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Encyclopedia > Har Gobind Khorana
Har Gobind Khorana
Image:Khorana.jpg
Har Gobind Khorana
Born January 9, 1922 (1922-01-09) (age 85)
Raipur, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan, British India
Residence U.S.
Nationality U.S.
Field Molecular Biology
Institutions MIT(1970 - )
University of Wisconsin, Madison(1960-70)
University of British Columbia(1952-60)
Cambridge University(1950-52)
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (1948-49)
Alma mater University of Liverpool(Ph.D.)
University of the Punjab, Lahore(B.S.)(M.S.)
Known for First to demonstrate the role of Nucleotides in protein synthesis
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968)
Religion Hindu

Har Gobind Khorana (born January 9, 1922) is an American molecular biologist born of Indian Punjabi heritage in British India. He was awarded the Nobel prize (shared with Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg) in 1968 for his work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966. He currently lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States serving on the MIT Chemistry faculty. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Raipur   (Hindi: रायपुर) is the capital city of the state of Chhattisgarh, India. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Plaque on Bascom Hall, UW-Madison. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. ... University of the Punjab (abbreviated as PU) (Urdu: جامعه پنجاب), colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Robert W. Holley, the structure of a tRNA is shown in the background Dr Robert W. Holley (January 28, 1922 - February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and... Marshall Nirenberg Marshall Warren Nirenberg (born April 10, 1927) is a U.S. biochemist and geneticist. ... An overview of protein synthesis. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ...

Contents

Early life and Education

Khorana was born in Raipur, Kabir Wala, Multan, Pakistan a poor village in then British India. His father was the village "patwari", or taxation official. He was homeschooled by his father, and he later attended D.A.V. Multan High School. He finished his B.Sc. from Punjab University, Lahore in 1943 and M.Sc from Punjab University in 1945. In 1945, he began studies at the University of Liverpool. After earning a PhD in 1948, he continued his postdoctoral studies in Zürich (1948-49). Subsequently, he spent two years at Cambridge and his interests in proteins and nucleic acids took root at that time. In 1952 he went to the University of British Columbia, Vancouver and in 1960 moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In 1970 Dr. Khorana became the Alfred Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he continues to work. A young girl studying at home in a 1896 painting by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. ... University of the Punjab (abbreviated as PU) (Urdu: جامعه پنجاب), colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... University of the Punjab (abbreviated as PU) (Urdu: جامعه پنجاب), colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. ... A postdoctoral (colloquially, post-doc) appointment is a usually temporary academic job held by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public university with its main campus located at Point Grey in the unincorporated Electoral Area A, immediately west of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ... Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Family

Khorana was married in 1952 to Esther Elizabeth Sibler, who is of Swiss origin. They have three children: Julia Elizabeth (born May 4th, 1953), Emily Anne (born October 18th, 1954), and Dave Roy (born July 26th, 1958).


Khorana’s work & Nobel Prize

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) with two repeating units (UCUCUCUUCU CUC UCU) produced two alternating amino acids. This, combined with the Nirenberg and Leder experiment, showed that UCU codes for Serine and CUC codes for Leucine. Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... The Nirenberg and Leder experiment was a scientific experiment performed in 1964 by Marshall W. Nirenberg and Philip Leder. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA. It is isomeric with isoleucine. ...


RNAs with three repeating units (UACUACUAUAC UAC UAC, or ACU ACU ACU, or CUA CUA CUA) produced three different strings of amino acids.


RNAs with four repeating units including UAG, UAA, or UGA, produced only dipeptides and tripeptides thus revealing that UAG, UAA and UGA are stop codons. Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ...


With this, Dr. Khorana and his team had established that the mother of all codes, the biological language common to all living organisms, is spelled out in three-letter words: each set of three nucleotides codes for a specific amino acid. Their Nobel lecture was delivered on December 12, 1968. Dr. Khorana was also the first to synthesize oligonucleotides, that is, strings of nucleotides. He was the first to isolate DNA ligase, an enzyme that links pieces of DNA together. These custom-designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for sequencing, cloning and engineering new plants and animals. This invention of Dr. Khorana has become automated and commercialized so that anyone now can order a synthetic gene from any of a number of companies-- one merely needs to fax the genetic sequence to one of the companies to receive an oligonucliotide with the desired sequence. For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. ... It has been suggested that sticky end/blunt end be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see clone. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are...


Awards

The Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards have been awarded annually since 1946 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science. ... Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology or Biochemistry is an annual prize awarded by Columbia University to a researcher or group of researchers that have made an outstanding contribution in basic research in the fields of biology or biochemistry. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science, also called the Presidential Medal of Science, is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social...

Trivia

  • Dr. Khorana is very famous in his native Punjab and a short story about his early career is taught widely at the high school level. It details his efforts to find a teaching or research job in Punjab after getting his Ph.D. and how he was unable to find a job despite his excellent credentials since he did not have political "pull" needed for such jobs. The story ends in a sentence that is now legendary in Punjab : "Mr. Khorana, the job was yours and we were about to sign the offer letter but then the Minister called and recommended his nephew and....". Dr. Khorana returned to Liverpool shortly thereafter and never returned to work in Punjab.

References

External links

Persondata
NAME Khorana, Har Gobind
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Indian-American molecular biologist
DATE OF BIRTH January 9, 1922
PLACE OF BIRTH Raipur,Punjab,British India
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Har Gobind Khorana - Noble Prize winner from India (310 words)
Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, Punjab, (now in Pakistan) on 9 January 1922.
Har Gobind Khorana shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1968 with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley for cracking the genetic code.
Khorana has won many awards and honors for his achievements, amongst them the Padma Vibhushan, Membership of the National Academy of Sciences, USA as well as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Khorana Har Gobind - Search Results - MSN Encarta (175 words)
Khorana, Har Gobind, born in 1922, American geneticist and Nobel laureate.
Har Gobind Khorana (born January 9, 1922) is an American molecular biologist born of Indian Punjabi heritage in British India.
Har Gobind Khorana was born of Hindu parents in Raipur, a little village in Punjab, which is now part of West Pakistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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