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Encyclopedia > Haplogroup R1b (YDNA)

Haplogroup R1b (M343) is the most frequent Y-Chromosome haplogroup in Europe. M343 is a genetic marker, announced in 2004, which defines a specific Y chromosome binary polymorphism. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


Its frequency is highest in Western Europe and North America. In Southern England the frequency of R1b is about 70% and in parts of Spain, Portugal and Ireland, it can go as high as 90%. Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK...


The R1b specific genetic marker, M343, appeared after modern humans made way into the Iberian peninsula, coming from Southern France. Here, this geneticaly homogenous population (caracterized by the M173 mutation in the Y chromosome), took shelter during the last Ice Age. A genetic marker is a specific discovered single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP (or simply mutation) of certain section of DNA of a specific genome. ... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... This region consists of the southern part of France. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 BC. The Wisconsin/Weichsel/Devensian/Midlandian/Würm glaciation began about 70,000...


The majority of men of European descent belong to R1b. Haplogroup R1a is closely related to R1b. The difference is that R1a has one additional marker, the M17. Image of a man on the Pioneer plaque sent to interstellar space A man is a male human adult, in contrast to an adult female, which is a woman. ... Haplogroup R1a (M17) is a Y-Chromosome haplogroup that is spread across Eurasia. ...


Origins

The members of R1b are the descendants of the first modern humans, the Cro-Magnon, who entered Europe about 35,000 years ago. The Cro-Magnons were the first documented human artists, making sophisticated cave paintings. Famous sites include Lascaux in France, Cueva de las Monedas in Spain and Valley of Foz Côa in Portugal (the biggest open air site in Europe). Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu(extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Homo (genus). ... The Cro-Magnons form the earliest known European examples of Homo sapiens, the subspecies to which modern humans belong. ... // Pre-historic art of Europe Palaeolithic The earliest known European art is from the upper palaeolithic period and includes both cave painting, such as the famous paintings at Lascaux, and portable art, such as animal carvings and so-called Venus figurines like the Venus of Willendorf. ... Lascaux Lascaux is a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its cave paintings. ...


The Cro-Magnons were contemporaries of European Neandertals, who died out not long after the first modern humans spread out. While there are theories of a genocide occurring, there is no archaeological evidence supporting this. The Neandertals' last refuge was the west of Iberia (in modern Portugal). Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Genocide is defined by the JERRFGGHH and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide]] (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...


The populations sheltered in Iberia, descendents of the Cro-Magnon, given the deglaciation (the Allerød Oscillation, an interstadial deglaciation that weakened the rigorous conditions of the Ice Age), migrated and recolonized all of Western Europe, thus spreading the R1b Haplogroup populations (still dominant, in variant degrees, from Iberia to Scandinavia). The Allerød period is a part of a temperature oscillation towards the end of the last Ice Age in Europe, where temperatures in the Northern Atlantic region rose from glacial to almost present day level in the Bølling and Allerød periods and returned to glacial levels in... Glaciation, often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ...


See also

// A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-22, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mitochondrial genetics. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... Genetic drift is a contributing factor in biological evolution, in which traits which do not affect reproductive fitness change in a population over time. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... A short tandem repeat (STR) in DNA occurs when a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. ... A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y chromosome. ... A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP (pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation, occurring when a single nucleotide: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G) - in the genome is altered. ... The XY sex-determination system is a well-known sex-determination system. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... Last universal ancestor (LUA), the hypothetical latest living organism from which all currently living organisms descend. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual which is an ancestor of all of them. ... The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the genes present in it. ... In the summer of 1999, Mr. ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... The Genographic Project aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ... Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ...

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