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Encyclopedia > Hardiness zone
Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones
Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones

A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by temperature hardiness, or ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone. The zones were first developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and have subsequently been adopted elsewhere. They are categorized according to the mean of the lowest temperature recorded each winter, termed the "average annual minimum temperature". Thus if five successive winters reach respective minima of −14 °C, −12 °C, −8 °C, −16 °C, and −13 °C, the mean coldest temperature is −12.6 °C, placing the site in zone 7. Image File history File links Zonescale. ... Image File history File links Zonescale. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Fig. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ...

Contents

Benefits and criticisms

The hardiness zones are effective in that, for many situations, extremes of winter cold are a major determining factor in whether a plant species can be cultivated outdoors at a particular location. However, it does have a number of drawbacks, most significantly in not incorporating summer heat levels into the zone determination. Thus sites which may have the same mean winter minima, but markedly different summer temperatures, will still be accorded the same hardiness zone. An extreme example is the Shetland Islands and southern Alabama, which are both on the boundary of zones 8 and 9 and share the same winter minima, but very little else in their climates; in summer, the continental climate of Alabama is about 20 degrees Celsius hotter than the oceanic climate of Shetland, and there are very few plants that can be grown at both locations. Due to its maritime climate, the UK is in AHS Heat Zone 2 (having 1 to 8 days hotter than 30 degrees Celsius), whereas Alabama is in Zones 7 to 9 (61 to 150 days hotter than 30 degrees Celsius). The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts and southwest coasts of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at coastal tropical highlands and tropical coasts on leeward sides... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Another problem is that the hardiness zones do not take into account the reliability of the snow cover. Snow acts like an insulator against extreme cold temperatures, protecting the root system of hibernating plants. If the snow cover is reliable (then present during the coldest days), the actual temperature to which the roots are exposed is not as low as the hardiness zone number would indicate. As an example, Quebec City in Canada is located in zone 4 but can rely on an important snow cover every year, making it possible to cultivate plants normally rated for zones 5 or 6, whereas in Montreal, located in zone 5, it is sometimes difficult to cultivate plants adapted to the zone because of the unreliable snow cover. Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Nickname: City of Mary Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2]    - City 185. ...


United Kingdom and Ireland Hardiness Zones

UK hardiness zones
UK hardiness zones

Due to the moderating effect of the Gulf Stream on the Irish and UK's temperate maritime climate, the UK, and Ireland even more so, have rather milder winters than their northerly position suggests. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (459x609, 21 KB) UK plant hardiness zone map File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hardiness zone ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (459x609, 21 KB) UK plant hardiness zone map File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hardiness zone ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ...


This means that the hardiness zones relevant to the UK are quite high, from 7 to 10, as shown below.

  • 7. In Scotland the Grampians, Highlands and locally in the Southern Uplands and in England the Pennines.
  • 8. Most of England, Wales and Scotland, and parts of central Ireland.
  • 9. Most of western and southern England and Wales, western Scotland, also a very narrow coastal fringe on the east coast of Scotland and northeast England (within 5 km of the North Sea), London, and most of Ireland.
  • 10. Very low lying coastal areas of the southwest of Ireland, and the Isles of Scilly.

Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... This article is about the country. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ...

North American hardiness zones

Map of the North American hardiness zones. An interactive version of this map is available at http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html
Map of the North American hardiness zones. An interactive version of this map is available at http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html

In North America hardiness zones map was revised and published by the USDA in 1990 and can be used as a guideline for categorizing locations suitable for growing a particular annual plant variety. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (620x603, 164 KB) source: [1] All rights released stated on website: uioooooupoup File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (620x603, 164 KB) source: [1] All rights released stated on website: uioooooupoup File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The temperatures are based on the lowest temperatures recorded for each of the years 1974 to 1986 in the United States and Canada and 1971 to 1984 in Mexico. The map shows 10 different zones, each of which represents an area of winter hardiness for the plants of agriculture and our natural landscape. A draft of the latest version also introduces zone 11 to represent areas that have average annual minimum temperatures above 40°F (4.4°C) and that are therefore essentially frost free. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Asia-Pacific Hardiness Zones

The Australia Continent, while surrounded on all sides by ocean, is quite drier than Europe or North America. Australia numbers its climate zones differently, but this differing number system can be translated into the North American systems with minimal effort. Plant hardiness refers to their ability to survive the conditions of a particular location, including tolerance of heat, soil moisture, humidity and so on. This map is based only on how well they survive low temperatures in winter. Even that is a gross oversimplification. For example, are plants affected more by a single extremely low temperature night, or is the number of days of frost (the duration of winter) more important? In fact both are important, but the statistic for the map only relates directly to the former. Another limitation is that often plants will survive in an area for some time, but every now and then there will be a catastrophic cold snap that will kill them. Some risk evaluation - the probability of getting a particularly severe low temperature - often would be more useful for each locality rather than the average conditions.


Low temperature is not the only determinant of plant survival. Other environmental factors such as high summer temperature, humidity, soil temperature, etc. may be equally important. Also, many plants will survive in a locality but won't flower if the daylength is inappropriate or if they require vernalisation (a particular duration of low temperature). The low temperature statistic is only appropriate for woody perennial species, and even then its use is limited. With annuals the time of planting can often be adjusted to allow growth beyond their normal geographical range.


As might be expected, the main factors determining average minimum temperature are altitude, latitude and proximity to the coast.

  • Zone 1 covers the alpine areas of south eastern Australia.
  • Zone 2 the tablelands of south east Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, and the uplands of central Tasmania.
  • Zone 3 includes much of the southern half of the continent, except for localities on or near the coast.
  • Zone 4, because of this warming effect, covers a broad area from coastal Queensland across the continent to Shark Bay and Geraldton in the west, also includes the Mornington Peninsula, areas adjacent to Spencer Gulf and Adelaide, the south western coastal zone, Sydney and the north coast of NSW, along with a number of localities dotted all around the southern coast of the continent.
  • Zone 5 covers, some of the Queensland coast, Western Australia north of Shark Bay and across the top end. * Zone 6 includes the Queensland coast north of Cairns, Cape York Peninsula and the coast of the Northern Territory. * Zone 7 is mainly restricted to islands off the north coast.

There are many problems with maps of this type. For example, the spread of weather stations is insufficient to give good resolution of the zones and too many places with different climates are lumped together. In Australia we have only 738 stations with a record of more than ten years. This is one station per 98,491 hectares! Admittedly, the more populated areas have relatively fewer hectares per station but the basic problem remains. Even worse are the problems of local factors such as aspect, altitude, proximity to the sea and so forth. For example, Mt Isa has three climatic stations with more than a ten year record. One is in Zone 4a, one in Zone 4b and the other is in Zone 5a. Sydney residents can choose between Zones 3a to 4b depending which station is used. Most other cities have similar problems. Everyone is aware that different locations in the same city or suburb are suitable for different plants but it is hard to quantify these differences and even harder to draw a meaningful map. There may even be a case for publishing a list of weather stations and their zone Classification so that people can decide for themselves which is the most appropriate location to use for their local conditions.


The map is thus only useful as a very broad guide. It needs interpretation that takes into account factors other than low temperature that limit plant growth as well as local knowledge.


An alternative system for describing plant hardiness is to use indicator plants (the USDA also publishes a list of these to go with their map). Common plants with known limits to their range are generally used for this purpose. For example, many people will know whether lemons will grow in their locality. If you then say Geraldton Wax will grow more or less where lemons will grow you have defined the range of Geralton Wax with some accuracy (whether or not it will flower is another problem). Unfortunately no two plant species seem to have exactly the same requirements and even within a species there are differences. 'Meyer' lemons, for example, are more cold tolerant than 'Eureka'. You can really only define core areas and they are often very arbitrary.


Updates

In 2003, a preliminary draft of a new map was produced by the American Horticultural Society (AHS), compiled by Meteorological Evaluation Services Co., Inc. of Amityville, NY, using temperature data collected from July 1986 to March 2002. This was a period of unusually warm winters, especially in the eastern U.S.A., and thus the 2003 map places many areas a zone higher (warmer) than the 1990 map. The draft map also shows a finer level of detail, for example reflecting urban heat islands by showing the downtown areas of several cities (e.g., Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, DC) as a full zone warmer than the outlying areas. The 2003 draft map has been widely criticized and its current status is uncertain; as of April 2006 the AHS website still presents the 1990 map as the current one. The American Horticultural Society is a nonprofit organization that promotes excellence in American horticulture. ... An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. ...


In addition, the National Arbor Day Foundation has recently completed an extensive updating of U.S. Hardiness Zones in 2004. The new 2004 Arborday.org Hardiness Zones map is based on the most recent 15 year’s data available from more than 5,000 National Climatic Data Center cooperative stations across the United States.


Once the Foundation analyzed the new data, hardiness zones were revised, generally reflecting warmer recent temperatures in many parts of the country. The Arbor Day Foundation used the updated versions of the same sources of data as had been utilized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the creation of its hardiness zone maps. The 2004 map appears to validate the data used in the 2003 draft completed by the AHS. http://www.arborday.org/media/zones.cfm


U.S. Cities

Here are the USDA plant hardiness zones for major U.S. cities (based on the draft 2003 map):

City Zone City Zone
Albuquerque, New Mexico 7 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 7
Anchorage, Alaska 4 Omaha, Nebraska 5
Atlanta, Georgia 8 Orlando, Florida 10
Baltimore, Maryland 8 (in part) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7
Boston, Massachusetts 7 (in part) Phoenix, Arizona 9
Chicago, Illinois 6 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 6
Cincinnati, Ohio 7 Dallas, Texas 8
Portland, Oregon 9 Denver, Colorado 5
St. Louis, Missouri 7 Detroit, Michigan 5-6
Salt Lake City, Utah 7 Honolulu, Hawaii 11
San Antonio, Texas 9 Houston, Texas 9
San Diego, California 10 Las Vegas, Nevada 9
San Francisco, California 10 Los Angeles, California 10
Seattle, Washington 8 Memphis, Tennessee 8
Tampa, Florida 10 Miami, Florida 11
Tucson, Arizona 8 Minneapolis, Minnesota 5
Tulsa, Oklahoma 7 Nashville, Tennessee 7
Washington, D.C. 8 (in part) New Orleans, Louisiana 9
Wichita, Kansas 6 New York, New York 7

Nickname: The Duke City Location in the state of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Bernalillo Founded 1706  - Mayor Martin Chavez Area    - City 469. ... Nickname: Capital of the New Century, OKC, O-City Location in Oklahoma County and the state of Oklahoma. ... Nickname: The City of Lights and Flowers Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area    - City 5,079. ... Nickname: Gateway to the West Location in Nebraska Coordinates: Country United States State Nebraska County Douglas Founded 1854 Incorporated 1857  - Mayor Michael Fahey (D) Area    - City  118. ... Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL, A-Town Location in Fulton County in the state of Georgia Coordinates: Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, Dekalb  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area    - City  132. ... Nickname: The City Beautiful, O-Town, 407 Location in Orange County and the state of Florida. ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town[1][2], B-more Motto: The Greatest City in America[3], Get in on it. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City  89. ... Nickname: Valley of the Sun Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area    - City  475. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837  - Mayor... Nickname: Steel City, Iron City, City of Champions, City of Bridges, City of Colleges, P-Burgh, The Burgh Motto: Benigno Numine Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Allegheny County Founded 1758 Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area    - City 151. ... Nickname: The Queen City Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government type Strong mayor  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area    - City  79. ... Nickname: Big D Location in the state of Texas Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Incorporated 2 February 1856  - Mayor Laura Miller Area    - City  385. ... Nickname: City of Roses, Stumptown, Bridgetown, PDX Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851  - Mayor Tom Potter Area    - City 376. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City  154. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area    - City  143. ... Salt Lake City redirects here. ... Nickname: Sheltered Bay Location within the island of Oahu in the state of Hawaii Coordinates: Country United States State Hawaii County City and County of Honolulu Mayor Mufi Hannemann Area    - City 105 mi² / 272. ... Nickname: Alamo City; River City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area    - City 1067. ... Nickname: Space City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837  - Mayor Bill White Area    - City  601. ... Nickname: Americas Finest City Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer Ben Hueso Area    - City 963. ... For other uses around the city, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City; The City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Area    - City  498. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869  - Mayor Greg Nickels Area    - City 369. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Cigar City, The Big Guava Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... Miami redirects here. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima  - Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area    - City  195. ... Nickname: City of Lakes Motto: En Avant Location in Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota. ... Nickname: Oil Capital of the World, Americas Most Beautiful City Location in the state of Oklahoma Coordinates: Country United States State Oklahoma Counties Tulsa, Osage, Wagoner, Rogers  - Mayor Kathy Taylor (D) Area    - City 483. ... Nickname: Music City Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area    - City 1362. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA (acronym for New Orleans, LA) Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City  350. ... Nickname: Air Capital Location in the state of Kansas County Sedgwick  - Mayor Carlos Mayans Area    - City 359. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City...

See also

Hardiness of plants is a term used to describe their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. ... A gardener Gardening is the art of growing plants with the goal of crafting a purposeful landscape. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hardiness Zone Lookup at arborday.org (262 words)
The Plant Hardiness Zones divide the United States and Canada into 11 areas based on a 10 degree Fahrenheit difference in the average annual minimum temperature.
For example, the lowest average temperature in Zone 2 is -50 to -40 degrees Fahrenheit, while the minimum average temperature in zone 10 is +30 to +40 degrees Fahrenheit.
If a range of zones, for example, zones 4-9, is indicated, the tree or perennial is known to be hardy in zones 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Hardiness zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (731 words)
A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by temperature hardiness, or ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone.
The hardiness zones are effective in that, for many situations, extremes of winter cold are a major determining factor in whether a plant species can be cultivated outdoors at a particular location.
In North America hardiness zones map was revised and published by the USDA in 1990 and can be used as a guideline for categorizing locations suitable for growing a particular annual plant variety.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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