FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Harlech Castle
Harlech Castle
Harlech, Wales

The main gatehouse of Harlech Castle. The steps were originally a drawbridge. As well as this formidably defended entrance, the castle also had a fortified dock so that it could be supplied by sea.
Type Concentric castle
Coordinates 52°51′35″N, 4°06′31″W
Built 1283-1289
Built by James of St. George
In use 1290-1647 (or later)
Current
owner
Cadw[1]
Controlled by Constables of Harlech Castle
Battles/wars 1294, 1404, 1461-1468, 1647

Harlech Castle, located in Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a concentric castle, constructed atop a cliff close to the Irish Sea. Architecturally, it is particularly notable for its massive gatehouse. Harlech is a town and seaside resort in Gwynedd, traditional county of Merionethshire, north Wales, lying on Tremadog Bay. ... Photo of Harlech Castle taken by and copyright Gwen Hitchcock, who has agreed for its release into the GFDL. Uploaded by Sam Jervis 21:48, 9 Sep 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A dock is an area of water between two piers or alongside a pier, forming a chamber used for building or repairing one ship. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and no central keep. ... James of St George (circa 1230 - 1309) was an architect from Savoy responsible for designing many of Edward Is castles, including Conwy Castle (begun 1283), Harlech Castle (begun 1283) and Beaumaris Castle in Anglesey (begun 1295). ... Cadw is a semi-autonomous publicly-funded body which with the mission to protect, conserve, and to promote the built heritage of Wales — the Welsh equivalent of English Heritage and Historic Scotland. ... Harlech is a town and seaside resort in Gwynedd, traditional county of Merionethshire, north Wales, lying on Tremadog Bay. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the country. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and no central keep. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... A gatehouse is a feature of European castles and mansions. ...


Built by King Edward I during his conquest of Wales, the castle was subject to several assaults and sieges during its period of active use as a fortification. The seven-year siege of the castle has been memorialised in the famous song, "Men of Harlech." Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage Owain Glyndŵr [], sometimes anglicised as Owen Glendower (1359–c. ... Men of Harlech or The March of the Men of Harlech (Welsh: Rhyfelgyrch Gwyr Harlech) is a song and military march which is traditionally said to describe events during the seven year long siege of Harlech Castle between 1461 and 1468. ...

Contents

Construction

Begun in 1283 as part of Edward I's second Welsh campaign, the castle was part of Edward's "iron ring" of castles around Snowdonia, "a string of new castles to hem the prince in".[2] Construction began in 1283, "within days of Edward's arrival".[3] Like many of the castles in the area, Harlech was designed by Master James of St. George. The castle took seven years to build, and cost an estimated £8190 to build.[4] Following its completion, James was appointed Constable of Harlech Castle, a position he held for over three years.[5] For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... James of St George (circa 1230 - 1309) was an architect from Savoy responsible for designing many of Edward Is castles, including Conwy Castle (begun 1283), Harlech Castle (begun 1283) and Beaumaris Castle in Anglesey (begun 1295). ...


All the royal castles of Edward's second Welsh campaign were sited "so that they could be kept supplied at all times"[6] Harlech "although it now appears landlocked, was not always so isolated." The sea used to come to the foot of the cliffs.[6]


The castle is built to a concentric plan, with one line of defences enclosed by another. The outer walls are much shorter and thinner than the mighty inner walls, and have no towers defending them besides the small gatehouse. The inner ward is roughly square, with a large round tower at each corner. The domestic buildings, including the great hall, are built against the inside of the inner walls. Since the surrounding cliffs made it practically impossible to attack the castle except from the east, this side is faced by the imposing gatehouse. The gate is flanked by two massive "D-shaped" towers, the standard plan of the era, and defended by a series of doors, portcullises and murder-holes. Noteably, there are large windows on the inner face of the gatehouse, showing its second role as the premier domestic accommodation. The west wall of the inner ward also has large windows (as it forms one wall of the great hall), which would make it vulnerable were it not for the aforementioned cliffs. A gatehouse is a feature of European castles and mansions. ... Counterweights for the sliding portcullis A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... A murder-hole is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders can fire, throw or pour dangerous or noxious substances at attackers. ... The inner ward of a concentric castle is that area surrounded by the innermost walls. ...


The outer ditches at Harlech were "hacked through solid rock".[3] In the height of construction, in 1286, the workforce was "546 general labourers... 115 quarriers, 30 blacksmiths, 22 carpenters and 227 stonemasons."[7]


Harlech is also notable for an unusual feature: the "way from the sea". Edward's forces were often in danger from land-based attack, but he enjoyed total supremacy on water. Many of his castles included "sally ports" which allowed resupply from the sea, but Harlech's is far more elaborate. Here, a fortified stairway hugs the rock and runs almost 200 feet down to the foot of the cliffs, where (at the time of construction) the sea reached. Today, the sea has retreated several miles, making it more difficult to envisage the concept in its original setting. James of St. George's plan was a triumph; when the castle was besieged during Madoc ap Llywelyn's campaign, this stairway was used to supply the castle. An example of a Sally port, here is the main entrance to Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Madoc ap Llywelyn or Prince Madoc was from a junior branch of the House of Cunedda and a distant relation of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (King Llywelyn III of Gwynedd) the last recognised native Prince of Wales. ...


Like many of Edward's castles, Harlech was originally designed to work in tandem with city walls. The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ...


After the completion of the castle, Master James was made constable between 1290-1293, a high status job, that gave him time to work on Edward's castles that were also under construction.


History

The castle from below, looking north-east
The castle with Snowdon to its left

In 1294, Madoc ap Llywelyn, cousin to Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, began an uprising against English rule that spread quickly through Wales. Several English-held towns were razed and Harlech (along with Criccieth Castle and Aberystwyth Castle) were besieged that winter. As noted above, the "Way to the Sea" helped the defenders survive until the siege was lifted the following spring. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (2061 × 952 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (2061 × 952 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 401 pixelsFull resolution (2461 × 1235 pixel, file size: 576 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Harlech Castle, Gwynedd, North Wales. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 401 pixelsFull resolution (2461 × 1235 pixel, file size: 576 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Harlech Castle, Gwynedd, North Wales. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Criccieth Castle Criccieth Castle is situated in Criccieth, in Gwynedd, Wales, overlooking Tremadog Bay. ... Aberystwyth Castle is a castle in Aberystwyth, Wales. ...


In 1404, the castle fell to Owain Glyndŵr after a long siege when starvation reduced the determined and fearful garrison to just twentyone men, becoming his residence and family home and military headquarters for four years. He held his second parliament in Harlech in August 1405.[8] Four years later, after another long siege of eight months, Harlech Castle was retaken in 1409 by Prince Henry (later Henry V) and a force of 1000 men under John Talbot the Earl of Shrewsbury, during which Edmund Mortimer starved to death and Glyndŵr's wife, Margaret Hanmer, two of his daughters and four grandchildren were captured, later to be imprisoned and die. Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage Owain Glyndŵr [], sometimes anglicised as Owen Glendower (1359–c. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... John Talbot may refer to: Sir John Talbot - a character in The Wolf Man John G. Talbot John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... The Earl of Shrewsbury is the senior Earl on the Roll in the Peerage of England (the more senior Earldom of Arundel being held by the Duke of Norfolk). ... The name Edmund Mortimer was held by several members of the powerful Marcher family of Mortimer, including Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and his grandson Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, however, the best-known of the Edmund Mortimers was the second son of the 3rd Earl: Edmund Mortimer... Margaret Hanmer (c. ...


In the Wars of the Roses in the first part of Edward IV of England's reign (14611470). Harlech was held by its Welsh constable Dafydd ap Ieuan as a Lancastrian stronghold. Following the Battle of Northampton Margaret of Anjou and the infant Henry VII of England fled to Scotland via Harlech. Following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, Edward controlled the country and Harlech eventually became last major stronghold under their control. Sir Richard Tunstall arrived as a reinforcement to the Lancastrians in the latter half of the siege in 1465. It was the last Lancastrian fortress to surrender when it did so in 1468; it was able to withstand the seven-year siege through its being provisioned from the sea. It is the longest known siege in the history of the British Isles. [9] This famous siege inspired the song "Men of Harlech" according to tradition. [10] Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... The Battle of Northampton was a battle in the Wars of the Roses, which took place on 10 July 1460. ... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Battle of Towton in the Wars of the Roses was the bloodiest ever fought on British soil, with casualties believed to have been in excess of 20,000 (perhaps as many as 30,000) men. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Men of Harlech or The March of the Men of Harlech (Welsh: Rhyfelgyrch Gwyr Harlech) is a song and military march which is traditionally said to describe events during the seven year long siege of Harlech Castle between 1461 and 1468. ...


During the English Civil War the castle was the last royalist fortress to hold out against the Parliamentary forces. The surrender, on the 16 March 1647, over a year after King Charles had himself been captured, marked the end of the first phase of the war. The parliamentarians slighted the castle after its fall. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Prince Rupert an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second...


Present day

Harlech is part of the "Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Harlech, Beaumaris, Caernarfon and Conwy (Gwynedd)" World Heritage site, reflecting its importance and remarkable state of preservation.[11] The castle is now in the care of Cadw and is open to visitors.[1] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Cadw is a semi-autonomous publicly-funded body which with the mission to protect, conserve, and to promote the built heritage of Wales — the Welsh equivalent of English Heritage and Historic Scotland. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Harlech Castle. Cadw. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  2. ^ Marc Morris (2003). Castle. MacMillan, p105. 
  3. ^ a b Marc Morris. Castle, p115. 
  4. ^ Taylor, A.J (1974). The Kings Works in Wales. HMSO, p1029. 
  5. ^ ICOMOS World Heritage List No 374. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  6. ^ a b Marc Morris. Castle, p113. 
  7. ^ Marc Morris. Castle, p117. 
  8. ^ R.R. Davies, The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr (Oxford: University Press, 1995), pp. 115f
  9. ^ Bert S. Hall, Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe by (The Johns Hopkins University Press,2001) - page 212.
  10. ^ The Oxford Companion to British History - Oxford University Press (1997) page 454
  11. ^ Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the modern historian, see A. J. P. Taylor. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Harlech Castle
  • Harlech Castle Illustrated Snowdonia Guide
  • Harlech information
  • Floor Plan: Harlech Castle (speculative reconstruction / artistic interpretation)
  • British Tours, Harlech Castle Quicktime VR

  Results from FactBites:
 
CastleXplorer - Harlech Castle (250 words)
Harlech Castle is one of the great castles Edward I built to enforce his rule over the Welsh.
The castle is built to a concentric design with an impressive inner curtain wall with huge round towers on the corners, surrounded by an outer perimeter of much lower walls.
Harlech was finally retaken by the English in 1409, under the command of Harry of Monmouth, prince of Wales - the future King Henry V. Although Glyn Dwr escaped, his family were captured, and the fall of Harlech marked the beginning of the end of the great uprising.
A guide to Harlech Castle, Gwynedd, Wales from TourUK (387 words)
Harlech Castle was one of Edward I's 'iron ring' of castles built during his second castle building campaign.
Owain Glyndwr made the castle his stronghold from which to carry out the rebellion but after a similar siege in 1409 was forced to surrender to the English.
The Castle was a Lancastrian stronghold under Dafydd ap Ieuan and his "Men of Harlech".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m