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Encyclopedia > Hard rock
Hard Rock
Stylistic origins: Rock and roll, Blues rock, Psychedelic rock
Cultural origins: 1960s, United Kingdom
Typical instruments: Electric guitar - Bass guitar - Drums
Mainstream popularity: Popular among teenagers in 1970s, 1980s, 1990s. The maximum peak of mainstream popularity was reached in 1980s.
Derivative forms: Alternative rock - Heavy metal - Punk rock
Subgenres
Alternative rock - Heavy metal - Punk rock - Grunge
Other topics
Back beat - Rock opera - Rock band - Performers - Hall of Fame - Social impact

Hard rock is a variation of rock and roll music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage and psychedelic rock. It is typified by a heavy use of distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and drums. The term "hard rock" is often used as an umbrella term for genres such as grunge or metal and in order to distinguish them from pop rock genre. Hard Rock Cafe is a chain of casual dining restaurants. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining elements of the blues with rock and roll, with an emphasis on the electric guitar. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... A sunburst-colored Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This is a list of music genres derived from rock and roll, including major rock, metal and punk genres: Categories: | ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is an independent-rooted music genre that became a commercially successful offshoot of hardcore punk, thrash metal, and alternative rock in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... In music a back beat (also called the, or a, backbeat) is a term applied to the beats 2 and 4 in a 4/4 bar or a 12/8 bar [1] as opposed to the odd downbeat, (quarter beat 1). ... The Whos Tommy, the first album explicitly billed as a rock opera A rock opera is a rock music album or stage production that resembles the form of an opera. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ... This is a list of rock and roll performers. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... The massive popularity and worldwide scope of rock and roll resulted in an unprecedented level of social impact. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... A sunburst-colored Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Grunge redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pop rock (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Characteristics

Hard rock is strongly influenced by blues music[citation needed]; the most frequently used scale in hard rock is the pentatonic, which is a typical blues scale. Unlike traditional rock and roll (which takes elements of the "old" blues), hard rock incorporates elements of "British blues", a style of blues played with more modern instruments such as electric guitars, drums, keyboards and electric bass. A notable departure from traditional blues forms is that hard rock is seldom restricted to the I, IV, and V chords prevalent in 12- or 16-bar blues, but includes other chords, typically major chords rooted on tones of the minor scale. Blues music redirects here. ... In music, a scale is a collection of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... The British blues is a type of blues music that originated in the late 1950s. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... The 12-bar blues has a distinctive form in both lyrics and chord structure. ... Sixteen-bar blues is a blues chord progression very similar to the eight bar blues form, except that blues is not traditionally associated with any set notation so sometimes it can be called sixteen bars instead of eight. ... Generally speaking, a major chord is any chord which has a major third above its root, as opposed to a minor chord which has a minor third. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ...


The term "hard rock" is often applied to many styles of rock music, their only common feature being that they deviate from pop rock, though this is generally incorrect. Two such examples are punk rock and grunge. Punk rock uses a faster tempo and fewer riffs (often using power chords). For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... In music, a power chord is an interval which serves the diatonic function of a major or minor chord. ...


Instrumentation

The predominant instruments in hard rock are the electric guitar, bass guitar, drums and a kondom. The role of the guitarist is very prevalent in hard rock. Most hard rock bands comprise two different types of guitarist: lead guitarist and rhythm guitarist. The lead guitarist plays the solos, riffs and fills. Speed-enhancing techniques such as alternate picking, sweep picking and tapping, are used by hard rock lead guitarists to maximize the speed of their solos and riffs. The role of the rhythm guitarist is to complement the lead guitarist and provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment to the other instruments in the band. The bass guitarist and drummer's role are important to the structure of hard rock music; the bassline outlines the harmony of the music while the drums sustain the rhythm of the music. For the UK magazine, see Guitarist (magazine). ... Lead guitar refers to a role within a band, that provides melody or melodic material, as opposed to the rhythm of the rhythm guitar, bass, and drums. ... Rhythm guitar is a guitar that is primarily used to provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment for a singer or for other instruments in an ensemble. ... Guitar solos are a melodic passage, section, or entire piece of music written for an electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. ... Riff is also an alternate spelling of Rif, a region of Morocco. ... In popular music, a fill is a sound (or combination of sounds) which fills the brief time between lyrical phrases and lines of melody. ... Alternate-picking is a technique that employs downward and upward picking strokes in a continuous run. ... Sweep picking is a technique used on the guitar in which a sweeping motion of the pick is combined with a matching fret hand technique in order to produce a specific series of notes which are fast and fluid in sound. ... This article is about the music technique. ... Deon Rexroat of Anberlin. ... For the comic book character, see Drummer (comics). ... In popular music a bassline, also bass line, is an instrumental part, or line, which is in the bass or lowest range and thus lower than the other parts and part of the rhythm section. ...


Differentiation from heavy metal

During the 1970s, hard rock inspired a new genre of music known as "heavy metal." The emergence of this genre has led to confusion between hard rock and heavy metal bands, as the distinctions between the two are usually subtle, and the distinction often comes down to a band's image, rather than its songs. The two genres have some crossovers, for example; heavy metal pioneers, such as Led Zeppelin and Deep Purple, are often considered both heavy metal and hard rock, whereas, bands such as AC/DC, Aerosmith, Queen, The Who, Thin Lizzy, Guns N' Roses, Nazareth, Van Halen and Kiss, are normally referred to as hard rock. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... Thin Lizzy are a hard rock band who formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... For other uses, see Nazareth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band Van Halen. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in 1971. ...


To further the confusion, the most popular heavy metal subgenre of the 1980s, glam metal, was known to take influence from both the pioneering hard rock acts such as Alice Cooper, Queen, Kiss and Aerosmith, etc. All four of these bands would go on to experiment with glam metal in the 1980s. Glam metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s - early 1980s in the United States. ... Alice Cooper (born February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer, songwriter and musician whose career spans four decades. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in 1971. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ...


From a musical point of view, heavy metal tends to interpret the basic syncopated jazz rhythm of an eight and two sixteenth carried on a ride cymbal with a swing feel down to the bass line with a literal "straight up" feel. Thus the "dum da da dum da da dum" bass line is a standard basis for the heavy metal sound as heard, for example, in Black Sabbath's song "Heaven and Hell" during the verses, or in Iron Maiden's song "Flight of Icarus", or also Dio's "Holy Diver". Another good example is to listen to the difference between how the song "Helter Skelter" is played by the original writers, The Beatles, and the interpretation as played by Mötley Crüe. For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... Heaven and Hell is an album by Black Sabbath, released in May 1980 (see 1980 in music). ... This article is about the band. ... Flight of Icarus is a 1983 song by Iron Maiden. ... For other uses, see Dio (disambiguation). ... Holy Diver was the first single released by heavy metal band Dio, appearing on their 1983 LP, Holy Diver. ... This article is about the Beatles song. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced Motley Croo) is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California in 1980. ...


The primary difference between glam metal and heavy metal is in lyrics, image and melody. Heavy metal lyrical content extends from "reality lament" tone of blues, discussing serious, provocative or philosophical ideas. Heavy metal image usually sports "macho" black leather, dark clothing or punk-influenced dressing with leather jackets and jeans. Melodies and the whole music in general are generally not "catchy" and pop-influenced as glam metal. Glam metal (in some cases referred to as "hair metal"), on the other hand, extends from its more "fantasy escapist" tones of pop music, and the lyrics tends to focus more on parties, having a good time, and relationships. The image of these bands are huge, teased hairstyles, outrageous outfits and a lot of make up. (Note: do not confuse with power metal, which is "fantasy escapist" in the sense that the lyrics deal with such fantastical subjects as magic and classical myth). Glam metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s - early 1980s in the United States. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Power metal is a style of heavy metal music typically with the aim of evoking an epic feel, combining characteristics of traditional metal with thrash metal or speed metal, often within symphonic context. ...


History

Early years (1960s)

As stated, one of the major influences of hard rock is blues music, especially British blues. British rock bands, such as The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, The Yardbirds, The Who and The Kinks modified rock and roll, adding to the standard genre harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming and louder vocals. This sound created the basis for hard rock. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the songs "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago" by The Yardbirds, "Helter Skelter" by The Beatles, "I Can See for Miles" by The Who, and "You Really Got Me" by The Kinks. Rolling Stones redirects here. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Not to be confused with Yard Birds. ... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies, his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist Dave Davies, and bassist Pete Quaife. ... Happenings Ten Years Time Ago is the first single by the Yardbirds with guitarist Jimmy Page in the band. ... Not to be confused with Yard Birds. ... This article is about the Beatles song. ... I Can See For Miles is a song written by Pete Townshend of The Who, which was recorded for the bands 1967 album, The Who Sell Out. ... You Really Got Me is a rock song written by Ray Davies and performed by his band, The Kinks. ...


At the same time, Jimi Hendrix, produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz, blues and rock and roll, creating a unique genre. He was one of the first guitarists to experiment with new guitar effects like phasing, feedback and distortion, along with Dave Davies of the Kinks, Pete Townshend of The Who, Eric Clapton of Cream, and Jeff Beck of the Yardbirds. Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the audio effect. ... Audio feedback (also known as the Larsen effect after the Danish scientist, Søren Larsen, who first discovered its principles) is a special kind of feedback which occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, a microphone or guitar pickup) and an audio output (for example... For other uses, see Distortion (disambiguation). ... Dave Davies (born David Russell Gordon Davies, 3 February 1947, in Muswell Hill, London, England) was a singer and guitarist with the English rock band The Kinks, which he founded with Pete Quaife in 1963. ... Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born May 19, 1945 in Chiswick, London), is an award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, and composer. ... Eric Patrick Clapton CBE (born 30 March 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... Geoffrey Arnold (Jeff) Beck (born June 24, 1944 to Arnold and Ethel Beck in Wallington, Greater London) is an English rock guitarist. ...


Hard rock emerged with British groups of the late-1960s, such as Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin, who mixed the music of early British rock bands with a more hard-edged form of blues rock and acid rock. Deep Purple helped pioneer the hard rock genre with the albums, Shades of Deep Purple (1968), The Book of Taliesyn (1968), and Deep Purple (1969), but they made their big break with the fourth Deep Purple in Rock album (1970). Led Zeppelin's eponymous first album, Led Zeppelin I (1969), the Uriah Heep's Very 'eavy... Very 'umble (1970), and The Who's Live at Leeds (1970), are examples of music from the beginning of the hard rock genre. The blues origins of the albums are clear, and a few songs by well-known blues artists are adapted or covered within them. Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining elements of the blues with rock and roll, with an emphasis on the electric guitar. ... Acid rock is a form of psychedelic music and was the first form of it to achieve popular acclaim. ... Re-issue cover Original US cover Shades of Deep Purple is the debut album by English hard rock band Deep Purple, released in 1968 on Parlophone in the UK and Tetragrammaton in the United States. ... The Book of Taliesyn is the second album by Deep Purple, released in 1969 by EMIs Harvest Records in the UK and Tetragrammaton in the US. Track listing Listen, Learn, Read On (Blackmore, Evans, Lord, Paice) - 4:05 Wring That Neck (originally titled Hard Road in the USA) (Blackmore... Deep Purple is the third studio album by the British rock band Deep Purple, released in 1969 on Harvest Records in the UK and on Tetragrammaton in the US, who ran into difficulty over the use of the Vatican owned Hieronymus Bosch painting The Garden of Earthly Delights. Original US... Deep Purple in Rock is a hard rock album by English rock band Deep Purple, released in 1970. ... Led Zeppelin is the eponymous debut album of English rock band Led Zeppelin. ... Uriah Heep can refer to: Uriah Heep (David Copperfield), a character in the Charles Dickens novel David Copperfield Uriah Heep (band), a British rock band active since 1969 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... US issue Uriah Heep Very eavy. ... Live at Leeds (1970) is The Whos first live album, and indeed is their only live album that was released while the band was still recording and performing regularly. ...


First era (1970s)

Led Zeppelin's third album, Led Zeppelin III was more Folk rock-oriented than their second, but the heavy aspects of their music remained. In 1970, Black Sabbath released what is considered the first heavy metal album, Black Sabbath. Black Sabbath's music was revolutionary even in hard rock; it was typified by dark lyrics, hard riffs and a heavy atmosphere, transforming the current hard rock into to an early form of heavy metal. Led Zeppelin III, the third album by English rock band Led Zeppelin, was released October 5, 1970 by Atlantic Records. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Black Sabbath is the self-titled debut album of the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath, released in the UK on Friday 13 February 1970. ...


Deep Purple's transformation of hard rock continued with their album, Machine Head, considered (along with Black Sabbath) as one of the first proto-metal albums. The Machine Head song, "Highway Star", is considered the first speed metal song. Another band, Nazareth, provided a blend of hard rock which commercialised the genre further with their best selling album, Hair of the Dog, which in turn, influenced numerous other bands. Alternate cover 25th anniversary gatefold cover Machine Head is the third Mk II (sixth overall) Deep Purple studio album. ... Highway Star is one of British rock group Deep Purples most famous songs. ... For other uses, see Nazareth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the phrase. ...


During the 1970s, hard rock developed a variety of sub-genres. In 1972, heavy metal pioneer Alice Cooper put shock rock into the mainstream with the top ten album School's Out. The following year, Aerosmith, Queen and Montrose released their eponymous debut albums, demonstrating the broadening directions of hard rock. In 1974, Bad Company released its debut album, and Queen released its third album, Sheer Heart Attack, with the track Stone Cold Crazy influencing later thrash metal artists, such as Metallica and Megadeth.[1][2] Queen used layered vocals and guitars and mixed hard rock with glam rock, heavy metal, prog rock, and even opera. KISS released their first three albums Kiss, Hotter Than Hell and Dressed To Kill, in a little over a year, achieving their commercial breakthrough with double live album Alive!. In the mid-1970s, Aerosmith released the ground-breaking albums Toys in the Attic and Rocks which incorporated elements of blues and hard rock and would later influence rock artists as diverse as Metallica, Guns N' Roses, and Mötley Crüe.[3][4] Alice Cooper (born February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer, songwriter and musician whose career spans four decades. ... Shock rock is a very wide umbrella term for artists who combine rock music with elements of theatrical shock value in live performances. ... Schools Out is an album released by Alice Cooper in 1972. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Queen is a British rock band created by Freddie Mercury, Brian May, Roger Taylor, and John Deacon from the remains of Smile. ... Montrose was the original Californian hard rock band, pioneering the kind of short and punchy songs that would be a template for later and more successful bands such as Van Halen. ... Bad Company were an English hard rock supergroup founded in 1973, consisting of band members from Free (Paul Rodgers, Simon Kirke), Mott the Hoople (Mick Ralphs) and King Crimson (Boz Burrell). ... For the Queen song of the same name, see News of the World (album). ... Stone Cold Crazy is a song by English rock band Queen from their successful 1974 album Sheer Heart Attack. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Megadeth is an American thrash metal band led by founder, frontman and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in 1971. ... Kiss is the self-titled debut album from the American hard rock band Kiss. ... Hotter Than Hell (1974) is the second album from the rock group Kiss. ... Dressed to Kill is a 1980 horror film written and directed by Brian de Palma. ... Alive! was Kiss fourth album and is considered their breakthrough, as well as a landmark for live albums. ... Toys in the Attic is the third album by American hard rock band Aerosmith. ... Rocks is the fourth album by American hard rock band Aerosmith, released in 1976 (see 1976 in music). ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced Motley Croo) is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California in 1980. ...


With the death of Tommy Bolin in 1976, Deep Purple disbanded. In 1977, Foreigner released a highly successful debut album. A year later, The Who's drummer, Keith Moon died in his sleep via an overdose. With the rise of disco in the U.S. and punk rock in the UK, hard rock began to lose popularity. Disco appealed to a more diverse group of people and punk seemed to take over the rebellious role that hard rock once held. Meanwhile, Black Sabbath moved away from the darkness of their early work with albums such as Technical Ecstasy. Thomas Richard Tommy Bolin (August 1, 1951, Sioux City, Iowa - December 4, 1976) was an American-born guitarist best known for his work with Zephyr (from 1969 to 1971), The James Gang (from 1973 through 1974), Deep Purple (from 1975 to 1976) and his solo work. ... Foreigner is a hard rock band formed in New York City in 1976 by veteran musicians Mick Jones and ex-King Crimson member Ian McDonald, along with then-unknown vocalist Lou Gramm (Louis Grammatico). ... Keith John Moon (August 23, 1946 – September 7, 1978) was the drummer of the rock group The Who. ... This article is about the music genre. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Technical Ecstasy is the 1976 album from heavy metal band Black Sabbath. ...


Van Halen, another important group in hard rock, emerged in 1978. Their music was based mostly on the guitar skills of Eddie Van Halen, the lead guitarist. The song, "Eruption" from the album Van Halen, demonstrated Eddie Van Halen's technique and was very influential. This article is about the band Van Halen. ... Edward Lodewijk Eddie Van Halen (born January 26, 1955)[1], is a Dutch-American guitarist, keyboardist, songwriter and producer most famous for being the lead guitarist and a co-founder of the hard rock band, Van Halen. ... Eruption is an instrumental by Van Halen from their first album Van Halen (1978 — now often called Van Halen I by fans). ... Van Halen is the self-titled debut album by American hard rock band Van Halen, released in 1978. ...


In 1979, the differences between the hard rock movement and the rising heavy metal movement were highlighted when the Australian hard rock band, AC/DC, released its second-biggest album, Highway to Hell. AC/DC's music was based mostly on rhythm & blues and early-1970s hard rock, with the group explicitly repudiating the "heavy metal" tag. Alternate cover Australian cover Highway to Hell is the sixth studio album by Australian hard rock band AC/DC, released in July 1979. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ...


Second era (1980s)

In 1980, Led Zeppelin disbanded after the sudden death of drummer John Bonham. Bon Scott, the lead singer of AC/DC, also died in 1980. With these deaths, the first wave of "classic" hard rock bands ended. Some bands, such as Queen, moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock. AC/DC recorded the album Back in Black, with their new lead singer, Brian Johnson. Back in Black is the fifth highest-selling album of all time in the U.S[5] and the second biggest selling album in the world. [6] By being so successful, AC/DC and Van Halen helped make possible the rise of more radio-friendly hard rock. Ozzy Osbourne released his first solo album, Blizzard of Ozz which featured American guitarist Randy Rhoads. For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... John Henry Bonzo Bonham (May 31, 1948 – September 25, 1980) was an English drummer and member of the English rock band Led Zeppelin. ... Ronald Belford Bon Scott (July 9, 1946 – February 19, 1980) was an Australian rock musician, most well-known for being the lead singer and lyricist of Australian hard rock band AC/DC from 1974 until his death in 1980. ... Singles from Back in Black Released: 1980 Released: 1981 Released: 1981 For other uses, see Back in Black (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brian Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ozzy redirects here. ... Blizzard of Ozz is a heavy metal album by Ozzy Osbourne, recorded in Surrey, U.K. and released on September 20, 1980 (see 1980 in music) in the UK and on January 15, 1981 (see 1981 in music) in the US. This is Osbournes first solo album and one... For the talk radio host, see Randi Rhodes. ...


In 1981, the U.S. band, Mötley Crüe, released Too Fast for Love, which set the basis for the rising genre of glam metal. A year later, the genre grew, especially thanks to bands such as Twisted Sister and Quiet Riot. Quiet Riot's Metal Health (1983) became the first heavy metal album ever to reach #1 on the Billboard United States chart. Mötley Crüe (pronounced Motley Croo) is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California in 1980. ... Too Fast for Love is the debut record of American glam metal band Mötley Crüe. ... Glam metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s - early 1980s in the United States. ... Twisted Sister is an American hard rock band from New York City. ... Quiet Riot is an American heavy metal band, whose 1983 & 1984 success contributed to launching the 1980s glam metal scene. ... Metal Health was the breakthrough album for the American heavy metal band Quiet Riot. ... Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music industry. ...


Also in 1983, Def Leppard, an English hard rock band, released the album Pyromania, which reached #2 on the American charts. Their music was a mix of glam rock and heavy metal which influenced many 1980s hard rock and glam rock bands. Def Leppard are an English hard rock band from Sheffield who formed in 1977 as part of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal. ... Pyromania is the third album by British hard rock band Def Leppard, released in 1983. ...


That same year, Mötley Crüe released the album, Shout at the Devil, which became a huge hit. Van Halen's album 1984 became a huge success as well, hitting #2 on the Billboard album charts. In particular, the song "Jump" reached #1 on the singles chart (where it remained for several weeks) and is considered one of the most popular rock songs ever written. However, 1984 was also their first to include the constant and repetitive use of keyboards and synthesizers, marking a shift away from their original guitar-orientated style. Shout at the Devil is the second album by heavy metal band Mötley Crüe, released on September 26, 1983. ... This article is about the band Van Halen. ... 1984 (written as MCMLXXXIV on the front cover) is the sixth album by American hard rock band Van Halen. ... Audio sample Jump is a song recorded by the rock group Van Halen. ... “Hot 100” redirects here. ... The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ...


Metallica released the hit album Ride the Lightning in 1984, which featured legendary song "For Whom the Bell Tolls". Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... For the album by Marshmallow Coast, see Ride the Lightning (Marshmallow Coast album). ... For Whom the Bell Tolls is a song by Metallica, the third track from their second album Ride the Lightning. ...


The late 1980s saw the most commercially successful time period for hard rock. [7] Numerous hard rock acts achieved hits in the mainstream charts. One of those hits was the album Slippery When Wet (1986) by Bon Jovi, which spent a total of 8 weeks at the top of the Billboard 200 album chart and became the first hard rock album to spawn three Top 10 singles, two of which reached #1. In addition, the popular song "The Final Countdown" by Swedish rock group Europe was released in 1986. Alternate cover Original banned wet T-shirt cover Singles from Slippery When Wet Released: 1986 Released: 1986 Released: 1987 Released: 1987 Slippery When Wet is the third studio album by Bon Jovi released on August 18, 1986 (see 1986 in music). ... Bon Jovi is a hard rock band originating from Sayreville, New Jersey. ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ... The Final Countdown is also the name of an album and song by the rock band Europe. ... Europe is a Swedish hard rock band originally assembled as a progressive rock group; they later added keyboards to their sound in order to soften it. ...


In 1987, the most notable successes in the charts were, Appetite for Destruction by Guns N' Roses, and Hysteria by Def Leppard (both of which reached #1 on Billboard's album chart), Mötley Crüe's Girls, Girls, Girls and Whitesnake's self-titled album. In 1988 and 1989, the most notable successes were New Jersey by Bon Jovi, Pump by Aerosmith, and Dr. Feelgood by Mötley Crüe. New Jersey spawned five Top 10 singles, the most ever for a hard rock album. Dinosaur Jr and Sonic Youth achieved underground success in the U.S., and would later reach the mainstream in the 1990s. In 1988, Skid Row formed. Their first album, Skid Row, was released in 1989, reaching number 6 in the Billboard 200. For other uses, see Appetite for Destruction (disambiguation). ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... For similarly-titled works, see Girls Girls Girls. ... Whitesnake is an English hard rock band, founded in 1977 by David Coverdale (formerly of Deep Purple). ... Whitesnake, 1987 album by the British rock band of the same name (Whitesnake) was a major crossover hit and one of the top-selling albums in the hair metal genre, eventually selling over eight million copies (and thus going eight times platinum). ... Singles from New Jersey Released: 1988 Released: 1988 Released: 1989 Released: 1989 Released: 1989 Bon Jovis fourth album, New Jersey was released on September 13, 1988. ... Bon Jovi is a hard rock band originating from Sayreville, New Jersey. ... Pump is the tenth studio album by American hard rock band Aerosmith, released in 1989 (see 1989 in music). ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Dr. Feelgood is the fifth album by heavy metal band Mötley Crüe, released on September 1, 1989. ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced Motley Croo) is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California in 1980. ... Dinosaur Jr is an American alternative rock band formed in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1983 as Dinosaur. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... Skid Row is an American heavy metal band which became the glam metal prototypes of the late 1980s metal scene and were successful until they were eclipsed by the Seattle grunge bands in 1991. ... Skid Row was the first full-length album from New Jersey metal band Skid Row. ...


Third era (1990s-present)

The early 1990s were at first dominated by Guns N' Roses and Metallica. The multi-platinum releases of Metallica's "Black Album" and Guns N' Roses' Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II in 1991 showcased this popularity. But the popularity of such bands waned, as their music and attitudes became more decadent and self-indulgent. In 1991 a new form of hard rock broke into the mainstream. Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... Metallica (also known as The Black Album as a play on words to The White Album because of its largely black and nearly-featureless cover) is the self titled fifth studio album by the American heavy metal band Metallica. ... For other uses, see Use Your Illusion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Use Your Illusion (disambiguation). ...


Grunge combined elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a dirty sound that made use of heavy guitar distortion, fuzz and feedback. Although most grunge bands had a sound that sharply contrasted mainstream hard rock (for example Nirvana, Mudhoney and L7), a minority (for example Pearl Jam, Mother Love Bone, Temple of the Dog and even Soundgarden) were more strongly influenced by much 1970s and 1980s rock and metal. However, all grunge bands shunned the macho, anthemic and fashion-focused style of hard rock at that time. Grunge redirects here. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ... Mudhoney is a grunge band, formed in Seattle in 1988. ... L7 was an all-female grunge band that was active between 1985 and 2000. ... This article is about the rock group. ... Mother Love Bone was a Seattle based rock band active from 1988 to 1990. ... Temple of the Dog is the only album from the grunge supergroup of the same name. ... Soundgarden was an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1984. ...


In the UK, bands like Swervedriver, Catherine Wheel and Ride demonstrated that guitar heroics could be incorporated into songs that lacked the often-misogynistic content of 1970s and 1980s hard rock bands. As the popularity of artists such as Metallica continued from the 1980s into the 1990s, some other bands had begun to fuse metal with a range of eclectic influences. These bands came to be known as alternative metal artists, a subset of alternative rock. Some, such as Primus, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, Living Colour and White Zombie fused funk with metal styles, though most of these bands actually formed in the '80s. Faith No More/Mr. Bungle fused many genres with hard rock, ranging from rap music to soul. Helmet and The Afghan Whigs were also successful experimental hard rock bands. The Darkness's retro glam-metal influences helped propel them to the upper realms of the charts in the early 2000s, with the likes of Wolfmother. Towards the mid 2000s with new bands started to become mainstream, The Answer, Glitterati, The Datsuns, Nineteenth Century and Punk influence Towers of London are some of the new rock bands which followed up from the Garage rock revival. The biggest major hard rock bands of recent years however, was supergroups Velvet Revolver and Audioslave. Audioslave consisted of Rage Against the Machine instrumentalists and former Soundgarden frontman Chris Cornell. Velvet Revolver are made up of ex-members of Guns N' Roses primarily, and the musicians have updated the sound of hard rock, attracting attention quickly with their high quality pedigree. This has helped revive the sleaze rock scene (e.g. bands like Buckcherry, which Guns N' Roses Appetite for Destruction album is often credited with influencing). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Catherine Wheel is an alternative rock band from Great Yarmouth, England. ... Ride were a British shoegazing band. ... Alternative metal is an form of music that gained popularity in the early 1990s alongside grunge. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... For other uses, see Primus. ... Red Hot Chili Peppers are an American alternative rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. ... Rage Against the Machine (also Rage and RATM) is an American rock band, noted for their blend of hip hop, heavy metal, punk and funk as well as their revolutionary politics and lyrics. ... Living Colour is a hard rock band formed in New York City in 1983 by Vernon Reid. ... White Zombie is the name of: White Zombie (film), a 1932 film about zombies starring Bela Lugosi. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... FNM redirects here. ... Mr. ... Hip hop music is a style of popular music. ... Helmet is an American Post-Hardcore band formed in New York City by Page Hamilton (vocals/guitar) with Henry Bogdan (bass), Peter Mengede (guitar) and John Stanier (drums) in 1989. ... The Afghan Whigs were a soul-influenced rock band from Cincinnati. ... For other uses, see The Darkness (disambiguation). ... Wolfmother is an Australian hard rock band from Sydney, New South Wales. ... The Answer are a hard rock and blues rock band hailing from Newcastle and Downpatrick, County Down, Northern Ireland. ... Glitterati is a 2004 film directed by Roger Avary assembled from the 70 hours of video footage shot for the European sequence of The Rules of Attraction in October of 2002, after the events of 9/11. ... The Datsuns are a New Zealand hard rock band formed in 2000. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Towers of London is a punk rock band from London, England who formed in 2004. ... For other uses, see Supergroup (disambiguation). ... Velvet Revolver (abbreviated to VR) is a Grammy Award-winning hard rock supergroup with three former members of Guns N Roses — Slash, Duff McKagan, and Matt Sorum — plus Scott Weiland, the former-lead singer of Stone Temple Pilots, and Dave Kushner of the 80s punk band Wasted Youth. ... For the bands self-titled album, see Audioslave (album). ... Chris Cornell (born Christopher John Boyle on July 20, 1964) is an American musician best known as the lead singer, guitarist and songwriter of the rock bands Soundgarden (1984-1997) and Audioslave (2001-2007). ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... Sleaze rock or Sleaze glam is a subgenre of glam metal. ... Buckcherry is a Los Angeles rock band, formed in 1995. ...


See also

The following is a list of hard rock musicians: .38 Special 10 Years 12 Stones 12012 707 Lee Aaron [1] AC/DC Accept Ace Andres Aerosmith Alcatrazz Alias Alice in Chains Alter Bridge Angel The Angels April Wine Argent Asia Audioslave Autograph Avenged Sevenfold Axe Azra Bachman-Turner Overdrive Bad... This is a timeline of heavy metal and hard rock, from its beginnings in the mid 1960s to the present time. ...

References

  1. ^ Queen's 'Stone Cold Crazy' first thrash riff (networx.com 'History of Heavy Metal')
  2. ^ Stone Cold Crazy trash precursor (Alternative Press magazine)
  3. ^ RollingStone.com
  4. ^ Blabbermouth.net
  5. ^ http://www.riaa.com/gp/bestsellers/topalbums.asp
  6. ^ http://www.ukmix.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=20687
  7. ^ http://www.metalmusic.co.za/history_hardrock.php

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