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Encyclopedia > Harakat
Arabic alphabet
                    
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History · Transliteration
Diacritics · Hamza ء
Numerals · Numeration
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In the Arabic script, ḥarakāt (حركات — the singular is ḥaraka حركة) are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds. The literal meaning of ḥarakāt is "movements", e.g. in the context of moving air waves that we produce while pronouncing vowels. Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Alif ﺍ is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet. ... Bet or Beth is the second letter of the Phoenician alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and the Aramaic alphabet. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Gimel is the third letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order; 5th in higai order). ... or (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also ) , Arabic (in abjadi order), and Berber . Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal , or velar (the... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ... Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... ( ) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced dental fricative or voiced alveolar fricative (IPA: or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Pe is the seventeenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Arabic alphabet , Persian alphabet . ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its sound value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Lambda (Λ), Latin L, and Cyrillic El (Л). // Lamedh is believed to have come from a pictogram of an ox goad... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... → [Nun] is the 14th letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... He is the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician , Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic . Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative (). The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan , Latin E and Cyrillic Ye. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... If certain characters in this article display badly (as empty squares, question marks, etc), see Unicode. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The Arabic script is an Impure abjad rather than an alphabet, meaning that all the consonant sounds are represented by letters but short vowel sounds are often not represented in writing. The ḥarakāt are optional symbols that can be used to represent all the vowels that are not indicated in the ordinary spelling. The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ...

Contents

List of harakat

  • The fatḥa is a small diagonal line placed above a letter, and represents a short /a/. The word fatḥa itself (<فتحة>) means opening, and refers to the opening of the mouth when producing an /a/. Example with dāl (henceforth, the base consonant in the following examples): <دَ> /da/.
    • A fatḥa plus a following letter <ا> (alif), the indicate a long /aː/. Example: <دَا> [dā].
  • A similar diagonal line below a letter is called a kasra and designates a short /i/. Example: <دِ> /di/.
    • A kasra plus a following letter <ﻱ> (yāʼ) indicate a long /iː/ (as in the English word "bead"). Example: <دِي> /diː/.
  • The ḍamma is a small curl-like diacritic placed above a letter to represent a short /u/. Example: <دُ> /du/.
    • And the ḍamma with a following letter <و> (wāw) designates a long /uː/ (as in the English word "soon"). Example: <دُو> /duː/.
  • If one of the three vowel diacritics is doubled, which can only appear at the end of a word, it indicates that vowel sound plus the consonant /n/, known as tanwin, or nunation. Thus the signs ـً ـٍ ـٌ indicate, from left to right, /un, in, an/.
  • The sukūn is a circle-shaped diacritic placed above a letter. It indicates that the consonant to which it is attached is not followed by a vowel; this is a necessary symbol for writing CVC syllables, which are very common in Arabic. Example: <دَدْ> /dad/.
    • The sukūn may also be used to help represent a diphthong. A fatḥa followed by the letter <ﻱ> (yāʼ) with a sukūn over it indicates the diphthong /ay/ (IPA /aj/). A fatḥa followed by the letter <ﻭ> (wāw) with a sukūn indicates /aw/.
  • The shadda is a diacritic shaped like a small written English "w". It is used to indicate gemination (consonant doubling or extra length), which is phonemic in Arabic. It is written above the consonant which is to be doubled. It is the only haraka that is sometimes used in ordinary spelling to avoid disambiguity. Example: <دّ> /dd/; مدرسة /madrasa/ school vs. مدرّسة /mudarrisa/ teacher (f.)
  • The hamza diacritic (which is not itself part of the system of ḥarakāt but interacts with it) indicates a glottal stop. It may appear by itself or over an alif, wāw, or yāʼ.
    • Which letter is to be used to support the hamza depends on the quality of the adjacent vowels. If the syllable occurs at the beginning of the word, the glottal stop is always indicated by hamza on an alif. But if the syllable occurs in the middle of the word, alif is used only if it is not preceded or followed by /i/ or /u/. If /i(ː)/ is before or after the glottal stop, a yāʼ with a hamza is used (the two dots which are usually beneath the yāʼ disappear in this case - <ئ>). If [u(ː)] is there, a wāw sukūn with a hamza is used. Consider the following words: <أَخ> (/ʔax/, brother), <ِإِسْرَائِيل> (/ʔisraːʔiːl/, Israel), <أُمْ> (/ʔumm/, mother). All three of above words "begin" with a vowel opening the syllable, and in each case, alif is used to designate the initial glottal stop (the actual beginning). But if we consider middle syllables "beginning" with a vowel: <نَشْأة> (/našʔa/, 'origin'), <ِإِسْرَائِيل> (/ʔisraːʔiːl/, 'Israel' - notice the /ʔiːl/ syllable), <ِرَؤُوف> (/raʔuːf/ 'lenient'), the situation is different, as noted above. See the comprehensive article on hamza for more details.
  • The madda is a tilde-like diacritic which can appear only on top of an alif and indicates a glottal stop followed by long /aː/. The sequence /ʔaː/ should logically be spelled with a hamza on an alif (representing the /ʔ/) followed by another alif (representing the /aː/) but two consecutive alifs, including the combination *<أَا>, is never written. The sequence /ʔaː/ must always be written with an alif madda. Example: <ﺁ>.
  • In some African languages such as Hausa, a large dot below a letter represents the vowel /e/.

Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Aleph or alef (&#1488;) is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Waw (, also spelled vav or vau) is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac , and Arabic (in abjadi order; it is 27th in modern Arabic order). ... A Semitic noun can take one of three states of definiteness: definite, indefinite or construct state. ... Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Waw (, also spelled vav or vau) is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac , and Arabic (in abjadi order; it is 27th in modern Arabic order). ... ّ shadda marks the gemination (doubling) of a consonant. ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... Aleph or alef (&#1488;) is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Aleph or alef (&#1488;) is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Waw (, also spelled vav or vau) is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac , and Arabic (in abjadi order; it is 27th in modern Arabic order). ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... Aleph or alef (&#1488;) is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ...

Use

The bulk of Arabic script is written without harakat. However, they are commonly used in some religious texts that demand strict adherence to pronunciation rules such as Qur'an. It is not uncommon to add harakat to Hadith as well. Another use, is in children's literature. Harakat are also used, in ordinary texts, when an ambiguity of pronunciation might arise. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Harakat using red vowel dots to indicate the correct vocalisation of the rasm, from an early Qur'an written in Kufic script. (Opening of the Surah Al-Baqara).

According to tradition, the first to commission a system of harakat was Muawiyah I of the Ummayad dynasty, when he ordered Ziad Ibn Abih his wāli in Basra (governed 664-673) to find someone to who would devise a method to transcribe correct reading. Ziad Ibn Abih, in turn, appointed Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali for the task. Abu al-Aswad devised a system of dots to signal the three short vowels (along with their respective allophones) of Arabic. This system of dots predates the dots of i'jam (Dots used to distinguish between different letters). Image File history File links Kufic. ... Image File history File links Kufic. ... Rasm is an Arabic term that signifies: drawing, sketch, trace, graph, pictures, outline, pattern, mark, notes, design, regulation, form, rate. ... Drawing of an inscription of Basmala in Kufic script, 9th century. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... SÅ«rata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan (Arabic: زياد بن أبي سفيان) was a Muslim general and administrator and a member of the clan of the Umayyads. ... Wāli is an administrative title that was used during the Muslim Empire to designate governers of administrative divisions. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... Abu al-Aswad Al-Duali (Arabic:أبو الأسود الدؤلي) (c. ...


Abu al-Aswad's system

Abu al-Aswad's system of Harakat was different from the system we know today. The system used red dots with each arrangement or position indicating a different short vowel. A dot above a letter indicated the vowel "a", a dot below indicated the vowel "i", a dot on the side of a letter stood for the vowel "u", and two dots stood for the tanwin. However, the early manuscripts of the Qur'an did not use the vowel signs for every letter requiring them, but only for letters where they were necessary for a correct reading. The Arabic word (, stem IV masdar of ع-ر-ب, meaning Arab or Arabic; literally making [the word] Arabic) designates the system of nominal and adjectival suffixes of Classical Arabic. ...


Al Farāhídi's system

This is the precursor to the system we know today. Al Farāhídi found that the task of writing using two different colours was tedious and impractical. Another complication was that dots of i'jam had been introduced by then, which means that the Arabic script was being written using two concurrent systems that use dots. Accordingly he changed the harakat into shapes resembling the letters used to transcribe the corresponding long vowels. His system evolved to the system we know today.


See also

The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The are the nominal desinences of Classical Arabic. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; dots) is the system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. ...

External links

  • Free Comprehensive Reference of Arabic Grammar
  • Classical Arabic Blog


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The first organization carrying the name Harakat ul-Mujaheddin was formed in 1985 as part of the jihad against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
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The Harakat ul-Mujahidin was initially formed in the early 1980s to assist the mujahadin groups fighting the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, and to provide humanitarian relief to the refugees flooding into Pakistan as a result of the war.
In 1993 two Pakistani activist groups, the Harakat ul-Jihad al-Islam and Harakat ul-Mujahideen merged to form the Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA) (they later reverted back to the name Harakat ul-Mujahideen, the name by which they are now commonly known).
A leader of the Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Fazlur Rehman Khalil, signed Osama bin Laden's infamous 1998 fatwah calling for attacks on Americans and Jews, and several HUM members were killed in the 1998 U.S. missile attack on training camps in Khost, Afghanistan operated by Hum and Al Qaeda.
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