), was an African-American communist who was elected to the city council of New York City, representing Harlem, in 1943. ... The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act () of 1940 is a United States federal statute that made it a criminal offense for anyone to knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the duty, necessity, desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State...


1943 saw the second Harlem riot. A black soldier was shot and wounded by a white policeman, and the resulting riots saw hundreds of stores looted and six people killed.


1946-1969 The Civil Rights Movement

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Harlem was the scene of a series of rent strikes by neighborhood tenants, led by local activist Jesse Gray, together with the Congress of Racial Equality, Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU), and other groups. These groups wanted the city to force landlords to improve the quality of housing by bringing them up to code, to take action against rats and roaches, to provide heat during the winter, and to keep prices in line with already-existing rent control regulations. According to the Metropolitan Council on Housing, in the mid-1960s, about 25% of the city's landlords charged more for rent than allowed by law.[62] A rent strike is a method of protest commonly employed against large landlords such as universities. ... Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, more commonly called HARYOU, was a social activism organization founded by Dr. Kenneth Clark in 1962. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... It has been suggested that Blattellidae be merged into this article or section. ...


Many groups mobilized in Harlem in the 1960s, fighting for better schools, jobs, and housing. Some were peaceful and others advocated violence. By the early 1960s, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) had offices on 125th street, and acted as negotiator for the community with the city, especially in times of racial unrest. They pressed for civilian review boards to hear complaints of police abuse, a demand that was ultimately met. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. had become chairman of the House Committee of Education and Labor at the start of the 1960s, and was able to use this position to direct federal funds to various development projects back home.[63] The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ...


The influence of the southern nonviolent protest movement was muted in Harlem. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the black leader most respected in Harlem,[64][65] but at least two dozen groups of black nationalists also operated in New York. The most important of these by far was the Nation of Islam, whose Temple Number Seven was run by Malcolm X from 1952 - 1963.[66] Malcolm was assassinated in the Audobon Ballroom in Washington Heights in 1965, and the neighborhood remains an important center for the Nation of Islam. “MLK” redirects here. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The Audobon Ballroom is an terrorist organization in the Honorverse, a fictional universe based upon the Honor Harrington series David Weber. ... Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in the northern reaches of the borough of Manhattan. ...


The largest public works projects in Harlem in these years was the construction of public housing, with the largest concentration in East Harlem.[67] Typically, existing structures were torn down and replaced with city-designed and managed properties that would, in theory, present a safer and more pleasant environment than those available from private landlords. Ultimately, community objections halted the construction of new projects.[60]


From the mid-20th century, the terrible quality of local schools has been a source of distress. In the 1960s, about 75% of Harlem students tested under the grade levels in reading skills, and 80% tested under grade level in math.[68] In 1964, residents of Harlem staged two boycotts to call attention to the terrible quality of local schools. In central Harlem, 92% of students stayed home.[69] In 1977, Isiah Robinson, president of the New York City Board of Education, was quoted as saying that "the quality of education in Harlem has degenerated to the level of a custodial service."[2] As of May 2006, Harlem is the heart of the charter schools movement in Manhattan; of the 25 charter schools operating in Manhattan, 18 are in Harlem.[70] In the United States, a charter school is a school that is created via a legal charter. ...


The third in Harlem's series of riots took place in July 1964 after the fatal shooting of a 15-year-old black boy by a white police officer. One person was killed, more than 100 were injured, and hundreds more were arrested. Property damage and looting were extensive.


In the aftermath of the riots of July 1964, the federal government funded a pilot program called Project Uplift, in which thousands of young people in Harlem were given jobs during the summer of 1965. The project was inspired by a report generated by HARYOU called Youth in the Ghetto,[71] and HARYOU was given a major role in organizing the project, along with the National Urban League and nearly 100 smaller community organizations.[72] Project Uplift was an experimental anti-poverty program in Harlem, New York, in the summer of 1965. ... Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, more commonly called HARYOU, was a social activism organization founded by Dr. Kenneth Clark in 1962. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ...


In 1966, the Black Panthers organized a group in Harlem, agitating for violence in pursuit of change. Speaking at a rally of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, Max Stanford, a Black Panther speaker, declared that the United States "could be brought down to its knees with a rag and some gasoline and a bottle," the ingredients of a Molotov cocktail.[73] The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


In 1968, Harlemites rioted after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Two died -- one stabbed to death in a crowd and another trapped in a burning building. Mayor John Lindsay helped to quell the rioting by marching up Lenox Avenue in a "hail of bricks" to confront the angry crowds.[74] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


1970 - 1989

By some measures, the 1970s were the worst period in Harlem's history. Many of those Harlemites who were able to escape from poverty left the neighborhood in search of safer streets, better schools and homes. Those who remained were the poorest and least skilled, with the fewest opportunities for success. Though the federal government's Model Cities Administration spent $100 million on job training, health care, education, public safety, sanitation, housing, and other projects over a ten year period, Harlem showed no appreciable difference.[75]


The deterioration shows up starkly in the statistics of the period. In 1968, Harlem's infant mortality rate had been 37 for each 1000 live births, as compared to 23.1 in the city as a whole. Over the next eight years, infant mortality for the city as whole improved to 19, while the rate in Harlem increased to 42.8, more than double. Statistics describing illness, drug addiction, housing quality, and education are similarly grim and typically show rapid deterioration in the 1970s. The wholesale abandonment of housing, described in the "Ghettoization" section above, was so pronounced that between 1976 and 1978 alone, central Harlem lost almost a third of its total population, and east Harlem lost about 27%.[75] The neighborhood no longer had a functioning economy; stores were shuttered and by estimates published in 1971, 60% of the area's economic life depended on the cash flow from the illegal "Numbers game" alone.[76] The numbers game, or policy racket, is an illegal lottery played mostly in poor neighborhoods in U.S. cities, wherein the bettor attempts to pick three or four digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day. ...


The worst part of Harlem was the "Bradhurst section" between Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard and Edgecombe, from 139th Street through 155th. In 1991, this region was described in the New York Times as follows: "Since 1970, an exodus of residents has left behind the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed. Nearly two-thirds of the households have incomes below $10,000 a year. In a community with one of the highest crime rates in the city, garbage-strewn vacant lots and tumbledown tenements, many of them abandoned and sealed, contribute to the sense of danger and desolation that pervades much of the area."[77]


Plans for rectifying the situation often started with the restoration of 125th Street, long the economic heart of black Harlem.[78] By the late 1970s, only marginalized and poor retail remained.[79] Plans were drafted for a "Harlem International Trade Center," which would have filled the entire block between 125th Street and 126th, from Lenox to Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard, with an center for trade with the third world. A related retail complex was planned to the west, between Frederick Douglass Boulevard and St. Nicholas. However, this plan depended on $30 million in financing from the federal government[78], and with the election of Ronald Reagan to the presidency of the United States, it had no hope of being completed.[79] For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... “Reagan” redirects here. ...


The city did provide one large construction project, though not so favored by residents. Starting in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s, Harlemites fought the introduction of an immense sewage treatment plant, the North River Water Pollution Control Plant, on the Hudson River in west Harlem. A compromise was ultimately reached in which the plant was built with a state park, including extensive recreational facilities, on top. The park, called Riverbank State Park, was opened in 1993 (the sewage plant having been completed some years earlier).[80] The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Riverbank State Park is located in Manhattan, New York in the USA. The park is within New York City and is the only state park in Manhattan. ...


By 1980, the City of New York owned 60% of all residential property in Harlem[81], and began auctioning these properties to the public in 1985. Only a small fraction would be sold at this time, and later scandals would temporarily halt the sales altogether.


1990 - Present

The city's sale of confiscated houses was intended to improve the community by placing property in the hands of people who would live in them and maintain them. In many cases, the city would even pay to completely renovate a property before selling it (by lottery) below market value.[82] The program was soon beset by scandal -- buyers were acquiring houses from the city, then making deals with churches or other charities in which they would inflate the appraised values of the properties and the church or charity would take out federally guaranteed 203(k) mortgage and buy it. The original buyer would realize a huge profit and the church or charity would default on the mortgage (presumably getting some kind of kickback from the developer).[83][84] Abandoned shells were left to further deteriorate, and about a third of the properties sold by the city were tenements which still had tenants, who were left in particularly miserable conditions. These properties, and new restrictions on Harlem mortgages, bedeviled the area's residential real estate market for years.


From 1987 through 1990, the city removed long-unused trolly tracks from 125th Street, laid new water mains and sewers, installed new sidewalks, curbs, traffic lights, street lights, and planted trees. Two years later, national chains opened branches on 125th Street for the first time -- The Body Shop opened a store at 125th street and 5th Avenue (still extant as of 2007), and a Ben & Jerry's ice cream franchise employing formerly homeless people opened across the street.[85] But the development of the region would leap forward a few years later with the introduction of the Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone, which brought $300 million in development funds and $250 million in tax breaks.[86] The Body Shop in Downtown Toronto, Canada. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Plans were laid for shopping malls, movie theaters, and museums. However, these plans were nearly derailed in 1995 by the "Freddy's Fashion Mart" riot, which culminated in political arson and eight deaths. These riots did not resemble their predecessors, and were organized by black activists against Jewish shop owners on 125th street.[87]


Five years later, the revitalization of 125th street resumed, with the construction of a Starbucks outlet backed in part by Magic Johnson (1999), the first supermarket in Harlem in 30 years[86], the Harlem USA retail complex, which included the first first-run movie theater in many years (2000)[86], and a new home for the Studio Museum in Harlem (2001). In the same year, former president Bill Clinton took office space in Harlem. In 2002, a large retail and office complex called Harlem Center was completed at the corner of Lenox and 125th.[88] Earvin Effay Johnson, Jr. ... The Studio Museum in Harlem is an American fine arts museum in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, New York. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Harlem landmarks

Hotel Theresa building at the corner of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard and 125th Street

Image File history File linksMetadata Hotel_theresa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hotel_theresa. ... The Hotel Theresa sits at the intersection of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. ... Seventh Avenue is a thoroughfare on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... 125th Street is a two-way east-west street in Manhattan, considered the Main street of Harlem. ... The Abyssinian Baptist Church is among the most famous of the many churches in Harlem, New York City. ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... Aaron Davis Hall is Harlems Centre for the Performing Arts in New York City founded in 1981. ... The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is part of the New York Public Library. ... Astor Row is the name given to 130th Street between 5th Avenue and Lennox in Harlem, New York City. ... The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as City) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ... Constructed in 1926, the Dunbar Apartments are a set of buildings in Harlem in New York City, built by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ... Hamilton Grange National Memorial, at 287 Convent Avenue in New York City, preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, American statesman and first United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Hamilton Heights is a neighborhood in Northern Manhattan in New York City. ... The Hotel Theresa sits at the intersection of Adam Clayton Powell Jr. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Morningside Park is a New York City public park located at the east edge of Morningside Heights. ... Mount Morris Park Historic District was designated to be a Historic District by New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1971. ... This page is about a medical school in New York. ... The Mount Sinai Hospital is a hospital in New York City, New York, serving Manhattans Upper East Side and Harlem. ... Founded in 1969 by a group of Puerto Rican artists, educators,community activists and civic leaders, El Museo del Barrio is located at the top of Museum Mile in New York City (USA), in East Harlem a neighborhood also called El Barrio and is the only museum dedicated to the... The Museum of the City of New York is an art gallery and history museum founded in 1923 to present the history of New York City and its people. ... Rucker Park is a basketball court in the New York City borough of Manhattan, located at 155th Street and Frederick Douglass Boulevard, in the Harlem neighborhood. ... The Savoy Ballroom located in Harlem, New York City, was a medium sized ballroom for music and public dancing that was in operation from 1926 to 1958. ... Entrance to Strivers Row alleyway, Walk Your Horses! The term Strivers Row refers to three rows of townhouses in western Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... The Studio Museum in Harlem is an American fine arts museum in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, New York. ... Sylvias Restaurant of Harlem (often called Sylvias soul food or even just Sylvias) is the most famous soul food restaurant in New York City. ...

People from Harlem

Main article: List of people from Harlem
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Harlem

People from Harlem, New York. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Movies in Harlem

Dozens of movies have been filmed in Harlem. Movies Filmed in Harlem, New York Harlem is Heaven, 1932 Dark Manhattan, 1937 Moon Over Harlem, 1939 Paradise in Harlem, 1939 Harlem Hot Shots, 1940 Hi-De-Ho, 1947 Souls of Sin, 1949 Showtime at the Apollo: Harlem Merry-go-Round, 1955 The Cool World, 1963 The Pawnbroker, 1964 Cotton...


References

  1. ^ a b Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books, p. 52. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "To Live In Harlem," Frank Hercules, National Geographic, February 1977, p.178+
  3. ^ Introduction to Harlem USA, John Henrick Clarke, 1970
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Harlem, the Village That Became a Ghetto," Martin Duberman, in New York, N.Y.: An American Heritage History of the Nation's Greatest City, 1968
  5. ^ a b c d "The Growth and Decline of Harlem's Housing", Thorin Tritter, Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, January 31, 1998
  6. ^ Malcolm, Bruce Perry, Station Hill, 1991. page 154-155
  7. ^ a b c d "The Making of Harlem," James Weldon Johnson, The Survey Graphic, March 1925
  8. ^ "Negro Districts in Manhattan," The New York Times, November 17, 1901
  9. ^ "Negroes Move Into Harlem," New York Herald, December 24, 1905
  10. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.26
  11. ^ a b "Africa-Conscious Harlem," Richard B. Moore, in Harlem U.S.A., 1971 ed. p.37
  12. ^ "118,000 Negroes Move From The South," The New York World, November 5, 1917
  13. ^ "Harlem, the Making of a Ghetto," Gilbert Osofsky, in Harlem U.S.A., 1971 ed. p.13
  14. ^ Osofsky, "Making of a Ghetto", in Harlem: A Community in Transition, 1964, p.20
  15. ^ "Loans To White Renegades Who Back Negroes Cut Off," Harlem Home News, April 7, 1911
  16. ^ The Economic Development of Harlem, Thomas Vietorisz and Bennett Harrison, Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic and Social Development, 1970, p.6
  17. ^ "Landlord Brings in Negroes to Get High Rents," The New York Times, January 27, 1920
  18. ^ "Gilbert Osofsky, 1963"
  19. ^ "Powell Says Rent Too High," New York Post, March 28, 1935
  20. ^ "Harlem Stirs, 1966, p.17"
  21. ^ "Harlem, the Making of a Ghetto," Gilbert Osofsky, in Harlem U.S.A., 1971 ed. p.12
  22. ^ Malcolm, Bruce Perry, Station Hill, 1991. page 155
  23. ^ Demographia population density figures
  24. ^ a b Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.29
  25. ^ Malcolm, Bruce Perry, Station Hill, 1991. page 156
  26. ^ New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1021
  27. ^ "City Hall Holds The Key. Harlem's renaissance finds lots of friends, and a few foes," Christian Science Monitor, March 12, 1987
  28. ^ a b c d The Economic Redevelopment of Harlem, PhD Thesis of Eldad Gothelf, submitted to Columbia University in May 2004
  29. ^ "After the Shell Game," S.Jhoanna Robledo, New York Magazine, March 26, 2007, p.69. The article states that, after rocketing upwards for many years, prices on shells have settled to about the same level in 2007 as they had been in 2005. Examples are given of sales around $800,000.
  30. ^ "New boy in the 'hood," The Observer, August 5 2001
  31. ^ a b "244,000 Native Sons," Look Magazine, May 21, 1940, p.8+
  32. ^ Inside U.S.A., John Gunther, 1947 specifically cites a black man named "A. A. Austin" who owned many properties.
  33. ^ The Economic Development of Harlem, Thomas Vietorisz and Bennett Harrison, Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic and Social Development, 1970, p.37, p.45, p.238
  34. ^ The Big Bands Database, My Harlem Reverie
  35. ^ "Need for Harlem Theater," by Jim Williams, in Harlem: A Community in Transition, 1964. p.158
  36. ^ "Jam Streets as 'Macbeth' Opens," The New York Times, April 15, 1936
  37. ^ "Gatehouse Ushers in a Second Act as a Theater," The New York Times, October 17, 2006
  38. ^ "Harlem Losing Ground as Negro Area," New York Herald Tribune, April 6, 1952
  39. ^ Powell, Michael. "Harlem's New Rush: Booming Real Estate", The Washington Post, March 13, 2005. Accessed May 18, 2007. "The transformation of this historic capital of Black America has taken an amphetamined step or three beyond a Starbucks, a Body Shop and former president Bill Clinton taking an office on 125th Street."
  40. ^ Brooks, Charles. "Harlemworld: Doing Race and Class in Contemporary Black America - nonfiction reviews - book review", Black Issues Book Review., March-April, 2002. Accessed May 18, 2007. "There's a mystique that surrounds Harlem --with its rich historical tradition, literature, music, dance, politics and social activism. Consequently, Harlem is referred to as the "Black Mecca" the capital of black America, and arguably the most recognized black community in the country."
  41. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.27
  42. ^ "The New Heyday of Harlem," Tessa Souter, The Independent on Sunday, June 8, 1997
  43. ^ Fact Not Fiction In Harlem, John H. Johnson, St. Martin's Church, 1980. p.69+
  44. ^ a b Harlem U.S.A., ed. John Henrick Clarke, introduction to 1971 edition
  45. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.31
  46. ^ The Economic Development of Harlem, Thomas Vietorisz and Bennett Harrison, Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic and Social Development, 1970, p.19
  47. ^ a b "Congestion Causes High Mortality," The New York Times, October 24, 1929
  48. ^ McCord C and HP Freeman. "Excess Mortality in Harlem." New England Journal of Medicine 322(1990):173-177
  49. ^ http://www.weact.org/pressadvisories/2003_Apr_23.html WE ACT press release, April 23, 2003
  50. ^ a b Francis A.J. Ianni, Black Mafia, 1974
  51. ^ "Inside Story of Numbers Racket," Amsterdam News, August 21, 1954
  52. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.33
  53. ^ "How New York Cut Crime", Reform Magazine, Autumn 2002 p.11
  54. ^ [http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/pdf/chfdept/cs032pct.pdf Policy Department City of New York CompStat, 32nd Precinct, vol. 12 No 38
  55. ^ a b "New York's Racial Unrest: Mounting Negro Anger Swells Protests," Layhmond Robinson, The New York Times, August 12, 1963, p.1
  56. ^ Fact Not Fiction In Harlem, John H. Johnson, St. Martin's Church, 1980., p.52+
  57. ^ "Africa-Conscious Harlem," in Harlem U.S.A.," John Henrick Clarke, ed. 1971, p.50
  58. ^ "Africa-Conscious Harlem," in Harlem U.S.A.," John Henrick Clarke, ed. 1971, p.51
  59. ^ The Power Broker, Robert Moses, p.252, p.318-319, p.490, p.491, p.509-514, 525-561, 578, 589, 736, 834, 1086, 1101
  60. ^ a b East Harlem's History, New Directions: A 197-A Plan for Manhattan Community district 11 (Revised 1999)
  61. ^ "Four Men of Harlem -- The Movers and the Shakers," in Harlem, U.S.A., John Henrik Clarke, 1971 edition, p.262
  62. ^ "Harlem Stirs, 1966, p.27
  63. ^ "Four Men of Harlem -- The Movers and the Shakers," in Harlem, U.S.A., John Henrik Clarke, 1971 edition, p.264
  64. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.41
  65. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.99
  66. ^ "The Nationalist Movements of Harlem," by E. U. Essien-Udom in Harlem: A Community in Transition, 1964, p.97
  67. ^ "A Landmark Struggle," Lisa Davis, Preservation Online, November 21, 2003
  68. ^ Poverty and Politics in Harlem, Alphnso Pinkney & Roger Woock, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970, p.33
  69. ^ "Harlem Stirs, 1966, p.104
  70. ^ New York Charter Schools Association
  71. ^ Youth in the Ghetto: A Study of the Consequences of Powerlessness, Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Inc., 1964
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  73. ^ "Black Panthers Open Harlem Drive," Amsterdam News, September 3, 1966
  74. ^ The Ungovernable City, John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York, Vincent J. Cannato, p.211
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  78. ^ a b "Harlem Pins Revival Hopes on New Plans for 125th Street," New York Times, May 20, 1979
  79. ^ a b New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1007
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  81. ^ New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1015
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  83. ^ "Harlem Tenants Fear Displacement After 203(k) Scandal"
  84. ^ "SRO Limbo: After Arrests in the HUD Scandal, Will Its Victims Lose Their Homes?" Andrew Friedman, Village Voice, January 16 - 22, 2002
  85. ^ New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1009
  86. ^ a b c New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1011
  87. ^ "'Freddy's Not Dead'," Peter Noel, Village Voice, December 23, 1998
  88. ^ New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism from the Bicentennial to the Millennium, Robert A. M. Stern, David Fishman, Jacob Tilove, 2006. p.1013
  • WPA Guide to New York City 1939
  • "Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. Negro New York, 1890-1930". Gilbert Osofsky, 1963
  • TIME Magaine, vol. 84, No.5, July 31, 1964. "Harlem: No Place Like Home"
  • Newsweek, August 3, 1964,. "Harlem: Hatred in the Streets"
  • Harlem Stirs, John O. Killens, Fred Halstead, 1966
  • Francis A. J. Ianni, Black Mafia: Ethnic Succession in Organized Crime, 1974
  • "Crack's Decline: Some Surprises from U.S. Cities", National Institute of Justice Research in Brief, July 1997

External links

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 221 KB) Summary The top floors of the Chrysler building seen from the east on 42nd Street in morning light. ... Community Boards of Manhattan are local government bodies in the New York City borough of Manhattan, which are appointed by the Borough President. ... The Manhattan Community Board 1 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Tribeca and Lower Manhattan in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 2 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Greenwich Village, West Village, NoHo, SoHo, Lower East Side, Chinatown, and Little Italy in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 3 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Tompkins Square, East Village, Lower East Side, Chinatown and Two Bridges, in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 4 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Clinton and Chelsea in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 5 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Midtown in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 6 is a local government unit of the City of New York, encompassing the East Side of Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets. ... The Manhattan Community Board 7 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Manhattan Valley, Upper West Side, and Lincoln Square in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 8 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Upper East Side, LenoxHill, Yorkville, and Roosevelt Island in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 9 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Hamilton Heights, Manhattanville, and Morningside Heights in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 10 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Harlem and Polo Grounds in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 11 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of East Harlem, El Barrio/Spanish Harlem, Wards and Randalls Island in the borough of Manhattan. ... The Manhattan Community Board 12 is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhood of Inwood and Washington Heights in the borough of Manhattan. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alain Locke: Harlem (1747 words)
For most of New York, Harlem is merely a rough rectangle of common-place city blocks, lying between and to east and west of Lenox and Seventh Avenues, stretching nearly a mile north and south--and unaccountably full of Negroes.
Another Harlem is savored by the few--a Harlem of racy music and racier dancing, of cabarets famous or notorious according to their kind, of amusement in which abandon and sophistication are cheek by jowl--a Harlem which draws the connoisseur in diversion as well as the undiscriminating sightseer.
This Harlem is the fertile source of the "shuffling " and "rollin'" and "runnin' wild" revues that establish themselves season after season in "downtown" theaters.
PAL: Harlem Renaissance: A Brief Introduction (1886 words)
Harlem Renaissance (HR) is the name given to the period from the end of World War I and through the middle of the 1930s Depression, during which a group of talented African-American writers produced a sizable body of literature in the four prominent genres of poetry, fiction, drama, and essay.
Harlem Renaissance profited from a spirit of self-determination which was widespread after W.W.I. Harlem Renaissance could not escape its history and culture in its attempt to create a new one.
Harlem Renaissance's legacy is limited by the character of the Renaissance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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